November 24, 2020

Download Ebook Free Highlights In Helioclimatology

Highlights in Helioclimatology

Highlights in Helioclimatology
Author : Jorge A. Pérez-Peraza,Igor Y. Libin,Igorʹ I︠A︡kovlevich Libin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012
Category : Science
Total pages :284
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"Global change of the climate is a problem at a planetary scale, and the whole world will have to settle it. Making a coordinated decision is as necessary and unavoidable as a common fight against terrorism. And the earlier politicians begin real actions, the less damage will be. But we would like to understand if the man is really such a self-killer, that he tries to kill himself and every living thing on the planet so passionately: from the first minute of it's comparatively intelligent existence the humanity has always made damage to the planet to survive, since it has not had any other way to continue its existence on the Earth. All natural forces and other types of animals have always been stronger than the Homo Sapiens"--

The Sun-Climate Connection Over the Last Millennium Facts and Questions

The Sun-Climate Connection Over the Last Millennium Facts and Questions
Author : Maxim Ogurtsov,Risto Jalkanen,Markus Lindholm,Svetlana Veretenenko
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release Date : 2015-01-02
Category : Science
Total pages :245
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The search for a cause of the global warming phenomenon on our planet has sparked some interest in the scientific community. The connection between changes occurring in the sun and global warming presents one fundamental perspective which has been investigated by a number of scientific research groups. In recent times, there have been some promising results that might help us uncover the clues about such a link. The Sun-Climate Connection over the Last Millennium: facts and questions presents fundamental information about the solar activity, space weather, terrestrial climates and their variations over an extended period of time. The information presented is a set of analyses based on modern methods of statistical analysis of non-stationary time series, including Fourier, wavelet and singular spectral analysis while considering space weather phenomena (solar winds, solar flares, aurora borealis etc.) and other terrestrial manifestations of solar activity. The physical mechanisms potentially linking solar activity and space weather to climate are discussed based on these analyses. The eBook also provides some context of modern millennial temperature reconstructions for explaining global warming in the 20th century. Scenarios of the solar activity and climate evolution throughout the 21st century are considered on the basis of the updated data. The eBook provides useful facts for researchers seeking information on climate and space research with respect to solar phenomena

Cosmic Rays at Earth

Cosmic Rays at Earth
Author : P.K.F. Grieder
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2001-07-27
Category : Science
Total pages :1112
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In 1912 Victor Franz Hess made the revolutionary discovery that ionizing radiation is incident upon the Earth from outer space. He showed with ground-based and balloon-borne detectors that the intensity of the radiation did not change significantly between day and night. Consequently, the sun could not be regarded as the sources of this radiation and the question of its origin remained unanswered. Today, almost one hundred years later the question of the origin of the cosmic radiation still remains a mystery. Hess' discovery has given an enormous impetus to large areas of science, in particular to physics, and has played a major role in the formation of our current understanding of universal evolution. For example, the development of new fields of research such as elementary particle physics, modern astrophysics and cosmology are direct consequences of this discovery. Over the years the field of cosmic ray research has evolved in various directions: Firstly, the field of particle physics that was initiated by the discovery of many so-called elementary particles in the cosmic radiation. There is a strong trend from the accelerator physics community to reenter the field of cosmic ray physics, now under the name of astroparticle physics. Secondly, an important branch of cosmic ray physics that has rapidly evolved in conjunction with space exploration concerns the low energy portion of the cosmic ray spectrum. Thirdly, the branch of research that is concerned with the origin, acceleration and propagation of the cosmic radiation represents a great challenge for astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Presently very popular fields of research have rapidly evolved, such as high-energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy. In addition, high-energy neutrino astronomy may soon initiate as a likely spin-off neutrino tomography of the Earth and thus open a unique new branch of geophysical research of the interior of the Earth. Finally, of considerable interest are the biological and medical aspects of the cosmic radiation because of it ionizing character and the inevitable irradiation to which we are exposed. This book is a reference manual for researchers and students of cosmic ray physics and associated fields and phenomena. It is not intended to be a tutorial. However, the book contains an adequate amount of background materials that its content should be useful to a broad community of scientists and professionals. The present book contains chiefly a data collection in compact form that covers the cosmic radiation in the vicinity of the Earth, in the Earth's atmosphere, at sea level and underground. Included are predominantly experimental but also theoretical data. In addition the book contains related data, definitions and important relations. The aim of this book is to offer the reader in a single volume a readily available comprehensive set of data that will save him the need of frequent time consuming literature searches.

Investigating Seafloors and Oceans

Investigating Seafloors and Oceans
Author : Antony Joseph
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2016-12-08
Category : Science
Total pages :612
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Investigating Seafloors and Oceans: From Mud Volcanoes to Giant Squid offers a bottom-to-top tour of the world’s oceans, exposing the secrets hidden therein from a variety of scientific perspectives. Opening with a discussion of the earth’s formation, hot spots, ridges, plate tectonics, submarine trenches, and cold seeps, the text goes on to address such topics as the role of oceans in the origin of life, tidal bore, thermal effects, ecosystem services, marine creatures, and nutraceutical and pharmaceutical resources. This unique reference provides insight into a wide array of questions that researchers continue to ask about the vast study of oceans and the seafloor. It is a one-of-a-kind examination of oceans that offers important perspectives for researchers, practitioners, and academics in all marine-related fields. Includes chapters addressing various scientific disciplines, offering the opportunity for readers to gain insights on diverse topics in the study of oceans Provides scientific discussion on thermo-tolerant microbial life in sub-seafloor hot sediments and vent fields, as well as the origin of life debates and the puzzles revolving around how life originated Includes detailed information on the origin of dreaded episodes, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, internal waves and tidal bores Contains information on the contribution of the oceans in terms of providing useful nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products

The Sun as a Guide to Stellar Physics

The Sun as a Guide to Stellar Physics
Author : Oddbjørn Engvold,Jean-Claude Vial,Andrew Skumanich
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-11-15
Category : Science
Total pages :522
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The Sun as a Guide to Stellar Physics illustrates the significance of the Sun in understanding stars through an examination of the discoveries and insights gained from solar physics research. Ranging from theories to modeling and from numerical simulations to instrumentation and data processing, the book provides an overview of what we currently understand and how the Sun can be a model for gaining further knowledge about stellar physics. Providing both updates on recent developments in solar physics and applications to stellar physics, this book strengthens the solar–stellar connection and summarizes what we know about the Sun for the stellar, space, and geophysics communities. Applies observations, theoretical understanding, modeling capabilities and physical processes first revealed by the sun to the study of stellar physics Illustrates how studies of Proxima Solaris have led to progress in space science, stellar physics and related fields Uses characteristics of solar phenomena as a guide for understanding the physics of stars

Light-Based Therapies for Skin of Color

Light-Based Therapies for Skin of Color
Author : Elma Baron
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-06-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :284
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Light-based therapies have been a major component of dermatologic practice. Historically, these treatment modalities have been mainly tailored to the treatment of patients with light skin. Principles governing use of light therapies in skin of color are less defined. However, there is a tremendous need to understand the benefits and limitations of these therapeutic options for dark-skinned patients as well. Demographic data in the United States alone indicate that the population and recipients of health care are rapidly changing with regard to skin phototype. Physicians who are involved in the delivery of care for patients with cutaneous problems that can be addressed by light treatments need to be able to fully understand the mechanisms, applications, risks, efficacy, adverse events, and other pertinent issues in considering treatment options for their patients with pigmented skin.

Solar-terrestrial Magnetic Activity and Space Environment

Solar-terrestrial Magnetic Activity and Space Environment
Author : H. Wang,R. Xu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2002-12-04
Category : Science
Total pages :462
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The COSPAR Colloquium on Solar-Terrestrial Magnetic Activity and Space Environment (STMASE) was held in the National Astronomy Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) in Beijing, China in September 10-12, 2001. The meeting was focused on five areas of the solar-terrestrial magnetic activity and space environment studies, including study on solar surface magnetism; solar magnetic activity, dynamical response of the heliosphere; space weather prediction; and space environment exploration and monitoring. A hot topic of space research, CMEs, which are widely believed to be the most important phenomenon of the space environment, is discussed in many papers. Other papers show results of observational and theoretical studies toward better understanding of the complicated image of the magnetic coupling between the Sun and the Earth, although little is still known little its physical background. Space weather prediction, which is very important for a modern society expanding into out-space, is another hot topic of space research. However, a long way is still to go to predict exactly when and where a disaster will happen in the space. In that sense, there is much to do for space environment exploration and monitoring. The manuscripts submitted to this Monograph are divided into the following parts: (1) solar surface magnetism, (2) solar magnetic activity, (3) dynamical response of the heliosphere, (4) space environment exploration and monitoring; and (5) space weather prediction. Papers presented in this meeting but not submitted to this Monograph are listed by title as unpublished papers at the end of this book.

An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves

An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves
Author : Carmen J. Nappo
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2002-09-12
Category : Science
Total pages :279
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Gravity waves exist in all types of geophysical fluids, such as lakes, oceans, and atmospheres. They play an important role in redistributing energy at disturbances, such as mountains or seamounts and they are routinely studied in meteorology and oceanography, particularly simulation models, atmospheric weather models, turbulence, air pollution, and climate research. An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves provides readers with a working background of the fundamental physics and mathematics of gravity waves, and introduces a wide variety of applications and numerous recent advances. Nappo provides a concise volume on gravity waves with a lucid discussion of current observational techniques and instrumentation. Foreword is written by Prof. George Chimonas, a renowned expert on the interactions of gravity waves with turbulence. CD containing real data, computer codes for data analysis and linear gravity wave models included with the text

Extreme Events in Geospace

Extreme Events in Geospace
Author : Natalia Buzulukova
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-12-01
Category : Science
Total pages :798
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Extreme Events in Geospace: Origins, Predictability, and Consequences helps deepen the understanding, description, and forecasting of the complex and inter-related phenomena of extreme space weather events. Composed of chapters written by representatives from many different institutions and fields of space research, the book offers discussions ranging from definitions and historical knowledge to operational issues and methods of analysis. Given that extremes in ionizing radiation, ionospheric irregularities, and geomagnetically induced currents may have the potential to disrupt our technologies or pose danger to human health, it is increasingly important to synthesize the information available on not only those consequences but also the origins and predictability of such events. Extreme Events in Geospace: Origins, Predictability, and Consequences is a valuable source for providing the latest research for geophysicists and space weather scientists, as well as industries impacted by space weather events, including GNSS satellites and radio communication, power grids, aviation, and human spaceflight. The list of first/second authors includes M. Hapgood, N. Gopalswamy, K.D. Leka, G. Barnes, Yu. Yermolaev, P. Riley, S. Sharma, G. Lakhina, B. Tsurutani, C. Ngwira, A. Pulkkinen, J. Love, P. Bedrosian, N. Buzulukova, M. Sitnov, W. Denig, M. Panasyuk, R. Hajra, D. Ferguson, S. Lai, L. Narici, K. Tobiska, G. Gapirov, A. Mannucci, T. Fuller-Rowell, X. Yue, G. Crowley, R. Redmon, V. Airapetian, D. Boteler, M. MacAlester, S. Worman, D. Neudegg, and M. Ishii. Helps to define extremes in space weather and describes existing methods of analysis Discusses current scientific understanding of these events and outlines future challenges Considers the ways in which space weather may affect daily life Demonstrates deep connections between astrophysics, heliophysics, and space weather applications, including a discussion of extreme space weather events from the past Examines national and space policy issues concerning space weather in Australia, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States

Acquisition and Processing of Marine Seismic Data

Acquisition and Processing of Marine Seismic Data
Author : Derman Dondurur
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-03-09
Category : Science
Total pages :606
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Acquisition and Processing of Marine Seismic Data demonstrates the main principles, required equipment, and suitable selection of parameters in 2D/3D marine seismic data acquisition, as well as theoretical principles of 2D marine seismic data processing and their practical implications. Featuring detailed datasets and examples, the book helps to relate theoretical background to real seismic data. This reference also contains important QC analysis methods and results both for data acquisition and marine seismic data processing. Acquisition and Processing of Marine Seismic Data is a valuable tool for researchers and students in geophysics, marine seismics, and seismic data, as well as for oil and gas exploration. Contains simple step-by-step diagrams of the methodology used in the processing of seismic data to demonstrate the theory behind the applications Combines theory and practice, including extensive noise, QC, and velocity analyses, as well as examples for beginners in the seismic operations market Includes simple illustrations to provide to the audience an easy understanding of the theoretical background Contains enhanced field data examples and applications

Multiscale Coupling of Sun-Earth Processes

Multiscale Coupling of Sun-Earth Processes
Author : A.T.Y. Lui,Y. Kamide,G. Consolini
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2005-07-06
Category : Science
Total pages :450
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Many approaches exist for scientific investigations and space research is no exception. The early approach during which each space plasma region within the Sun-Earth system was investigated separately with physics-based tools has now progressed to encompass investigations on coupling between these regions. Ample evidence now exists indicating the dynamic processes in these regions exhibit disturbances over a wide range of scales both in time and space. This new reckoning naturally leads to an emerging perspective of probing these natural phenomena with concepts and tools developed in modern statistical mechanics for physical processes governing the evolution of out-of-equilibrium and complex systems. These new developments have prompted a topical conference on Sun-Earth connection, held on February 9-13, 2004 at Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, with the goal of promoting interactions among scientists practicing the traditional physics-based approach and those utilizing modern statistical techniques. This monograph is a product of this conference, a compilation of thirty-nine articles assembled into seven chapters: (1) multiscale features in complexity dynamics, (2) space storms, (3) magnetospheric substorms, (4) turbulence and magnetic reconnection, (5) modeling and coupling of space phenomena, (6) techniques for multiscale space plasma problems, and (7) present and future multiscale space missions. These articles show a diversity of space phenomena exhibiting scale free characteristics, intermittency, and non-Gaussian distributions of probability density function of fluctuations in the physical parameters of the Sun-Earth system. The scope covers the latest observations, theories, simulations, and techniques on the multiscale nature of Sun-Earth phenomena and underscores the usefulness in cross-disciplinary exchange needed to unravel the underlying physical processes, which may eventually lead to a possible unified description and prediction for space disturbances. * Extensive collection of state-of-the-art papers on multiscale coupling of Sun-Earth Processes * Present and future multiscale space missions * New techniques and models for performing multiscale analysis

Airless Bodies of the Inner Solar System

Airless Bodies of the Inner Solar System
Author : Jennifer A. Grier,Andrew S. Rivkin
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018-10
Category : Science
Total pages :300
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Airless Bodies of the Inner Solar System: Understanding the Process Affecting Rocky, Airless Surfaces focuses on the airless, rocky bodies in the inner solar system as a host unto themselves, with a unique set of processes that require a specific set of investigative techniques. The book allows readers to understand both the basic and advanced concepts necessary to understand and employ that information. Topics covered past exploration of these surfaces, changes with time, space weathering, impact cratering, creation and evolution of regolith and soils, comparison of sample and remote sensing data, dust characterization, surface composition and thoughts for future exploration. Together these authors represent the unique combination of skills and experience required to produce an excellent book on the subject of the surfaces of airless, rocky bodies in the solar system, which will be useful both for graduate students and for working scientists. Written by experts with a unique combination of skills and experience on the subject of the surfaces of airless, rocky bodies in the solar system Addresses the unique nature of airless bodies not done in any other reference Organized into subjects that can be easily translated into classroom lecture points Represents topics that scientists will want to pinpoint and browse

Microphysics of Atmospheric Phenomena

Microphysics of Atmospheric Phenomena
Author : Boris M. Smirnov
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-08-29
Category : Science
Total pages :270
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This book investigates elementary processes in the Earth’s atmosphere involving photons, electrons, ions, radicals, and aerosols. It is based on global atmospheric models such as the standard atmospheric model with averaged atmospheric parameters across the globe and over time, the Earth’s energetic balance, and the global electric circuit that allows to analyze fundamental atmospheric properties to be analyzed. Rate constants of elementary processes in the Earth’s atmosphere, together with measured atmospheric parameters and existing concepts of atmospheric phenomena, are used in the analysis of global and local atmospheric processes. Atmospheric photoprocesses result from the interaction of solar radiation with the atmosphere and processes involving ions, oxygen atoms, excited atomic particles and ozone molecules. Atmospheric electricity as a secondary phenomenon to atmospheric water circulation results in a chain of processes that begins with collisions of water aerosols in different aggregate states. Cosmic rays are of importance for atmospheric electricity, as they create positive and negative ions in the air. Air breakdown in an electric field of clouds in the form of lightning may develop under the influence of cosmic ray-created seed electrons, which are necessary for electron multiplication in ionization wave-streamers. The upper atmosphere (ionosphere) is formed under solar radiation in a vacuum ultraviolet spectrum, and absorption of this radiation leads to air photoionization. The greenhouse effect is determined by atmospheric water, whereas transitions between a water vapor and aerosols may lead to a change in atmospheric optical depth. Carbon dioxide contributes in small portions to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Cosmic rays are of importance for atmospheric discharge, the origin of lightning and cloud formation in the first stage of aerosol growth. This book provides a qualitative description of atmospheric properties and phenomena based on elementary processes and simple models.

Social Software and the Evolution of User Expertise: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination

Social Software and the Evolution of User Expertise: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination
Author : Takševa, Tatjana
Publisher : IGI Global
Release Date : 2012-10-31
Category : Computers
Total pages :427
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The new generation of internet technologies and web applications is seeing a growth in social software and networking, as well as other communications tools. This infrastructure of social interaction and collaboration has provided an increase in more dynamic user participation and expertise in knowledge of contents and facts traditionally only held by experts. Social Software and the Evolution of User Expertise: Future Trends in Knowledge Creation and Dissemination examines the vital role that social software applications play in regards to the cultural definitions of experts and challenges the reader to consider how recent changes in this area influence how we create and distribute knowledge. This collection brings together scholars and practitioners from various disciplines and professions to project a new kind of thinking about the understanding of the major changes in many professions.

Geophysical Exploration Technology

Geophysical Exploration Technology
Author : Ming Li
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-02-06
Category : Science
Total pages :480
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Authored by one of the world’s hydrocarbon exploration experts, Geophysical Exploration Technology: Applications in Lithological and Stratigraphic Reservoirs presents the latest technological advancements and cutting edge techniques in reservoir theory, research and exploration. Stratigraphic and lithological reservoirs play a critical role in increasing the production from oil reserves and new hydrocarbon sources. Recent resource evaluations indicate that onshore stratigraphic and subtle reservoirs account for as much as 40% of the total remaining hydrocarbon sources globally. As a result, these reservoirs will be the most practical, potential and prevalent fields for long-lasting onshore exploration. Intended as an aid in developing an understanding of the techniques of reservoir exploration, this book presents the latest and most practical methods and technology in oil and gas exploration. It can be used as a training book for lithological stratigraphic exploration and a reference for scientific and technological personnel in the oil and gas industry. Authored by one of the world’s foremost experts in stratigraphic and lithological reservoir exploration who has more than 30 years of experience in research and instruction. Features more than 200 figures, illustrations, and working examples to aid the reader in retaining key concepts Presents the latest technological developments in reservoir exploration techniques Integrates theory and application, arming readers with a rigorous yet practical approach to hydrocarbon exploration in stratigraphic and lithological reservoirs