June 18, 2021

Download Ebook Free Immunotherapeutic Strategies For The Treatment Of Glioma

Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma

Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma
Author : Christopher Jackson,Michael Lim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-08-15
Category : Science
Total pages :250
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Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma provides a review of the current state of immunotherapy for primary brain tumors. The topic is of interest to patients, clinicians, and researchers alike, particularly given the recent failure of large clinical trials. This book serves as an overview of the most promising approaches in the field and provides a foundation for considering novel and combination therapies moving forward. The book discusses several types of immunotherapies for glioma, such as peptide, dendritic cell and heat shock protein vaccines; immune checkpoint blockade; myeloid cells as target; oncolytic viruses; and CAR T cell therapy. Additionally, it discusses the mechanisms of immune suppression in patients and immunogenomics. This volume is a valuable source for cancer researchers, oncologists and several members of biomedical field who are interested in novel strategies to fight glioblastoma. Summarizes the work in immunotherapy for glioma to-date, including the available evidence from preclinical studies and clinical trials Reviews the challenges and successes of the most promising strategies for brain tumor immunotherapy Provides a foundation for considering novel and combination therapies moving forward

Impact of Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Glioblastoma

Impact of Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Glioblastoma
Author : Jessica Silva
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category : Medicine
Total pages :129
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumor. Despite the efforts developed in the respective treatment, consisting of maximal surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis remains very poor. This may be partly related to the resistance of GBM cells and their infiltrative and invasive nature into the surrounding brain tissue. Therefore, newer and challenging alternative approaches for the treatment have emerged, including immunotherapy. This anticancer therapy, based on the stimulation of the host's immune system, has been currently investigated and several advances in the clinical trial stage have already been reached. Immunotherapeutic strategies comprise a set of modalities, including vaccines (cell-free and cell-based), chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and oncolytic viruses (OVs). In this chapter, we will review the principal concepts and the recent progress in immunotherapy for GBM.

Glioblastoma:

Glioblastoma:
Author : Swapan K. Ray
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-10-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :431
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Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor that still remains incurable. It is such a deadly disease that patients do not survive more than a few months after diagnosis. Our understanding of the histopathology and molecular mechanisms of formation of glioblastoma is rapidly advancing so as to provide us clues for devising rational therapeutic strategies for treatment of this malignancy. It is important that we continue to improve our knowledge about the pathogenesis of this devastating disease and explore new areas to find successful therapeutic strategies. Various approaches such as sophisticated imaging techniques, improved surgical procedures, ground-breaking strategies for radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy, and photodynamic therapy are being used for eradicating glioblastoma. Hopefully, this book will be an important source of information on glioblastoma and therefore be highly useful to the students, postdoctoral fellows, principal investigators, and clinicians involved in this field.

Intracranial Gliomas Part III - Innovative Treatment Modalities

Intracranial Gliomas Part III - Innovative Treatment Modalities
Author : M.F. Chernov,Y. Muragaki,S. Kesari,I.E. McCutcheon
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release Date : 2018-07-10
Category : Medical
Total pages :222
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At present most intracranial gliomas are considered incurable with current treatment strategies, and the search for new modalities that may effectively control tumor growth continues. The chapters in this volume describe basic principles and therapeutic possibilities of several innovative techniques, including photodynamic therapy, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, stereotactic cryodestruction, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, boron neutron capture therapy, proton and carbon ion irradiation, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy, local chemotherapy, and alternating electric fields therapy. Potential applications of extracellular vesicles and nanotechnology for management of gliomas are highlighted as well. Many of these methods have already demonstrated antitumor efficacy in clinical testing, whereas others are still under development. The materials presented in this book are mainly directed at clinicians treating patients with brain tumors, as well as clinical and basic researchers working in the field of neuro-oncology.

Immunotherapy, An Issue of Neurosurgery Clinics - E-Book

Immunotherapy, An Issue of Neurosurgery Clinics - E-Book
Author : Isaac Yang,Michael J Lim
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2010-01-05
Category : Medical
Total pages :229
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For this issue, Dr. Michael Lim of Johns Hopkins and Dr. Isaac Yang of UCSF team up to deliver a packed issue on the latest developments in Immunotherapy. The issue covers hot topics such as immunostimulants, Passive Antibody Mediated Immunotherapy, Clinical Applications of A Peptide Based Vaccine, Challenges for Clinical Design of Immunotherapy Trials, The EGFRv3 Peptide Vaccine, Stem Cell Therapy and Dendritic Cell Vaccines, Dendritic Glioma Fusion Vaccine, Adoptive Cellular Immunotherapy, Virus Mediated Immunotherapy, and so much more.

Gliomas

Gliomas
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-03-02
Category : Medical
Total pages :464
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Researchers’ knowledge of gliomas continues to advance rapidly at both the basic and translational levels, and Gliomas provides a thorough overview of the evolving fields of tumor biology and clinical medicine as they relate to our understanding of brain tumors. Gliomas reviews the current paradigms that underlie these fields, beginning with the molecular epidemiology of glioma susceptibility and prognosis through population-based science and genome-wide association studies. The book’s discussion of imaging modalities extends beyond advances in anatomical imaging to include metabolic and physiological studies. This work provides thorough discussion of the clinical view of tumors, ranging from the presentation of the patient to surgical management, and covers all therapeutic options for patient care, including chemotherapy, targeted molecular therapies, immunotherapies, and even personalized approaches to impact the set of lesions. Additionally, the book discusses radiotherapy with regard to the many options available to treat patients using myriad fractionated techniques with various sources. Finally, Gliomas reviews issues specific to the quality of life for patients, and techniques for maximizing the effect of caregivers. Edited and authored by premier researchers from around the world, Gliomas is a comprehensive reference for clinicians and researchers seeking the most up-to-date information on gliomas, and a guide to the best ways to effectively manage glioma patients and their care. Synthesizes widely dispersed information on the management of gliomas into one comprehensive resource Chapters written by international authors who are preeminent researchers in the field Fully explores the therapeutic options for patient care, from chemotherapy to radiotherapy to personalized approaches

Locoregional Radioimmunotherapy

Locoregional Radioimmunotherapy
Author : Adrian Merlo
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1998
Category :
Total pages :188
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Anticancer Research

Anticancer Research
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category : Cancer
Total pages :129
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Epilepsy Surgery and Intrinsic Brain Tumor Surgery

Epilepsy Surgery and Intrinsic Brain Tumor Surgery
Author : Konstantinos Fountas,Eftychia Z. Kapsalaki
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-10-03
Category : Medical
Total pages :301
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This book provides a comprehensive and practical guide for the safe and efficient management of patients with intrinsic brain tumors and medically intractable epilepsy. It presents in an easily understandable way the preoperative evaluation of these patients, starting from the clinical interpretation of conventional anatomical MR imaging and analyses the clinical significance of newer MR based imaging techniques such as diffusion and perfusion imaging. It demonstrates with clarity the role of MR spectroscopy and fractional anisotropy and diffusion tensor imaging in the preoperative assessment of these patients and how this data can be incorporated into the surgical planning. This book is aimed at neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists, neurologists, and epileptologists, and may also be of interest to neuropsychologists, neurophysiologists, radiation oncologists, and medical physicists.

Glioma

Glioma
Author : ryuya yamanaka
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-05-27
Category : Medical
Total pages :232
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Treatment of glioma is currently one of the most challenging problems in oncology, as well as in neurosurgery. Despite major advances in our understanding of the pathomechanism, diagnosis by imaging and the availability of powerful therapeutic tools, the life expectancy of patients with glioblastoma has only been slightly prolonged and a cure remains elusive. None of the currently available surgical tools, including operative microscopes, lasers and image-guided surgery, can enable the detection and removal of all of the tumor tissue. In recent years, however, the landscape has been changing immeasurably, and molecular studies over the past two decades have identified a variety of genetic aberrations that are specifically associated with individual types of gliomas. In addition, certain molecular abnormalities have been linked to therapy responses, thereby establishing clinical biomarkers and molecular targets, and the use of novel agents is being investigated. These agents have been specifically engineered to exert specific cytotoxicity against gliomas, either on their own as single agents or in combination with other modalities. Moreover, there has been an enormous surge of interest in the area of immunology and immunotherapy, which has been facilitated by our understanding of the molecular basis of gliomas. Although several kinds of immunotherapeutic trials have been undertaken, we still await a great breakthrough in terms of clinical efficacy to prolong the survival time of glioma patients.

New Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas Treatment

New Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas Treatment
Author : Gerardo Caruso,Concetta Alafaci,Francesco Tomasello,Giuseppe Raudino,Mariella Caffo
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2011
Category :
Total pages :129
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Cancer Research

Cancer Research
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2006-04
Category : Cancer
Total pages :129
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Enhancing Immunity?to?Glioma: Modulating the Adaptive Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment

Enhancing Immunity?to?Glioma: Modulating the Adaptive Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment
Author : Joseph Paul Antonios
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2016
Category :
Total pages :141
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal of all adult primary malignant brain tumors. For patients diagnosed with GBM, the median survival is 11-14 months despite advances in surgical resection techniques, chemotherapies, and radiation therapy (1). Alternate therapeutic strategies are being actively pursued to target GBM, with various immunotherapeutic modalities designed to generate an anti-GBM immune response showing considerable promise in preclinical models and clinical trials. To more effectively target GBM with these treatments, there has been an increasing appreciation of the numerous mechanisms involved in generating and maintaining the highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in recent years. These studies have described a variety of microenvironmental and systemic factors that promote glioma cell evasion from the immune system. In light of these, it has become apparent that these factors must be understood and explicitly targeted to mount a successful immune response against GBM. This thesis describes the utilization of two different immunotherapeutic strategies to target GBM. The first strategy created a novel GBM target by inducing NY-ESO-1 antigen expression with the demethylating agent, decitabine, and targeting that antigen with engineered T cells. Specifically, we utilized human GBM cell cultures to induce expression of the antigen. We evaluated NY-ESO-1 TCR-transduced T cell-mediated GBM tumor cytolysis in a series of in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Following this, we examined the application of this therapy using an intracranially-implanted xenograft model. Our studies demonstrated that decitabine could effectively upregulate NY-ESO-1 both in vivo and in vitro. Engineered T cells were able to induce tumor cytolysis in vitro and were able to traffic to and target tumor in vivo. Tumor-bearing mice receiving adoptive transfer of these engineered T cells demonstrated significantly increased survival over mice that received non-transduced T cells. By inducing expression of a novel target on GBM, we were able to generate a highly specific, anti-GBM immune response. This strategy represented a clinically translatable therapeutic technique for treating patients with GBM. The second strategy focused on using existing GBM targets to generate an endogenous immune response in a syngeneic, immune competent mouse model. Briefly, we administered an autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine to produce a glioma-specific immune response. In our studies, the vaccination appeared to be capable of inducing T cell infiltration into tumors; however, in large, established tumors, this infiltrating response was not sufficient to increase mouse survival and provide significant therapeutic benefit. We described the role of the negative costimulatory pathway, programmed death-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) in mitigating T cell activation and memory in a series of in vitro and in vivo studies. We noted that PD-1 blockade with PD-1 mAb was not sufficient to produce a T cell infiltrate. However, when administered with DC vaccination, PD-1 blockade activated the vaccine-generated T cell response in the tumor microenvironment. We found that T cells with PD-1 mAb were able to mediate significant tumor cytolysis when compared to T cells without PD-1 blockade in vitro. The adjuvant administration of PD-1 mAb with the DC vaccine resulted in significant survival benefit over DC vaccine alone in mice bearing large, established gliomas. Additionally, this dual treatment resulted in the increased expression of integrin homing and immunologic memory markers on T cells infiltrating tumor. These findings were corroborated in samples from patient GBM, with PD-1 blockade enhancing the T cell-mediated GBM cytolysis. Concerning this strategy, then, these findings provided us with a means to both generate and enhance a tumor-specific response. While this second strategy proved effective, the mechanism underlying this PD-1/PD-L1-mediated suppression was not fully understood. As such, we proceeded to identify a PD-L1-expressing tumor infiltrating myeloid (TIM) cell population that appeared to dominantly regulate the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling mechanism. Importantly, we determined the role that these cells play in inhibiting the immune response using a series of in vitro and in vivo studies utilizing TIM depletion and PD-1 mAb treatment strategies. We found that depletion of TIMs in both human GBM cultures and murine glioma abolished PD-1/PD-L1-mediated inhibition of T cell activation. Targeting TIMs with colony stimulating factor-1 receptor inhibitor (CSF-1Ri) reduced the TIM population significantly and altered the remaining TIMs such that they demonstrated increased expression of chemotactic factors. While treatment with CSF-1Ri in conjunction with DC vaccine did not alter PD-L1 expression on remaining TIMs, we did note that there was increased TIL infiltration with this dual treatment significantly over DC vaccine alone. These findings suggested that TIMs exert inhibitory effects in the tumor microenvironment in a manner not restricted only to the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling mechanism. We found that the combined treatment of CSF-1Ri and PD-1 mAb with DC vaccination both increased TIL infiltration and activation in the tumor microenvironment. These findings were therapeutically relevant, with tumor-bearing mice receiving all three treatments showing a significant increase in survival over mice receiving each treatment alone. The studies outlined herein elucidated the role that TIMs play in dominantly mediating the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling mechanism to restrict TIL activation, as well as the ability to manipulate this population pharmacologically with clinically accessible agents. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates two distinct strategies to generate and enhance an immune response against GBM. In our first strategy, we utilized the adoptive transfer of engineered T cells to selectively target an antigen whose expression we artificially induced in GBM. This technique was largely effective. However, we were interested in directly targeting antigens already expressed by GBM. To that end, we described the utility of DC vaccination in generating an immune response. Further, we delineated the inhibitory mechanisms employed by TIMs in the tumor microenvironment and developed a therapeutic adjuvant to administer with DC vaccination. We confirmed the efficacy of these treatments in a series of in vitro and in vivo animal studies, and we recapitulated these findings in our novel, ex vivo human GBM studies. Together, the studies presented in this thesis represent an innovative approach to understanding and immunotherapeutically targeting the GBM microenvironment.

Immunotherapy with Dendritic Cells and Newcastle Disease Virus in Glioblastoma Multiforme

Immunotherapy with Dendritic Cells and Newcastle Disease Virus in Glioblastoma Multiforme
Author : Thomas Neßelhut,Dagmar Marx,Fred Fändrich,Jan Neßelhut
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2011
Category :
Total pages :129
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Brain Tumor Immunotherapy

Brain Tumor Immunotherapy
Author : Linda M. Liau,Donald P. Becker,Timothy F. Cloughesy,Darell D. Bigner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2000-11-10
Category : Medical
Total pages :374
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An authoritative panel of researchers and clinicians critically reviews the entire field to provide a comprehensive guide to modern brain tumor immunotherapy and thereby enhance future research in this area. The contributors detail many of the key laboratory experiments and clinical protocols that are currently being investigated, integrate the available information from previous and ongoing research, and help define the current status of the field. Topics range from adoptive cellular and antibody-mediated immunotherapy of brain tumors to tumor vaccines and related strategies, and include many vanguard experimental strategies and immunological techniques for studying brain tumor immunotherapy. Cutting-edge and comprehensive, Brain Tumor Immunotherapy brings together all the important recent advances in our understanding of central nervous system tumor immunology and illustrates in powerful detail the many new applications now harnessing the immune response for brain tumor therapeutics.