November 30, 2020

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Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development
Author : C. Robin Ganellin,Roy Jefferis,Stanley M. Roberts
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-05-07
Category : Science
Total pages :472
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Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development provides, for the first time, an introduction to the science behind successful pharmaceutical research and development programs. The book explains basic principles, then compares and contrasts approaches to both biopharmaceuticals (proteins) and small molecule drugs, presenting an overview of the business and management issues of these approaches. The latter part of the book provides carefully selected real-life case studies illustrating how the theory presented in the first part of the book is actually put into practice. Studies include Herceptin/T-DM1, erythropoietin (Epogen/Eprex/NeoRecormon), anti-HIV protease inhibitor Darunavir, and more. Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development is intended for late-stage undergraduates or postgraduates studying chemistry (at the biology interface), biochemistry, medicine, pharmacy, medicine, or allied subjects. The book is also useful in a wide variety of science degree courses, in post-graduate taught material (Masters and PhD), and as basic background reading for scientists in the pharmaceutical industry. For the first time, the fundamental scientific principles of biopharmaceuticals and small molecule chemotherapeutics are discussed side-by-side at a basic level Edited by three senior scientists with over 100 years of experience in drug research who have compiled the best scientific comparison of small molecule and biopharmaceuticals approaches to new drugs Illustrated with key examples of important drugs that exemplify the basic principles of pharmaceutical drug research and development

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development
Author : Jill M. Carton,William R. Strohl
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-07
Category : Science
Total pages :472
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Throughout human history, the morbidity and mortality associated with human disease has driven medical science into an ever-expanding quest for treatment and cure. Over the past century, a therapeutic approach complementing chemical drugs has been developing which uses proteins and peptides in the treatment of disease. Many innovative protein therapeutic platforms are currently being employed and continue to be developed to attain cures in areas of unmet medical need; these include direct copies of natural protein structure and function as well as proteins with completely novel functionality. Today, protein therapeutics represents the fastest growing sector in the pharmaceutical industry and comprises 16% of prescription drug sales in 2011.

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development
Author : Stanley M. Roberts
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-07
Category : Science
Total pages :472
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Menopause affects the quality of life for women, sometimes severely. The symptoms can be addressed by treatment with steroids, namely, an oestrogen alone or an oestrogen with a progestin. The treatment is called hormone replacement therapy (HRT). However, for years, HRT has been associated with side effects, for instance, an increased risk of breast or endometrial cancer and stroke. The potentially positive effect of reducing some forms of heart disease is still a matter of debate, while the HRT-related decrease in bone fracture/osteoporosis is more certain. The rise, fall and current status of HRT is summarized in this chapter.

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development
Author : Wolfgang Jelkmann
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-07
Category : Science
Total pages :472
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The renal hormone erythropoietin (Epo) is essential for the viability and proliferation of the erythrocytic progenitors generating reticulocytes in the bone marrow. Human Epo consists of a chain of 165 amino acid residues and four glycans. The synthesis of Epo is strongly stimulated by hypoxia. Epo deficiency is the primary cause of the anaemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD). For anaemia treatment recombinant human Epo (rhEpo/epoetin and epoetin) is very useful. The drug substance is generally manufactured in EPO complementary DNA (cDNA) transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures. rhEpo therapy is beneficial not only for CKD patients but also for anaemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The expiry of the patents for the first original rhEpo formulations has initiated the production of similar biological medicinal products (‘biosimilars’). The term ‘biosimilar’ should only be used for a medicinal product approved on a strict regulatory pathway (i.e. European Medicines Agency, Food and Drug Administration, etc.). Unfortunately, many claimed ‘biosimilars’ have not been through an approval authority. Furthermore, rhEpo analogues with prolonged survival in circulation (‘biobetter’) have been developed and synthetic Epo mimetic peptides have been developed for therapy. The biological role of Epo outside the bone marrow is the focus of current research.

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development
Author : James Samanen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-07
Category : Science
Total pages :472
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Biotechnology has given rise to a broad range of biotherapies or biologics, including biomolecular drugs, vaccines, cell or gene therapies. This chapter focuses on biomolecular drugs, namely monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), cytokines, tissue growth factors and therapeutic proteins. Prior to the US approval of recombinant human insulin in 1982, biomolecular drugs were extracted from natural sources. The tools of molecular biology have dramatically increased the discovery and development of new biopharmaceuticals. The most obvious difference between small-molecule drugs (SMDs) and biomolecular drugs is size, like the difference in weight between a bicycle and a business jet. SMDs and biomolecular drugs are compared in this chapter by structure, molecular weight, preparation, physicochemical properties, and route of administration, as well as distribution, metabolism, serum half-life, dosing regimen, species reactivity, antigenicity & hypersensitivity, clearance mechanisms, drug–drug interactions, and pharmacology. This chapter reviews the differences and similarities in the various stages of drug discovery and development, with respect to cost, probability of success and cycle time. The clinical metrics of overall clinical success rate, stage-related success rate, and clinical cycle time are examined for SMDs and biomolecular drugs. The hybrid class of peptide drugs tends to be equated with biologics, due to their amino acid content and because oral activity is rare. But peptides truly bridge the gap between small molecules and biologics, in terms of physical properties, range of therapy areas and means of production. This chapter summarizes the similarities and differences of peptide drugs with SMDs and biomolecular drugs. The manner in which these agents compare as products with respect to manufacturing and pricing are considered. Two case studies are presented—the antagonists where small-molecule, peptide and Mab agents have competed in the market, and Her2 inhibitors where small-molecule and Mab agents may ultimately synergize as a combination product. Biomolecular drugs have levelled the playing field. All the “big Pharma” companies now have the capacity to develop both types of drugs. Conversely the larger biotech companies are developing the capacity for small-molecule synthesis. Now, with many blockbuster biologics nearing patent expiration, biosimilars are on the way. It's no longer a question of “choose which type”—one will need to know how to discover and develop either type of drug.

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development
Author : Michael Stocks
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-07
Category : Science
Total pages :472
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Drug discovery of small molecules from target selection through to clinical evaluation is a very complex, challenging but rewarding area of drug discovery. There are many obstacles along the journey from initial hit-finding activities, through optimization of compounds and eventually to delivery of robust candidate drugs (CDs) for clinical evaluation. This chapter presents key issues and literature solutions with respect to the optimization of hits into CDs. Details of the key hit-finding activities namely high-throughput screening, virtual screening, natural products, fragment-based drug discovery and fast-follower approaches are discussed. Key aspects of compound quality such as lipophilicity, solubility, drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic, plasma protein binding and cytochrome P450 inhibition/induction are discussed as well as potential safety liabilities such as human ether-a-go-go related gene, genotoxicity and phospholipidosis, Finally successful hit-to-lead and lead optimization case studies are presented to illustrate and highlight the key principles.

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development
Author : Matthew P. Coghlan,David Fairman
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-07
Category : Science
Total pages :472
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The increasing global prevalence of type 2 diabetes represents a significant burden of disease for afflicted patients and for health care systems. In the developed world poorly controlled diabetes is the leading cause of non-traumatic amputation, blindness and end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis and kidney transplant. Additionally, diabetes represents a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease with its associated morbidity and premature death. Currently available glucose lowering drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes do not impede progression of the disease. Therefore, as the disease progresses these agents rapidly lose efficacy, first as monotherapy and then in combination, resulting in poorly controlled disease. Clearly, there is a significant need for novel glucose lowering drugs for type 2 diabetes that will deliver sustained efficacy over several years by impeding disease progression. Such agents would reduce the risk of developing the microvascular complications of diabetes that ultimately result in amputation, blindness and kidney transplant. Novel glucose lowering drugs should ideally also exhibit a positive impact on the increased cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes. The incretin-based therapies first entered the market in the mid 2000’s and were heralded for their potential to impede progression of type 2 diabetes and to reduce cardiovascular risk. Through mimicking the actions of the gut incretin hormone GLP-1, these drugs had been shown to lower blood glucose in clinical trials by potentiating glucose stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Moreover, data from preclinical rodent disease models and isolated human pancreatic islets suggested that these novel agents could preserve pancreatic β-cell function and thus impede disease progression. Further preclinical and clinical data supported the notion that these drugs could also aid blood glucose control by suppressing glucagon secretion, slowing gastric emptying and by suppressing appetite. The incretin-based drugs have potential to reduce cardiovascular risk through their ability to reduce body weight, blood pressure and atherogenic blood lipids. This chapter will review the incretin-based therapies and consider what impact these new drugs have made to date in the pharmacotherapy of type 2 diabetes. The incretin-based therapies are of particular relevance to this book as this class of drugs is composed of two sub-classes, injectable peptide drugs and oral small molecule drugs. The similarities and differences between these small molecule and peptide drugs are described.

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development

Introduction to Biological and Small Molecule Drug Research and Development
Author : Andy Barker,David Anrews
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-05-07
Category : Science
Total pages :472
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase is a target for cancer chemotherapy. This chapter describes the discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of the kinase, their characterization and the medicinal chemistry programme that resulted in the identification of gefitinib. The development and studies undertaken to progress the drug in the clinic are presented together with a brief summary of other inhibitors of the EGFR kinase and their properties.

Managing the Drug Discovery Process

Managing the Drug Discovery Process
Author : Walter Moos,Susan Miller,Stephen Munk,Barbara Munk
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2016-11-08
Category : Medical
Total pages :536
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Managing the Drug Discovery Process: How to Make It More Efficient and Cost-Effective thoroughly examines the current state of pharmaceutical research and development by providing chemistry-based perspectives on biomedical research, drug hunting and innovation. The book also considers the interplay of stakeholders, consumers, and the drug firm with attendant factors, including those that are technical, legal, economic, demographic, political, social, ecological, and infrastructural. Since drug research can be a high-risk, high-payoff industry, it is important to researchers to effectively and strategically manage the drug discovery process. This book takes a closer look at increasing pre-approval costs for new drugs and examines not only why these increases occur, but also how they can be overcome to ensure a robust pharmacoeconomic future. Written in an engaging manner and including memorable insights, this book is aimed at redirecting the drug discovery process to make it more efficient and cost-effective in order to achieve the goal of saving countless more lives through science. A valuable and compelling resource, this is a must-read for all students and researchers in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Considers drug discovery in multiple R&D venues, including big pharma, large biotech, start-up ventures, academia, and nonprofit research institutes Analyzes the organization of pharmaceutical R&D, taking into account human resources considerations like recruitment and configuration, management of discovery and development processes, and the coordination of internal research within, and beyond, the organization, including outsourced work Presents a consistent, well-connected, and logical dialogue that readers will find both comprehensive and approachable

Small Molecule Drug Discovery

Small Molecule Drug Discovery
Author : Andrea Trabocchi,Elena Lenci
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-11-23
Category : Science
Total pages :356
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Small Molecule Drug Discovery: Methods, Molecules and Applications presents the methods used to identify bioactive small molecules, synthetic strategies and techniques to produce novel chemical entities and small molecule libraries, chemoinformatics to characterize and enumerate chemical libraries, and screening methods, including biophysical techniques, virtual screening and phenotypic screening. The second part of the book gives an overview of privileged cyclic small molecules and major classes of natural product-derived small molecules, including carbohydrate-derived compounds, peptides and peptidomimetics, and alkaloid-inspired compounds. The last section comprises an exciting collection of selected case studies on drug discovery enabled by small molecules in the fields of cancer research, CNS diseases and infectious diseases. The discovery of novel molecular entities capable of specific interactions represents a significant challenge in early drug discovery. Small molecules are low molecular weight organic compounds that include natural products and metabolites, as well as drugs and other xenobiotics. When the biological target is well defined and understood, the rational design of small molecule ligands is possible. Alternatively, small molecule libraries are being used for unbiased assays for complex diseases where a target is unknown or multiple factors contribute to a disease pathology. Outlines modern concepts and synthetic strategies underlying the building of small molecules and their chemical libraries useful for drug discovery Provides modern biophysical methods to screening small molecule libraries, including high-throughput screening, small molecule microarrays, phenotypic screening and chemical genetics Presents the most advanced chemoinformatics tools to characterize the structural features of small molecule libraries in terms of chemical diversity and complexity, also including the application of virtual screening approaches Gives an overview of structural features and classification of natural product-derived small molecules, including carbohydrate derivatives, peptides and peptidomimetics, and alkaloid-inspired small molecules

Small Molecule Medicinal Chemistry

Small Molecule Medicinal Chemistry
Author : Werngard Czechtizky,Peter Hamley
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-09-21
Category : Science
Total pages :528
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Stressing strategic and technological solutions to medicinal chemistry challenges, this book presents methods and practices for optimizing the chemical aspects of drug discovery. Chapters discuss benefits, challenges, case studies, and industry perspectives for improving drug discovery programs with respect to quality and costs. • Focuses on small molecules and their critical role in medicinal chemistry, reviewing chemical and economic advantages, challenges, and trends in the field from industry perspectives • Discusses novel approaches and key topics, like screening collection enhancement, risk sharing, HTS triage, new lead finding approaches, diversity-oriented synthesis, peptidomimetics, natural products, and high throughput medicinal chemistry approaches • Explains how to reduce design-make-test cycle times by integrating medicinal chemistry, physical chemistry, and ADME profiling techniques • Includes descriptive case studies, examples, and applications to illustrate new technologies and provide step-by-step explanations to enable them in a laboratory setting

Epi-Informatics

Epi-Informatics
Author : Jose Medina-Franco
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-02-24
Category : Medical
Total pages :440
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Epi-Informatics: Discovery and Development of Small Molecule Epigenetic Drugs and Probes features multidisciplinary strategies with strong computational approaches that have led to the successful discovery and/or optimization of compounds that act as modulators of epigenetic targets. This book is intended for all those using or wanting to learn more about computational methodologies in epigenetic drug discovery, including molecular modelers, informaticians, pharmaceutical scientists, and medicinal chemists. With a better understanding of different molecular modeling and cheminformatic approaches, readers can incorporate these techniques into their own drug discovery projects that may involve chemical synthesis and medium- or high-throughput screening. In addition, this book highlights the significance of epigenetic targets to the public health for molecular modelers and chemoinformatians. The goal of this reference is to stimulate ongoing multidisciplinary research and to further improve current computational methodologies and workflows in order to accelerate the discovery and development of epi-drugs and epi-probes. Focuses on the discovery of epi-drugs as candidates to be used in therapy including combined therapies Describes new computational methodologies and screening assays utilizing recent and emerging novel structural data Highlights the discovery, development and optimization of epi-probes, which are molecular probes that elucidate epigenetic mechanisms Includes important topics such as computational-guided optimization of epi-hits, virtual screening to identify novel compounds for epigenetic targets, development and mining of epigenetic molecular databases, SAR modeling of screening data and much more

Basic Principles of Drug Discovery and Development

Basic Principles of Drug Discovery and Development
Author : Benjamin Blass
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2015-04-24
Category : Medical
Total pages :580
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Basic Principles of Drug Discovery and Development presents the multifaceted process of identifying a new drug in the modern era, providing comprehensive explanations of enabling technologies such as high throughput screening, structure based drug design, molecular modeling, pharmaceutical profiling, and translational medicine, all areas that have become critical steps in the successful development of marketable therapeutics. The text introduces the fundamental principles of drug discovery and development, also discussing important drug targets by class, in vitro screening methods, medicinal chemistry strategies in drug design, principles in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, animal models of disease states, clinical trial basics, and selected business aspects of the drug discovery process. It is designed to enable new scientists to rapidly understand the key fundamentals of drug discovery, including pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and intellectual property." Provides a clear explanation of how the pharmaceutical industry works Explains the complete drug discovery process, from obtaining a lead, to testing the bioactivity, to producing the drug, and protecting the intellectual propertyIdeal for anyone interested in learning about the drug discovery process and those contemplating careers in the industry Explains the transition process from academia or other industries

Pharmaceutical Analysis for Small Molecules

Pharmaceutical Analysis for Small Molecules
Author : Behnam Davani
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2017-08-01
Category : Science
Total pages :256
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A comprehensive introduction for scientists engaged in new drug development, analysis, and approvals Each year the pharmaceutical industry worldwide recruits thousands of recent science graduates—especially chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmacy, and pharmaceutical majors—into its ranks. However, because of their limited background in pharmaceutical analysis most of those new recruits find making the transition from academia to industry very difficult. Designed to assist both recent graduates, as well as experienced chemists or scientists with limited regulatory, compendial or pharmaceutical analysis background, make that transition, Pharmaceutical Analysis for Small Molecules is a concise, yet comprehensive introduction to the drug development process and analysis of chemically synthesized, small molecule drugs. It features contributions by distinguished experts in the field, including editor and author, Dr. Behnam Davani, an analytical chemist with decades of technical management and teaching experience in compendial, regulatory, and industry. This book provides an introduction to pharmaceutical analysis for small molecules (non-biologics) using commonly used techniques for drug characterization and performance tests. The driving force for industry to perform pharmaceutical analyses is submission of such data and supporting documents to regulatory bodies for drug approval in order to market their products. In addition, related required supporting studies including good laboratory/documentation practices including analytical instrument qualification are highlighted in this book. Topics covered include: Drug Approval Process and Regulatory Requirements (private standards) Pharmacopeias and Compendial Approval Process (public standards) Common methods in pharmaceutical analysis (typically compendial) Common Calculations for assays and impurities and other specific tests Analytical Method Validation, Verification, Transfer Specifications including how to handle out of specification (OOS) and out of trend (OOT) Impurities including organic, inorganic, residual solvents and elemental impurities Good Documentation Practices for regulatory environment Management of Analytical Laboratories Analytical Instrument Qualifications including IQ, OQ, PQ and VQ Due to global nature of pharmaceutical industry, other topics on both regulatory (ICH) and Compendial harmonization are also highlighted. Pharmaceutical Analysis for Small Molecules is a valuable working resource for scientists directly or indirectly involved with the drug development process, including analytical chemists, pharmaceutical scientists, pharmacists, and quality control/quality assurance professionals. It also is an excellent text/reference for graduate students in analytical chemistry, pharmacy, pharmaceutical and regulatory sciences.

A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Preclinical Drug Development

A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Preclinical Drug Development
Author : Ali S. Faqi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2012-11-16
Category : Medical
Total pages :885
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A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Preclinical Drug Development is a resource for toxicologists in industry and regulatory settings, as well as directors working in contract resource organizations, who need a thorough understanding of the drug development process. Incorporating real-life case studies and examples, the book is a practical guide that outlines day-to-day activities and experiences in preclinical toxicology. This multi-contributed reference provides a detailed picture of the complex and highly interrelated activities of preclinical toxicology in both small molecules and biologics. The book discusses discovery toxicology and the international guidelines for safety evaluation, and presents traditional and nontraditional toxicology models. Chapters cover development of vaccines, oncology drugs, botanic drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and more, as well as study development and personnel, the role of imaging in preclinical evaluation, and supporting materials for IND applications. By incorporating the latest research in this area and featuring practical scenarios, this reference is a complete and actionable guide to all aspects of preclinical drug testing. Chapters written by world-renowned contributors who are experts in their fields Includes the latest research in preclinical drug testing and international guidelines Covers preclinical toxicology in small molecules and biologics in one single source