November 26, 2020

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Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids
Author : Richard Smith Jr.,Hiroshi Inomata,Cor Peters
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-12-08
Category : Science
Total pages :752
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This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids
Author : Richard Smith,Cor Peters,Hiroshi Inomata
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-12-08
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :752
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Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Author : Larry T. Taylor
Publisher : Wiley-Interscience
Release Date : 1996-03-13
Category : Science
Total pages :181
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By encouraging a deliberate, systematic approach to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) methods and techniques, this book enables scientists and technicians to avoid disappointing results and erroneous conclusions and develop reliable guidelines for using this versatile technology.

Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols

Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols
Author : Tony Clifford
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2000
Category : Science
Total pages :256
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Because of their unique properties and relatively low environmental impact, supercritical fluids have proven highly useful in the extraction and separation of organic compounds, in particle production, as reaction media, and for the destruction of toxic waste. In Supercritical Fluid Methods and Protocols, experienced practitioners present detailed accounts of a wide variety of techniques using supercritical fluids. These range from the supercritical fluid extraction methods for numerous compounds to the ninhydrin staining of fingerprints on checks and banknotes, and from the detection of impurities in pharmaceuticals to a wide variety of applications throughout environmental and food science, and across analytical, clinical, and medicinal chemistry. Detailed step-by-step instructions enable users to apply these essential techniques successfully the first time, and include modifications that permit their effective adaptation to novel experimental or process conditions. For each application, additional discussions provide needed background information, lists of materials and apparatus, and advice about common pitfalls and how to avoid them. Versatile and comprehensive, Supercritical Methods and Protocols offers both novice and experienced investigators and laboratory analysts powerful tools that will enable successful biological and bioprocess analyses and optimizations today.

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids
Author : Y. Arai,T. Sako,Y. Takebayashi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-03-07
Category : Science
Total pages :448
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The potential of supercritical fluid methods is presented in a comprehensive way. On the basis of a careful discussion of physical and chemical principles, the application of this method in process technology is demonstrated.

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds

Supercritical Fluids and Organometallic Compounds
Author : Can Erkey
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-10-27
Category : Science
Total pages :248
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Organometallic compounds are utilized as reagents in the preparation and processing of advanced nanostructured materials, as catalysts in the production of a wide variety of specialty chemicals and polymers, and as drugs. Supercritical fluid science and technology has a wide variety of applications ranging from extraction of pharmaceutically active compounds to the synthesis of advanced materials. The combination of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids has significant potential. This book covers the fundamental aspects and related applications in this rapidly growing area. Covers the preparation of nanostructured composite materials using supercritical fluids Focuses on the intersection of organometallic chemistry and supercritical fluids Addresses the behavior of organometallic compounds in supercritical fluid environments

Chemical Synthesis Using Supercritical Fluids

Chemical Synthesis Using Supercritical Fluids
Author : Philip G. Jessop,Walter Leitner
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2008-07-11
Category : Science
Total pages :500
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For 'better solutions' - this practical guide describes how to take advantage of supercritical fluids in chemical synthesis. Well-established in extractions and materials processing, supercritical fluids are becoming increasingly popular as media for modern chemical syntheses. Historically, the application of compressed gases has been restricted mainly to the production of bulk chemicals. In the last decade, however, research has turned to exploiting the unique properties of supercritical fluids for the synthesis of fine chemicals and specialized materials. Now that the necessary equipment is more readily available, the use of supercritical fluids should become more widespread in both laboratory and industrial scale syntheses. More than merely a concise introduction to the properties of supercritical fluids, here leading experts give a thorough, up-to-date account of chemistry in these alternative media. In-depth scientific commentary, detailed reaction protocols, descriptions of necessary equipment, and an outline of spectroscopic techniques add to the value of this handbook aimed at innovative synthetic chemists.

Gas Extraction

Gas Extraction
Author : Gerd Brunner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-06-29
Category : Science
Total pages :387
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Application of compressed gases as solvents has found widespread interest within the scientific community. Its processes have industrial applications. Gas Extraction deals with the possibilities of supercritical gases as solvents for separation processes. The volume combines physico-chemical aspects with chemical engineering methods. The text generalizes as far as possible, and treats examples in detail. Gas Extraction covers, for the first time, the subject in textbook form. Most of the examples provide new results that will be helpful for practicing scientists, engineers, and students who want to make use of the techniques.

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction
Author : Mark McHugh,Val Krukonis
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :608
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Supercritical Fluid Extraction is a technique in which CO2 is used under extremely high pressure to separate solution (e.g., removing caffeine from coffee). Separations is basic to all process industries and supercritical fluid extraction is a specific type which is receiving a high level of attention. The book will combine basic fundamentals with industrial applications. The second edition has been expanded and updated and includes new chapters on chromatography and food processing. "...this is an excellent book which is both instructive and amusing to read. Its true value is neatly summarised in one of the closing sentences: 'We have supplied you with the guidelines and criteria which you can now apply when considering supercritical fluids for your own needs.'' - Chemistry in Britain, February 1995

Analysis with Supercritical Fluids: Extraction and Chromatography

Analysis with Supercritical Fluids: Extraction and Chromatography
Author : Bernd Wenclawiak
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :214
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The use of supercritical fluids in analytical chemistry is still grow ing. More and more analysts are discovering the favorable advan tages for a number of applications. Especially supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has attracted a lot of interest in recent years due to its simplicity. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has become better established and the development of this technique has been accelerated by the many applications with capillary col umns which have been published in the literature. At first SFC equipment was based on instruments commonly used for liquid chromatography, and the first commercial in struments were derived from this technology. However, capillary columns can be much more easily interfaced to gas chromatogra phy equipment especially to the detectors commonly used for Oc. Many stationary phases both for packed micro columns and capillary columns have been designed for SFC purposes extending this technology to LC and OC. The most common fluid applied in SFC and SFE is carbon dioxide. The advantages of supercritical CO , such as having dif 2 fusivity like a gas and solvating power depending on temperature and pressure, are also valid for other fluids and modified fluids. Both properties are valuable for sample extraction and extraction selectivity.

Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids
Author : E. Kiran,Pablo G. Debenedetti,Cor J. Peters
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :596
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Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning
Author : Samuel P. Sawan,Samuel P Sawan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1998-12-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :306
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Although supercritial fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. The objective is to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It is particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It is also useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature. The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.

High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria
Author : Ulrich K Deiters,Thomas Kraska
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012-04-26
Category : Science
Total pages :370
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The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology
Author : Concepcion Domingo Pascual,Pascale Subra-Paternault
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2015-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :566
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The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemical

Applications of Supercritical Fluids in Industrial Analysis

Applications of Supercritical Fluids in Industrial Analysis
Author : J.R. Dean
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :224
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The continued search for rapid, efficient and cost-effective means of analytical measurement has introduced supercritical fluids into the field of analytical chemistry. Two areas are common: supercritical fluid chroma tography and supercritical fluid extraction. Both seek to exploit the unique properties of a gas at temperatures and pressures above the critical point. The most common supercritical fluid is carbon dioxide, employed because of its low critical temperature (31 °C), inertness, purity, non-toxicity and cheapness. Alternative supercritical fluids are also used and often in conjunction with modifiers. The combined gas-like mass transfer and liquid-like solvating characteristics have been used for improved chroma tographic separation and faster sample preparation. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is complementary to gas chro matography ( GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), providing higher efficiency than HPLC, together with the ability to analyse thermally labile and high molecular weight analytes. Both packed and open tubular columns can be employed, providing the capability to analyse a wide range of sample types. In addition, flame ionization detection can be used, thus providing 'universal' detection.