November 24, 2020

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Kenya

Kenya
Author : Paolo Paron,Daniel O. Olago,Christian Omuto
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2013
Category : Economic development
Total pages :374
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Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :402
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Kenya is a thriving country in East Africa: its economy is largely based on the natural environment that frames the tourism sector, mainly through safaris and holidays on the coast. The natural environment also underpins the second largest industry: agriculture. Kenya’s social, technological, and industrial developments are a reference for many neighboring countries. Kenya plays a leading role in Africa and attracts huge amounts of investments. Furthermore, the humanitarian community has made Nairobi its base for international headquarters and regional offices. This makes Kenya a possible model for development and investment in its widest sense. This book aims at updating the holistic view on Kenya’s natural environment and resources. It provides a sound scientific introduction to this country’s physical and socioeconomic setting and its evolution through time and will appeal to a broad audience of students – in Kenya and abroad – as well as those working in the development and humanitarian sectors and to international donors looking for a scientific compendium on Kenya’s environment. Its structure and references allow the reader to deepen his or her knowledge of every theme touched on in the book. Combines different aspects of physical geography, water and soil resources and their management strategies Written by a blend of international and national experts Includes specific case studies

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
Author : Christopher Oludhe
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :402
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Energy is an important input in a country's development process since it provides the stimulus, drive and momentum for socioeconomic development. It forms one of the foundations on which the three key pillars of the Kenya Vision 2030 (Economic, Social and Political Governance) are anchored on. The country therefore needs to generate more energy and increase efficiency in energy consumption in order to realize Vision 2030 and the overall socioeconomic growth in the country. Kenya is endowed with significant amounts of renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, geothermal, small hydro and biomass. However, few renewable energy resources in the country have been fully assessed, mapped and appraised for their technical and economic viability. If harnessed, these resources can play a significant role in the country's energy supply mix. Kenya has made a significant effort to assess wind, solar and small-hydro potential in the country. However, comprehensive assessment, mapping and appraisal of all the renewable energy resources in the country have not been fully done in order to determine their technical and economic viability. The sections below present the renewable energy situation in Kenya.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
Author : Alfred Opere
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :402
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The vulnerability of a water resource system to climate change is a function of a number of physical features and social characteristics. The physical features associated with maximum vulnerability of water resources in a region include the marginal hydrologic and climatic regime; high rates of sedimentation leading to reduction of reservoir storage; topography and land-use practices that promote soil erosion and flash flooding conditions; and deforestation, which allows increased surface run-off, increased soil erosion and more frequent significant flooding. Coupled with these factors, the social characteristics that increase vulnerability of water resources include poverty and low income levels that prevent long-term planning and provision at the household level, lack of water control infrastructures, inadequate maintenance and deterioration of existing infrastructure, lack of human capital skills for system planning and management, lack of appropriate and empowered institutions, absence of appropriate land-use planning and management, and high population densities and other factors that inhibit population mobility. Of all the relevant factors in climate, precipitation is the main cause of disasters in flooding, water pollution, soil erosion, dam breaks and water-related disease outbreaks among others. Floods increase vulnerability of society and thereby perpetuate and increase the incidence of poverty.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
Author : Christine A. Omuombo,Daniel O. Olago,Eric O. Odada
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :402
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This chapter focuses on the existing information on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes along the Kenyan coastline. Although the low-lying coastline is under threat from coastal erosion that has led to its destabilization, the factors are linked to local and global processes. Changes in land used for agriculture have led to increase sediment fluxes which have resulted in increase in turbidity and siltation. Other activities such as coral and mangrove harvesting, seawall construction, urbanization and lack of regulations on the construction of structures along of the coastline can be linked to the coastal erosion processes. Among the global factors, the Kenyan coastline has been affected by the extreme events such as the El Niño event of 1997/1998, which led to devastating effects such as an increase in sediment fluxes and turbidity, coral bleaching and mortality and substantial sea level rise. A 1.3 °C sea surface temperature rise on the western side of the Indian Ocean has been recorded since 1880; this makes the coastline vulnerable to the impacts of the predicted 6 °C temperature rise in East Africa due to climate change. It is estimated that the biggest coastal city of Mombasa will be 17% submerged by 2100 and the Tana delta will experience a 5% loss as a consequence of climate change due to the frequent storms that are anticipated. Although the 2004 global tsunami events did not have devastating effects on the Kenyan coast, the event hit the coastline at low tide and this led to the limited damage. In the management of the shoreline, currently an Integrated Coastal Zone Management strategy does not exist although efforts are underway to develop a shoreline management strategy that incorporates the principles of the integration in the management of the coastline. These efforts are encouraged by the success of the marine protected areas of Malindi and Watamu and the current co-management strategy adapted by the Ministry of Fisheries through the Beach Management Units that engages the resource users as equal partners in the management of the coastal resources.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
Author : Norbert Opiyo Akech,Christine A. Omuombo,Moses Masibo
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :402
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The oldest supracrustal rocks in Kenya are the Archaean Nyanzian meta-volcanics and the Kavirondian meta-sediments. These rocks are found to the west of the country in the areas adjacent to Lake Victoria. The Neo-Proterozoic Mozambique belt rocks occupy the central parts of Kenya. These are in most parts separated from the Archaean rocks by the Tertiary volcanics associated with the East African Rift System. The eastern parts of Kenya from the north to the south are dominated by sedimentary rock sequences ranging in age from the Jurassic to Recent. Large volumes of sediments are also found within the rift floor. Faulting and rifting characterizes the Mesozoic and Quaternary rocks and sediments. Sedimentary deposits of the Permo-Triassic are as a consequence of faulting and subsequent rifting during the break-up of Gondwanaland leading to the distribution of Karoo-like sediments in an intracratonic basin to the east along the Kenyan coast. These sediments are extensively exposed in the south-eastern coastal region and are locally referred to as the Duruma Group, while the small exposures to the northeast are referred to as the Mansa Guda Formation. Notably, Jurassic shales and limestones associated with shallow to deep marine environments are present alongside the Permo-Triassic sediments. The development of the East African Rift System led to the distribution of the Quaternary volcanics and sediments on the floor of the tectonic rift valley trough. Evidence of the Cenozoic history that is characterized by relict erosion surfaces is seen on certain areas of the coastal zone. Quaternary sediments are widely distributed in the country with extensive deposits in the eastern region (east of the Rift Valley) with limited exposures to the northwest.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
Author : Christian T. Omuto
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :402
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Soil is a natural resource that supports food production and numerous types of support to life on earth. It occurs on the earth’s surface as groups or types, which have special capabilities. To identify these capabilities, soil scientists have developed tools for mapping soil types in the landscape so that their potential uses can be maximised. However, the mapping tool needs sufficient input data that many countries in the world do not have. In Kenya, the input data for soil mapping can be found from several governmental and nongovernmental organisations. This study identified and described publicly available soil data and new tools that can be used to produce high-resolution soil map of Kenya. The spatial distribution of the locations of these soil information sources showed that the northeastern parts of the country have been poorly represented in soil information development. Furthermore, using the available soil data, this study developed a new soil map of Kenya at a higher scale than the currently available area-class map. This soil map depicts the country as consisting of 22 main soil groups according to the FAO-UNESCO classification. These groups are dominated by soil types that have strong crop production limitations under rain-fed agriculture but are good for the development of pastoral resources. This implies that rain-fed crop production in the country cannot adequately sustain the consumptive demand of over 40 million people unless improved farming methods are applied.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
Author : Dorothy Wanja Nyingi,Nathan Gichuki,Mordecai O. Ogada
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :402
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Freshwater ecosystems of Kenya are the lifeline of economic and social development; however, most of these are threatened or on the verge of collapse. The need to maintain them in their natural condition, reduce disturbance and conserve their biodiversity has been stressed in the face of severe drought, food insecurity and water stress conditions including inability to maintain constant hydroelectric power. However, without a clear picture of how many freshwater rivers, wetlands and lakes exist and their precise locality, size, sources and uses, it would be impossible for the authorities charged with their protection to put in place management or mitigation measures. Highland freshwater ecosystems of Kenya include Mount Kenya, Aberdares, Mau Forest, Mount Elgon and Cherangani Hills, which are referred to Kenya's water towers since they jointly supply most of the freshwater resources of the country. They are fragile ecosystems with streams flowing through montane forest belts and are critical reservoirs of biodiversity. They are characterized by high rainfall; steep slopes and erodible soils induce severe surface runoff, soil erosion and landslides. Sediments from erosion cause pollution of water in the streams. In countries with limited resources such as Kenya only small portions of rivers can be effectively conserved. It is imperative that significant effort is targeted at the upper reaches, because any conservation effort in the lower reaches of the river are easily negated by upstream disturbances. Their importance is primarily due to their ability to store and distribute water to lowlands and for ground water recharge. For example, 90% of dry season flow of the Northern Ewaso Ng'iro River is derived from the Mount Kenya. Montane areas in Kenya are also often associated with sacred sites and areas of cultural and social importance to the communities around them. Kenya's highland ecosystems face great anthropogenic threats due to deforestation and agricultural pressure. These areas have been ideal for tea and coffee plantations and human settlements. The Mau Forest, which is the largest indigenous forest in Kenya, has had vast areas cleared for settlements by immigrants, which in turn has caused reduction of flows of the Sondu Miriu River, which is dammed downstream for hydroelectric power. Even though sections of the Aberdares and Mount Kenya occur in protected areas, the lack of management and inability to patrol large areas has had led to various conflicts over land and water uses. Lowland freshwater ecosystems include those occurring on the lower sections of the eastwards-flowing rivers of Kenya including Rivers Tana, Athi, Northern Ewaso Ng'iro and the Ramisi. These are areas of low altitude and the rivers are slow moving and characterized by high sediment load, which is rich in nutrients and important for agriculture along the banks of these rivers. However, reductions and changes in flow regimes in the lowlands are more recently becoming a reason for concern. In the Tana River Delta, a large number of communities and biodiversity rely on the water for agriculture, pastoralism, fishing and other socioeconomic uses related to ecosystem services. The two main factors affecting river flows in lowlands are water abstractions and land-use change and intensification, both related to growing human populations. Climate change poses a further complication to both highland and lowland ecosystems due to changes in rainfall patterns reducing not only river flows but also the high rainfall events that cause unprecedented floods.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
Author : Bernard K. Kirui
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :402
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Mangroves are important ecosystems in Kenya, producing goods and services of immense importance to the communities living adjacent to them. Their coverage is estimated at 46,590 hectares and is found along the 536km coastline which extends over 3° latitude from 1°42′ south to 4°40′ south. Mangroves are common features in protected bays, creeks, estuaries and river deltas spread all along the Kenya coast. Two communities of mangroves (fringe and creek) formations occur along the Kenya coast. The largest formations occur in the north coast around the Lamu area and at the River Tana delta. Nine species of mangroves are found in Kenya with Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia marina being the dominant species. The mangrove management in Kenya is contained in the Forest Act of 2005 where it is treated as part of the natural environment (forests/flora). The act created Kenya Forest Service with the mandate of managing forests in Kenya including mangroves. The legislation also provides for comprehensive community involvement in forest management through creation of community forests associations. Through its licencing system, the service regulates the harvesting mangroves. However, due to lack of comprehensive management plans, coupled with lack of resources to monitor harvesting system used by mangrove cutters, mangrove cutting is unregulated in all areas. Participatory management is also at its infancy stages. In this chapter, the status of mangroves in Kenya, their uses, dynamics and threats (anthropogenic and natural) are discussed and suggestions made on their wise use.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
Author : Petri K.E. Pellikka,Barnaby J.F. Clark,Alemu Gonsamo Gosa,Nina Himberg,Pekka Hurskainen,Eduardo Maeda,James Mwang’ombe,Loice M.A. Omoro,Mika Siljander
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :402
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The indigenous cloud forests in the Taita Hills have suffered substantial degradation for several centuries due to agricultural expansion. Additionally, climate change imposes an imminent threat for local economy and environmental sustainability. In such circumstances, elaborating tools to conciliate socioeconomic growth and natural resources conservation is an enormous challenge. This chapter describes applications of remote sensing and geographic information systems for assessing land-cover changes in the Taita Hills and its surrounding lowlands. Furthermore, it provides an overall assessment on the consequences of land-cover changes to water resources, biodiversity and livelihoods. The analyses presented in this study were undertaken at multiple spatial scales, using field data, airborne digital images and satellite imagery. Furthermore, a modelling framework was designed to delineate agricultural expansion projections and evaluate the future impacts of agriculture on soil erosion and irrigation water demand.

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook
Author : Zoltan Balint,Francis Mutua,Peris Muchiri,Christian T. Omuto
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :402
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A first step in any drought management system is to monitor the state and the evolution of the drought. This study addresses the problem of nonexistent operational drought monitoring systems and presents a new methodology for monitoring the evolution and severity of drought with the new, Combined Drought Index (CDI). It is based on the fact that drought is a natural phenomenon created by a combination of several factors, such as deficiency in rainfall amount, persistence of below average rainfall, temperature excess and soil moisture characteristics. By combining the factors in the preceding text, the CDI compares present conditions with multiyear average (normal) conditions for the same time period. The methodology was applied at selected locations of different climate zones in Kenya. The results were compared with available official records of drought events (impacts), showing a very good positive relationship between the two. An attempt to detect the long-term trends of drought events using the CDI indicates that there is an increasing trend of drought events in the country, while the drought severity is not necessarily getting worse in all stations. The CDI method also revealed the possibility of drought early warning and drought-related climate change analysis in Kenya.

City of Nairobi Environment Outlook

City of Nairobi Environment Outlook
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2006
Category : Environmental degradation
Total pages :87
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Global Environment Outlook 2000

Global Environment Outlook 2000
Author : United Nations Environment Programme (Unep)
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2013-11-05
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :436
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'The continued poverty of the majority of the planet's inhabitants and excessive consumption by the minority are the two major causes of environmental degradation The present course is unsustainable and postponing action is no longer an option. Inspired political leadership and intense cooperation across all regions and sectors will be needed to put both existing and new policy instruments to work. ' From the Synthesis Global Environment Outlook 2000 (GEO-2000) is a comprehensive and authoritative review and analysis of environmental conditions around the world. It is the flagship publication of the world's leading environmental organization, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and is based on information provided by more than 30 regional and international collaborating centres. The book presents a region-by-region analysis of the state of the world's environment, highlighting key global concerns and making recommendations for policy action. The regions covered include Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, North America, West Asia and the Polar Areas. Chapter 1: Global Perspectives describes the main drivers of environmental change, such as the economy, population growth, political organization and regionalization, as well as potential impacts of recent global developments including the growth of the consumer culture, trade and international debt. Chapter 2: The State of the Environment provides a global and region-by-region overview of the environment at the end of the second millennium. The chapter covers global issues such as ozone, climate change, El Nifio and nitrogen loading, and universal issues of land and food, forests, biodiversity, freshwater, marine and coastal areas, atmosphere and urban areas. Chapter 3: Policy Responses reviews the broad range of policy instruments and responses being used to address environmental issues, including multilateral environmental agreements, and analyses the difficulties of compliance, implementation and assessment. Chapter 4: Future Perspectives looks at environmental issues that will require priority attention in the 21st century and some alternative policy options that could be used in the regions. Chapter 5: Outlook and Recommendations makes recommendations for future action based on the environmental legacy left by past and present policy and management systems. GEO-2000 will be the benchmark reference and guide to the state of the global environment. Written in clear, non-technical language and supported throughout by informative graphics and tables, it is essential reading for all those involved in environmental policy making, implementation and assessment, and for researchers and students of regional and global environmental issues. Originally published in 1999

African Economic Outlook 2013 Structural Transformation and Natural Resources

African Economic Outlook 2013 Structural Transformation and Natural Resources
Author : OECD,African Development Bank,United Nations Development Programme,United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release Date : 2013-05-27
Category :
Total pages :356
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The African Economic Outlook is the only annual report that monitors in detail the economic performance of 53 individual countries on the continent, using a strictly comparable analytical framework. The focus of the 2013 edition if structural transformation and natural resources in Africa.

African Economic Outlook 2013 Structural Transformation and Natural Resources

African Economic Outlook 2013 Structural Transformation and Natural Resources
Author : OECD,African Development Bank,United Nations Development Programme,United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release Date : 2013-06-17
Category :
Total pages :356
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The African Economic Outlook is the only annual report that monitors in detail the economic performance of 53 individual countries on the continent, using a strictly comparable analytical framework. The focus of the 2013 edition if structural transformation and natural resources in Africa.