November 28, 2020

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Light Scattering by Particles in Water

Light Scattering by Particles in Water
Author : Miroslaw Jonasz,Georges Fournier
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-08-29
Category : Science
Total pages :714
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Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data on light scattering by particles in water, the authors employ simple models. The book concludes with extensive critical reviews of the experimental constraints of light scattering models: results of measurements of light scattering and of the key properties of the particles: size distribution, refractive index (composition), structure, and shape. These reviews guide the reader through literature scattered among more than 210 scientific journals and periodicals which represent a wide range of disciplines. A special emphasis is put on the methods of measuring both light scattering and the relevant properties of the particles, because principles of these methods may affect interpretation and applicability of the results. The book includes extensive guides to literature on light scattering data and instrumentation design, as well as on the data for size distributions, refractive indices, and shapes typical of particles in natural waters. It also features a comprehensive index, numerous cross-references, and a reference list with over 1370 entries. An errata sheet for this work can be found at: http://www.tpdsci.com/Ref/Jonasz_M_2007_LightScatE.php *Extensive reference section provides handy compilations of knowledge on the designs of light scattering meters, sources of experimental data, and more *Worked exercises and examples throughout

Light Scattering by Small Particles

Light Scattering by Small Particles
Author : H. C. van de Hulst
Publisher : Courier Corporation
Release Date : 2012-06-08
Category : Science
Total pages :496
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Comprehensive treatment of light-scattering properties of small, independent particles, including a full range of useful approximation methods for researchers in chemistry, meteorology, and astronomy. 46 tables. 59 graphs. 44 illustrations.

Light Scattering by Particles in Water

Light Scattering by Particles in Water
Author : Miroslaw Jonasz,Georges Fournier
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-08-29
Category : Science
Total pages :714
GET BOOK

Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data on light scattering by particles in water, the authors employ simple models. The book concludes with extensive critical reviews of the experimental constraints of light scattering models: results of measurements of light scattering and of the key properties of the particles: size distribution, refractive index (composition), structure, and shape. These reviews guide the reader through literature scattered among more than 210 scientific journals and periodicals which represent a wide range of disciplines. A special emphasis is put on the methods of measuring both light scattering and the relevant properties of the particles, because principles of these methods may affect interpretation and applicability of the results. The book includes extensive guides to literature on light scattering data and instrumentation design, as well as on the data for size distributions, refractive indices, and shapes typical of particles in natural waters. It also features a comprehensive index, numerous cross-references, and a reference list with over 1370 entries. An errata sheet for this work can be found at: http://www.tpdsci.com/Ref/Jonasz_M_2007_LightScatE.php *Extensive reference section provides handy compilations of knowledge on the designs of light scattering meters, sources of experimental data, and more *Worked exercises and examples throughout

Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles

Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles
Author : Craig F. Bohren,Donald R. Huffman
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2008-09-26
Category : Science
Total pages :544
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Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles Treating absorption and scattering in equal measure, this self-contained, interdisciplinary study examines and illustrates how small particles absorb and scatter light. The authors emphasize that any discussion of the optical behavior of small particles is inseparable from a full understanding of the optical behavior of the parent material-bulk matter. To divorce one concept from the other is to render any study on scattering theory seriously incomplete. Special features and important topics covered in this book include: * Classical theories of optical properties based on idealized models * Measurements for three representative materials: magnesium oxide, aluminum, and water * An extensive discussion of electromagnetic theory * Numerous exact and approximate solutions to various scattering problems * Examples and applications from physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, and biophysics * Some 500 references emphasizing work done since Kerker's 1969 work on scattering theory * Computer programs for calculating scattering by spheres, coated spheres, and infinite cylinders

Particles in Water

Particles in Water
Author : John Gregory
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2005-09-06
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :200
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Based on the author’s more than 35 years of experience, Particles in Water: Properties and Processes examines particles and their behavior in water systems. The book offers clear and accessible methods for characterizing a range of particles both individually and as aggregates. The author delineates the principles for understanding particle properties and shows how such information contributes to the understanding and improvement of water treatment processes, including sedimentation, flocculation, and filtration. A distillation of the author's years of experience, the book explores practical applications of fundamental principles. Outlining the origin, nature, and properties of particles in water, the author covers particle size, transport processes, and light scattering and provides a broad outline of important techniques for particle size determination. He discusses the important topic of surface charge, which plays a major role in colloid stability and interactions between particles, with some emphasis on the role of dissolved salts. The book gives an account of particle aggregation kinetics, the form of aggregates, and aggregate strength and explores coagulation and flocculation and the modes of action of some common additives used in these processes. The book concludes with an overview of important solid-liquid separation processes and the principles on which they are based. The author presents the material in an easily accessible style, using just enough math to be clear but not so much as to be overwhelming. Highlighting the growing importance of advanced filtration systems in water treatment, this book provides an excellent summary of the behavior of particles in water systems and in relation to the techniques designed to capture and remove them.

Light Scattering Media Optics

Light Scattering Media Optics
Author : Alex A. Kokhanovsky
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2004-08-05
Category : Science
Total pages :299
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The theory of the scattering of light by small particles is very important in a wide range of applications in atmospheric physics and atmospheric optics, ocean optics, remote sensing, astronomy and astrophysics and biological optics. This book summarises current knowledge of the optical properties of single small particles and natural light scattering media such as snow, clouds, foam aerosols etc. The book considers both single and multiple light scattering regimes, together with light scattering and radiative transfer in close-packed media. The third edition incorporates new findings in the area of light scattering media optics in an updated version of the text.

Springer Series in Light Scattering

Springer Series in Light Scattering
Author : Alexander Kokhanovsky
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-12-22
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :299
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This book presents a survey of modern theoretical and experimental techniques in studies of light scattering phenomena and radiative transfer processes in random media. It presents reviews on light scattering by sea water and bubbles, and includes a separate chapter addressing studies of the remote sensing of crystalline clouds with a focus on the shape of particles—a parameter rarely studied by passive remote sensing techniques. In particular, it offers a comprehensive analysis of polarized radiative transfer in optically active (e.g., chiral) light scattering media and explores advances in spectro-polarimetry of particulate media. Lastly it discusses new developments in light scattering for combustion monitoring.

Physical Optics of Ocean Water

Physical Optics of Ocean Water
Author : K.S. Shifrin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 1998-02-18
Category : Science
Total pages :285
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Particles in Water

Particles in Water
Author : John Gregory
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2005-09-06
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :200
GET BOOK

Based on the author’s more than 35 years of experience, Particles in Water: Properties and Processes examines particles and their behavior in water systems. The book offers clear and accessible methods for characterizing a range of particles both individually and as aggregates. The author delineates the principles for understanding particle properties and shows how such information contributes to the understanding and improvement of water treatment processes, including sedimentation, flocculation, and filtration. A distillation of the author's years of experience, the book explores practical applications of fundamental principles. Outlining the origin, nature, and properties of particles in water, the author covers particle size, transport processes, and light scattering and provides a broad outline of important techniques for particle size determination. He discusses the important topic of surface charge, which plays a major role in colloid stability and interactions between particles, with some emphasis on the role of dissolved salts. The book gives an account of particle aggregation kinetics, the form of aggregates, and aggregate strength and explores coagulation and flocculation and the modes of action of some common additives used in these processes. The book concludes with an overview of important solid-liquid separation processes and the principles on which they are based. The author presents the material in an easily accessible style, using just enough math to be clear but not so much as to be overwhelming. Highlighting the growing importance of advanced filtration systems in water treatment, this book provides an excellent summary of the behavior of particles in water systems and in relation to the techniques designed to capture and remove them.

Aerosol Optics

Aerosol Optics
Author : Alexander A. Kokhanovsky
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-03-18
Category : Science
Total pages :148
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This new text offers experienced students a comprehensive review of available techniques for the remote sensing of aerosols. These small particles influence both atmospheric visibility and the thermodynamics of the atmosphere. They are also of great importance in any consideration of climate change problems. Aerosols may also be responsible for the loss of harvests, human health problems and ecological disasters. Thus, this detailed study of aerosol properties on a global scale could not be more timely.

Particle Characterization: Light Scattering Methods

Particle Characterization: Light Scattering Methods
Author : Renliang Xu
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2001-11-30
Category : Science
Total pages :399
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Particle characterization is an important component in product research and development, manufacture, and quality control of particulate materials and an important tool in the frontier of sciences, such as in biotechnology and nanotechnology. This book systematically describes one major branch of modern particle characterization technology - the light scattering methods. This is the first monograph in particle science and technology covering the principles, instrumentation, data interpretation, applications, and latest experimental development in laser diffraction, optical particle counting, photon correlation spectroscopy, and electrophoretic light scattering. In addition, a summary of all major particle sizing and other characterization methods, basic statistics and sample preparation techniques used in particle characterization, as well as almost 500 latest references are provided. The book is a must for industrial users of light scattering techniques characterizing a variety of particulate systems and for undergraduate or graduate students who want to learn how to use light scattering to study particular materials, in chemical engineering, material sciences, physical chemistry and other related fields.

Application of Light Scattering to Coatings

Application of Light Scattering to Coatings
Author : Michael P. Diebold
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-11-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :196
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The book begins with the fundamentals of light scattering, first by individual particles, then by small groups of particles, and finally by the trillions of particles present in a real-life paint film. From there, Dr. Diebold focuses on application of these fundamentals to paint formulation. The scope includes both theory and practice with an emphasis on application (from both performance and cost standpoints). The book gives a clear understanding of light scattering principles and application of these principles to paint formulation (with a focus on TiO2 – the strongest scattering material available to paint formulators). The reader will be in a position to formulate and reformulate paints for maximum cost effectiveness. Application of Light Scattering to Coatings: A Users Guide is ideal for a range of professions working in paint formulation and manufacturing. This book also: Distills difficult theories (light scattering, paint formulation) into easy-to-understand concepts Adopts a qualitative perspective, with minimal use of complex equations, making key scientific concepts accessible to all paint formulators without a prerequisite of higher mathematics Offers an accessible resource for formulators new to the field while maintaining a high degree of relevance to experienced coating formulators Discusses the interplay between resin, TiO2 pigments, and paint extenders with regard to paint performance and cost Presents an unbiased assessment of opacifying potential of TiO2 alternatives Outlines strategies for minimizing overall costs of paints.

Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles

Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles
Author : Michael I. Mishchenko,Joachim W. Hovenier,Larry D. Travis
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1999-09-22
Category : Science
Total pages :690
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There is hardly a field of science or engineering that does not have some interest in light scattering by small particles. For example, this subject is important to climatology because the energy budget for the Earth's atmosphere is strongly affected by scattering of solar radiation by cloud and aerosol particles, and the whole discipline of remote sensing relies largely on analyzing the parameters of radiation scattered by aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The scattering of light by spherical particles can be easily computed using the conventional Mie theory. However, most small solid particles encountered in natural and laboratory conditions have nonspherical shapes. Examples are soot and mineral aerosols, cirrus cloud particles, snow and frost crystals, ocean hydrosols, interplanetary and cometary dust grains, and microorganisms. It is now well known that scattering properties of nonspherical particles can differ dramatically from those of "equivalent" (e.g., equal-volume or equal-surface-area) spheres. Therefore, the ability to accurately compute or measure light scattering by nonspherical particles in order to clearly understand the effects of particle nonsphericity on light scattering is very important. The rapid improvement of computers and experimental techniques over the past 20 years and the development of efficient numerical approaches have resulted in major advances in this field which have not been systematically summarized. Because of the universal importance of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles, papers on different aspects of this subject are scattered over dozens of diverse research and engineering journals. Often experts in one discipline (e.g., biology) are unaware of potentially useful results obtained in another discipline (e.g., antennas and propagation). This leads to an inefficient use of the accumulated knowledge and unnecessary redundancy in research activities. This book offers the first systematic and unified discussion of light scattering by nonspherical particles and its practical applications and represents the state-of-the-art of this important research field. Individual chapters are written by leading experts in respective areas and cover three major disciplines: theoretical and numerical techniques, laboratory measurements, and practical applications. An overview chapter provides a concise general introduction to the subject of nonspherical scattering and should be especially useful to beginners and those interested in fast practical applications. The audience for this book will include graduate students, scientists, and engineers working on specific aspects of electromagnetic scattering by small particles and its applications in remote sensing, geophysics, astrophysics, biomedical optics, and optical engineering. The first systematic and comprehensive treatment of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles and its applications Individual chapters are written by leading experts in respective areas Includes a survey of all the relevant literature scattered over dozens of basic and applied research journals Consistent use of unified definitions and notation makes the book a coherent volume An overview chapter provides a concise general introduction to the subject of light scattering by nonspherical particles Theoretical chapters describe specific easy-to-use computer codes publicly available on the World Wide Web Extensively illustrated with over 200 figures, 4 in color

Particle Count Method Development for Concentration Standards and Sample Stabilization

Particle Count Method Development for Concentration Standards and Sample Stabilization
Author : Zaid K. Chowdhury
Publisher : American Water Works Association
Release Date : 2000
Category : Particle counting (Water treatment plants)
Total pages :167
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Light Scattering by Ice Crystals

Light Scattering by Ice Crystals
Author : Kuo-Nan Liou,Ping Yang
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2016-10-06
Category : Science
Total pages :443
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This volume outlines the fundamentals and applications of light scattering, absorption and polarization processes involving ice crystals.