December 1, 2020

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Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : Randolf Menzel,Paul Benjamin
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :600
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Understanding how memories are induced and maintained is one of the major outstanding questions in modern neuroscience. This is difficult to address in the mammalian brain due to its enormous complexity, and invertebrates offer major advantages for learning and memory studies because of their relative simplicity. Many important discoveries made in invertebrates have been found to be generally applicable to higher organisms, and the overarching theme of the proposed will be to integrate information from different levels of neural organization to help generate a complete account of learning and memory. Edited by two leaders in the field, Invertebrate Learning and Memory will offer a current and comprehensive review, with chapters authored by experts in each topic. The volume will take a multidisciplinary approach, exploring behavioral, cellular, genetic, molecular, and computational investigations of memory. Coverage will include comparative cognition at the behavioral and mechanistic level, developments in concepts and methodologies that will underlie future advancements, and mechanistic examples from the most important vertebrate systems (nematodes, molluscs, and insects). Neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the neural control of cognitive behavior will benefit, as will as will those in the field of invertebrate learning. Presents an overview of invertebrate studies at the molecular / cellular / neural levels and correlates findings to mammalian behavioral investigations Linking multidisciplinary approaches allows for full understanding of how molecular changes in neurons and circuits underpin behavioral plasticity Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available Comprehensive coverage synthesizes widely dispersed research, serving as one-stop shopping for comparative learning and memory researchers

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : M. Heisenberg
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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Animals owe much of their fitness to their behavior. They often have a large behavioral repertoire that they have to manage. For this, they need their brain. Using Drosophila as the study case, this chapter depicts animals as autonomous agents and the brain as a behavioral organizer. Behavior is active. It is generated for its consequences. It serves to change or restore the animal’s condition, with no guarantee for improvement. There are two kinds of activity—reactivity and initiating activity. If in a special situation, the animal’s repertoire contains a behavior with sufficiently positive inferred outcome and this is activated, it is called a reaction. Most situations, however, provide no special cues for which reactions would be available. Animals do not have to wait. They can activate behaviors ‘by themselves,’ in search of one with positive outcome.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : Shin Murakami
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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Age-related memory impairment (AMI), also called aging associated memory impairment, is a normal condition observed in a wide variety of species from Caenorhabditis elegans to human. AMI occurs unexpectedly early during the reproductive phase, which may be a tradeoff relevant to evolution. An important but frequently missed concept is that the early phase of AMI is associated with reduced memory of new information but also with well-retained memory of certain old information, leading to a shift of behavioral plasticity. Early AMI affects short-term memory and long-term memory, which are modulated by the serotonin pathways, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway, and the genes involved in memory formation. This chapter describes the current understanding of AMI and clarifies misunderstandings in this emerging field of C. elegans AMI. It discusses the “middle-life crisis” theory that can apply to cognitive aging, including endocrine and epigenetic changes.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : Ludovic Dickel,Anne-Sophie Darmaillacq,Christelle Jozet-Alves,Cécile Bellanger
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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This chapter summarizes the literature on the anatomical and functional organization of the cuttlefish brain, with a focus on the structures involved in learning and memory processes (namely the vertical lobe system and optic lobes). Also, different learning paradigms that are commonly used in Sepia officinalis are described with, when possible, their neural correlates. Recent work on the early development of brain and memory is also reviewed. Some research directions to follow in the field of neurobiology of learning and memory in cuttlefish are suggested to better understand the extraordinary behavioral plasticity of these sophisticated invertebrates.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : Martin Giurfa,Randolf Menzel
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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The behavior of insects transcends elementary forms of adaptive responding to environmental changes. We discuss examples of exploration, instrumental and observational learning, expectation, learning in a social context, and planning of future actions. We show that learning about sensory cues allows insects to transfer flexibly their responses to novel stimuli attaining thereby different levels of complexity, from basic generalization to categorization and concept learning consistent with rule extraction. We argue that updating of existing memories requires multiple forms of memory processing. A key element in these processes is working memory, an active form of memory considered to allow evaluation of actions on the basis of expected outcome. We discuss which of these cognitive faculties can be traced to specific neural processes and how they relate to the overall organization of the insect brain.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : Robert D. Hawkins,Igor Antonov,Iksung Jin
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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Whereas short-term (minutes) plasticity is either presynaptic or postsynaptic, long-term (days) plasticity involves synaptic remodeling and growth, which require both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. In addition, an intermediate-term stage has been identified that lasts tens of minutes and involves the recruitment of synaptic proteins but not growth. These findings have raised two fundamental questions: How are the different stages of plasticity related, and when and how does plasticity spread from one side of the synapse to both sides? Studies of the mechanisms of short-term and intermediate-term facilitation in Aplysia have begun to answer these questions. Intermediate-term facilitation is the first stage to involve both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Furthermore, increased spontaneous transmitter release from the presynaptic neuron during the short-term stage acts as an anterograde signal to recruit postsynaptic mechanisms of intermediate-term facilitation, which may be first steps in a cascade that can lead to synaptic growth during long-term facilitation.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : Uli Müller
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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Appetitive associative conditioning in the honeybee Apis mellifera provides the basis to address the molecular link between training parameters and memory focusing on the induction and maintenance of memory phases. Special techniques developed to monitor and manipulate signaling cascades at high temporal and spatial resolution uncovered the critical role of learning-induced dynamic changes of signaling cascades and their contribution to distinct aspects of memory formation. This analysis demonstrated an important role of cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signaling processes acting in parallel. Both reside in the antennal lobes and are critical for the induction of long-term memory and the maintenance of midterm memory.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : Elodie Urlacher,Jean-Marc Devaud,Alison R. Mercer
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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Aversive learning in young worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) can be suppressed by pheromone released by the queen bee. In addition, studies have shown that pheromone released by guard bees inhibits appetitive learning in bees recruited for colony defense. In this chapter, we examine the chemical signals that mediate these effects and the mechanisms that support pheromone modulation of learning behavior in the bee. We also consider the possible adaptive value of pheromone modulation of learning in the honeybee and its potential contribution to the survival of the colony as a whole.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : Rüdiger Wehner,Wolfgang Rössler
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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The spatial behavior of ants consists of the flexible and context-specific interaction of various task-specific routines operating within the realms of path integration and view-based landmark guidance. This chapter focuses on the degree of experience-dependent flexibility in the interplay between and even within these routines, and it describes experimental paradigms developed to study this interplay in desert ants, such as the interplay between global path integration vectors and local site-based steering commands. Due to the ant’s short life span and small brain size, the observed behavioral plasticity is largely bounded in experience-dependent and development-related ways. Experience- and development-dependent plasticity is also demonstrated within the neural circuitries of the ant’s mushroom body neuropils, where it occurs especially in the context of the major (indoor/outdoor) transition within the ant’s lifetime. Age-specific structural reorganization of microglomerular synaptic complexes is associated with experience-dependent transformations of these complexes from the default to the functional state.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : Piero Amodio,Graziano Fiorito
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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Octopus is an invertebrate well-known for the extreme richness of its behavioral repertoire and plasticity. Recent field observations including mimicry, communicative skills, and tool use capabilities have further supported this view. This chapter briefly reviews the most recent knowledge on octopus learning capabilities, focusing on its capability to learn by observation of conspecifics. Social learning is classically conceived as a behavioral trait shown by gregarious and long-lived animals. However, it has recently been considered to occur in solitary vertebrate and invertebrate species. This chapter provides an update on the experimental evidence for observational learning in the octopus and discusses the constraints and peculiarities of social learning and the potential evolutionary meanings of this capability in this cephalopod mollusk.

A Primer of Invertebrate Learning

A Primer of Invertebrate Learning
Author : Charles I. Abramson
Publisher : Amer Psychological Assn
Release Date : 1994-01
Category : Science
Total pages :273
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This work provides a methodological introduction to the study of invertebrate learning. It aims to give readers an understanding of the principles of sound experimental design and of some fundamental issues in the analysis of behaviour. It includes questions and lists of resources and materials.

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory
Author : Dorothea Eisenhardt
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :600
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The behavioral phenomenon of extinction resembles the decrease of a conditioned behavior when animals experience the presentation of a previously reinforced stimulus. In honeybees, extinction is studied in an appetitive learning paradigm, the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response. Here, I describe recent work on extinction in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and its underlying molecular mechanisms. I demonstrate that extinction in honeybees shares behavioral and molecular similarities with extinction in vertebrates, and I discuss whether these similarities might indicate that extinction is a phylogenetically old mechanism.

Invertebrate Learning

Invertebrate Learning
Author : A. O. D. Willows
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 1975-03
Category : Science
Total pages :220
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Volume 3.

Learning and Memory

Learning and Memory
Author : Andrew Hudmon
Publisher : Infobase Publishing
Release Date : 2009-01-01
Category : Electronic books
Total pages :136
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From making conversation to walking and driving, learning and memory are crucial aspects of our survival.

Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Author : Joe L. Martinez, Jr.,Raymond P. Kesner
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1998-06-29
Category : Science
Total pages :456
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Neurobiology of Learning and Memory provides an excellent overview of current information on this fast-growing field of neurobiology. The contents have been structured for use as a course text or as a handy resource for researchers in neuro- and cognitive psychology. It discusses learning and memory from developmental, pharmacological, and psychobiological perspectives, as well as changes in learning and memory with age. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory also includes research on invertebrates and vertebrates, presenting basics in anatomy and development along with computational models. It is written in an easy-to-follow format with summaries at the end of each chapter. Key Features * Provides an overview of information on the neurobiology of learning and memory * Discusses learning and memory from developmental, pharmacological, and psychobiological perspectives, and changes in learning and memory with age * Includes research on invertebrates and vertebrates * Gives basics on anatomy and development * Written for easy comprehension with chapter summaries