January 26, 2021

Download Ebook Free Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology

Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology

Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology
Author : Maria Cristina Fossi,Cristina Panti
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-08-06
Category : Science
Total pages :512
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Marine Mammal Ecotoxicology: Impacts of Multiple Stressors on Population Health provides tactics on how to develop a comprehensive methodology for the study of existing threats to marine mammals. By presenting a conservation-biology approach and new and emerging technologies, this work helps provide crucial knowledge on the status of marine mammal populations that not only helps readers understand the ecosystem’s health, but also instigate mitigation measures. This volume provides information that helps investigators unravel the relationships between exposure to environmental stressors (e.g., climate change, pollutants, marine litter, pathogens and biotoxins) and a range of endpoints in marine mammal species. The application of robust examination procedures and biochemical, immunological, and molecular techniques, combined with pathological examination and feeding ecology, has led to the development of health assessment methods at the individual and population levels in wild marine mammals. Provides a comprehensive, worldwide update and state of knowledge on current research and topics on marine mammal ecotoxicology Includes coverage of both new and emerging technologies Features a multidisciplinary approach that gives readers a broad, updated overview of the threats facing marine mammals and related conservation measures

Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation

Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation
Author : Ian L. Boyd,W. Don Bowen,Sara J. Iverson
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2010-08-12
Category : Nature
Total pages :450
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Much of our knowledge about marine mammals is derived from a long-term and dedicated research effort that is evolving rapidly due to the introduction and invention of new methods.This book reflects the inventiveness of marine researchers as they try to find ways around the problems presented to them by these unusual and challenging animals.

Marine Ecotoxicology

Marine Ecotoxicology
Author : Julián Blasco,Peter M. Chapman,Olivia Campana,Miriam Hampel
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-08-05
Category : Medical
Total pages :334
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Marine Ecotoxicology: Current Knowledge and Future Issues is the first unified resource to cover issues related to contamination, responses, and testing techniques of saltwater from a toxicological perspective. With its unprecedented focus on marine environments and logical chapter progression, this book is useful to graduate students, ecotoxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators involved or interested in marine waters. As human interaction with these environments increases, understanding of the pollutants and toxins introduced into the oceans becomes ever more critical, and this book builds a foundation of knowledge to assist scientists in studying, monitoring, and making decisions that affect both marine environments and human health. A team of world renowned experts provide detailed analyses of the most common contaminants in marine environments and explain the design and purpose of toxicity testing methods, while exploring the future of ecotoxicology studies in relation to the world’s oceans. As the threat of increasing pollution in marine environments becomes an ever more tangible reality, Marine Ecotoxicology offers insights and guidance to mitigate that threat. Provides practical tools and methods for assessing and monitoring the accumulation and effects of contaminants in marine environments Unites world renowned experts in marine ecotoxicology to deliver thorough and diverse perspectives Builds the foundation required for risk assessors and regulators to adequately assess and monitor the impact of pollution in marine environments Offers helpful insights and guidance to graduate students, ecotoxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators interested in mitigating threats to marine waters

Comparative Immunology of Marine Mammals

Comparative Immunology of Marine Mammals
Author : Giovanni Di Guardo,Michael F. Criscitiello,Eva Sierra,Sandro Mazzariol
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2019-11-21
Category :
Total pages :101
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Marine mammals (MMs) are regarded as valuable bioindicators with tremendous potential for public health. However, many aspects of their immune system remain poorly understood. Monitoring immune responses of MMs is pivotal for the health assessment of both individuals and populations, as well as providing the scientific basis for analyzing the anthropogenic environmental impact on marine ecosystems and marine-terrestrial interphases. For instance, the increasing susceptibility of Mediterranean whale and dolphin populations to various diseases has been linked to a possible negative influence of multiple environmental factors on the immune system of MMs. The currently limited knowledge on MM immunology has mainly centered on: (i) lymphocyte transformation assays; (ii) natural killer cell activity; (iii) phagocytic activity and respiratory burst; (iv) humoral immune responses; (v) cytokines and (vi) acute phase immune responses. Therefore, further research is essential for deepening our understanding of the specificity of the host immune response in MMs, with a particular emphasis on the genesis and dynamics of (i) cytokine ‘networks’ or ‘signatures’; (ii) transcriptional regulation of immune cells and (iii) major immunomodulators. High-throughput molecular techniques, such as transcriptomic analysis and RNA sequencing, may enable the characterization of immune gene responses at the transcriptomic level. This integrative and holistic approach requires sophisticated tools and methods capable of unveiling the diversity of immune cells and immunologically relevant molecules that orchestrate environmental adaptation and immune protection against pathogens in MMs. This Research Topic aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of MM immunology with a particular emphasis on structural and functional studies at the protein and cellular level. We wish to encourage and coordinate studies and investigations in order to fill gaps of knowledge in this field. This article collection aims to help gain more data regarding: a) The characterization of the immune system in several species of MMs, i.e. cetaceans, pinnipeds and sirenians; b) The interplay between the host immune system and the most relevant pathogens, e.g., Morbillivirus, Brucella, Toxoplasma gondii and c) The possible interplay between the immune system and contaminants.

European Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises

European Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises
Author : Peter G. H. Evans
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-12-04
Category : Science
Total pages :322
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European Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises: Marine Mammal Conservation in Practice presents an intimate view of the workings of international conservation agreements to protect marine mammals, detailing achievements over the last 25 years, identifying weaknesses and making recommendations that governments, scientists, marine stakeholders and the public can take to improve conservation efforts. The book is written by an experienced marine mammal scientist and award-winning conservationist, providing a unique synthesis on their status, distribution and ecology. In addition, it presents information on various conservation threats, including fisheries by catch, contaminants, noise disturbance, plastic ingestion and climate change. This comprehensive resource will appeal to marine mammal conservationists and researchers, as well as environmental and wildlife practitioners at all levels. Offers an accessible review on how scientists study this challenging group of mammals to gather necessary evidence for conservation action Illustrates, with striking images, all recorded regional species, including distribution maps, key threats and specific research methods Includes contributions from leading scientists, conservationists, and members of government and international bodies, like IWC and UNEP

Marine Mammals Ashore

Marine Mammals Ashore
Author : Joseph R. Geraci,Valerie J. Lounsbury
Publisher : National Aquarium in Baltimore
Release Date : 2005-01-01
Category : Marine mammals
Total pages :371
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Marine Mammals Ashore: A Field Guide for Strandings (J.R. Geraci & V.J. Lounsbury)in the hardcover formatis back! A comprehensive manual for understanding and dealing with a stranded seal, manatee, dolphin, whale, or sea otter, this book contains information for the interested beach dweller or student and for the scientist or marine resource manager. Marine Mammals Ashore describes rescue operations, how to organize a response team, and how to deal with the media and the public. It includes basic information on marine mammal biology, life history, and health, and an extensive bibliography.Marine Mammals Ashore also provides stranding network participants with practical guidelines for collecting data and specimens to better understand the biology and behavior of marine animals and the condition of their environment.All chapters have been updated and expanded, with emphasis on topics that include: enhancing network organization, public education, and media relations. natural and human-related mortality in each major marine mammal group. recognizing, responding to, and investigating unusual mortality events. new or updated protocols for specimen and data collection (e.g., samples for PCR analysis; basic guidelines for investigating possible noise-related strandings; collecting environmental data and samples; and a detailed protocol for examining marine mammals for signs of human interactions). zoonoses and other public health issues. updated overview of marine mammal stranding frequency and distribution in North America, with coverage extended to Canada and Mexico. overview of special topics provided by invited authors: disentanglement (Peter Howorth, Santa Barbara Marine Mammal Center, Santa Barbara CA); tagging and monitoring (Anthony Martin, British Antarctic Survey); and GIS applications (Greg Early, A.I.S., Inc., New Bedford, MA). close to 600 new references (and a few new carcass disposal stories!).The 372-page second edition features water- and tear-resistant paper, a vinyl cover, and durable plastic coil binding. There are even strategically placed lined pages for adding personal notes and contact information.

Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicology
Author : Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis,Thiago Estevam Parente
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-05-15
Category : Nature
Total pages :282
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This book presents an integrated discussion on ecotoxicology, containing both general concepts and specific ecotoxicological issues of major biological groups, extending beyond conventional systems. It explores worldwide, regional, and biocompartmentalized topics, bringing forth new points of view on global issues and addressing the increasing diversity and complexity of the ecotoxicological field. It also contains novel information on emerging contaminants, presents bioaccumulation effects on different levels of ecological organization and risk analyses, and discusses novel fields of methodological applications, including key aspects in ecotoxicological and environmental monitoring studies.

Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals

Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Assessment of the Cumulative Effects of Anthropogenic Stressors on Marine Mammals
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2017-05-04
Category : Science
Total pages :146
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Marine mammals face a large array of stressors, including loss of habitat, chemical and noise pollution, and bycatch in fishing, which alone kills hundreds of thousands of marine mammals per year globally. To discern the factors contributing to population trends, scientists must consider the full complement of threats faced by marine mammals. Once populations or ecosystems are found to be at risk of adverse impacts, it is critical to decide which combination of stressors to reduce to bring the population or ecosystem into a more favorable state. Assessing all stressors facing a marine mammal population also provides the environmental context for evaluating whether an additional activity could threaten it. Approaches to Understanding the Cumulative Effects of Stressors on Marine Mammals builds upon previous reports to assess current methodologies used for evaluating cumulative effects and identify new approaches that could improve these assessments. This review focuses on ways to quantify exposure-related changes in the behavior, health, or body condition of individual marine mammals and makes recommendations for future research initiatives.

Ecotoxicology of Marine Organisms

Ecotoxicology of Marine Organisms
Author : Bernardo Duarte,Maria Isabel Violante Caçador
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-08-14
Category : Science
Total pages :242
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This book presents a comprehensive review of the most recent studies on the impact of contaminants on the marine environment. Conventional and new information, as well as the latest techniques, are presented, which can be applied to several types of marine organisms from bacteria and fungi to animals and algae. Specific topics discussed include the impact of different contaminants on different organisms as well as different approaches and their outcomes in terms of impact assessment. The integration of these techniques is also discussed in order to attain sentinel species and biomarkers to be applied for assessing ecological quality and impact assessment programs and studies.

Persistent Pollutants in Marine Ecosystems

Persistent Pollutants in Marine Ecosystems
Author : Colin H. Walker,D.R. Livingstone
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :285
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This new volume from the SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry) Special Publications Series examines the phenomenon of persistent pollutants in the seas and oceans. Unlike the highly visible and obvious effects caused by oil, certain chemicals have unseen but long-term and far-reaching effects on the marine ecosystem. They often have long half-lives, are carried great distances and pass easily through the food chain from prey to predator. The behaviour and effects of these persistent pollutants on each type of marine animal (invertebrates, vertebrates, fish, mammals and fish-eating birds) are described. A final overview draws the observations and conclusions together presenting a work that provides a foundation for understanding the behaviour of persistent pollutants in the marine environment.

Marine Mammal Welfare

Marine Mammal Welfare
Author : Andy Butterworth
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-06-19
Category : Science
Total pages :625
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Marine mammals attract human interest – sometimes this interest is benign or positive – whale watching, conservation programmes for whales, seals, otters, and efforts to clear beaches of marine debris are seen as proactive steps to support these animals. However, there are many forces operating to affect adversely the lives of whales, seals, manatees, otters and polar bears – and this book explores how the welfare of marine mammals has been affected and how they have adapted, moved, responded and sometimes suffered as a result of the changing marine and human world around them. Marine mammal welfare addresses the welfare effects of marine debris, of human traffic in the oceans, of noise, of hunting, of whale watching and tourism, and of some of the less obvious impacts on marine mammals – on their social structures, on their behaviours and migration, and also of the effects on captivity for animals kept in zoos and aquaria. There is much to think and talk about – how marine mammals respond in a world dramatically influenced by man, how are their social structures affected and how is their welfare impacted?

Predicting Future Oceans

Predicting Future Oceans
Author : William Cheung,Yoshitaka Ota,Andres Cisneros-Montemayor
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-08-17
Category : Science
Total pages :582
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Predicting Future Oceans: Sustainability of Ocean and Human Systems Amidst Global Environmental Change provides a synthesis of our knowledge of the future state of the oceans. The editors undertake the challenge of integrating diverse perspectives—from oceanography to anthropology—to exhibit the changes in ecological conditions and their socioeconomic implications. Each contributing author provides a novel perspective, with the book as a whole collating scholarly understandings of future oceans and coastal communities across the world. The diverse perspectives, syntheses and state-of-the-art natural and social sciences contributions are led by past and current research fellows and principal investigators of the Nereus Program network. This includes members at 17 leading research institutes, addressing themes such as oceanography, biodiversity, fisheries, mariculture production, economics, pollution, public health and marine policy. This book is a comprehensive resource for senior undergraduate and postgraduate readers studying social and natural science, as well as practitioners working in the field of natural resources management and marine conservation. Provides a synthesis of our knowledge on the future state of the oceans Includes recommendations on how to move forwards Highlights key social aspects linked to ocean ecosystems, including health, equity and sovereignty

Impacts of Marine Litter

Impacts of Marine Litter
Author : Luisa Galgani,Ricardo Beiras,Francois Galgani,Cristina Panti,Angel Borja
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2019-08-15
Category :
Total pages :165
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The Rise of Marine Mammals

The Rise of Marine Mammals
Author : Annalisa Berta
Publisher : JHU Press
Release Date : 2017-10-02
Category : Science
Total pages :216
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Marine mammals have long captured the attention of humans. Ancient peoples etched seals and dolphins on the walls of Paleolithic caves; today, engineers develop microprocessors to track these denizens of the deep. This groundbreaking book from highly respected marine mammal paleontologist Annalisa Berta delves into the story of the extraordinary adaptations that gave the world these amazing animals. The Rise of Marine Mammals reveals remarkable fossil record discoveries that shed light on the origins, relationships, and diversification of marine mammals. Focusing on evolution and paleobiology, Berta provides an overview of marine mammal species diversity, enhanced with gorgeous life restorations by Carl Buell, Robert Boessenecker, William Stout, and Ray Troll and extensive line drawings by graphics editor James L. Sumich. The book also considers ongoing conservation challenges, demonstrating how the fossil record of adaptation in response to past environmental shifts may illuminate the way that marine mammals respond to global climate change. This invaluable evolutionary framework is essential for helping us understand how best to protect and conserve today’s polar bears, whales, dolphins, seals, and fellow warm-blooded ocean dwellers. The Rise of Marine Mammals also describes exciting breakthroughs that rely on new techniques of study, including 3-D imaging, and molecular, finite element, and morphometric analyses, which have enhanced scientists’ understanding of everything from the anatomy of fetal whales to the genes behind limb loss in cetaceans. Mammalogists, paleontologists, and marine scientists will find Berta’s insights absorbing, while developmental and molecular biologists, geneticists, and ecologists exploring integrative research approaches will benefit from her fresh perspective.

A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives

A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Committee on the Design and Evaluation of Safer Chemical Substitutions: A Framework to Inform Government and Industry Decisions
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2014-10-29
Category : Science
Total pages :280
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Historically, regulations governing chemical use have often focused on widely used chemicals and acute human health effects of exposure to them, as well as their potential to cause cancer and other adverse health effects. As scientific knowledge has expanded there has been an increased awareness of the mechanisms through which chemicals may exert harmful effects on human health, as well as their effects on other species and ecosystems. Identification of high-priority chemicals and other chemicals of concern has prompted a growing number of state and local governments, as well as major companies, to take steps beyond existing hazardous chemical federal legislation. Interest in approaches and policies that ensure that any new substances substituted for chemicals of concern are assessed as carefully and thoroughly as possible has also burgeoned. The overarching goal of these approaches is to avoid regrettable substitutions, which occur when a toxic chemical is replaced by another chemical that later proved unsuitable because of persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, or other concerns. Chemical alternative assessments are tools designed to facilitate consideration of these factors to assist stakeholders in identifying chemicals that may have the greatest likelihood of harm to human and ecological health, and to provide guidance on how the industry may develop and adopt safer alternatives. A Framework to Guide Selection of Chemical Alternatives develops and demonstrates a decision framework for evaluating potentially safer substitute chemicals as primarily determined by human health and ecological risks. This new framework is informed by previous efforts by regulatory agencies, academic institutions, and others to develop alternative assessment frameworks that could be operationalized. In addition to hazard assessments, the framework incorporates steps for life-cycle thinking - which considers possible impacts of a chemical at all stages including production, use, and disposal - as well as steps for performance and economic assessments. The report also highlights how modern information sources such as computational modeling can supplement traditional toxicology data in the assessment process. This new framework allows the evaluation of the full range of benefits and shortcomings of substitutes, and examination of tradeoffs between these risks and factors such as product functionality, product efficacy, process safety, and resource use. Through case studies, this report demonstrates how different users in contrasting decision contexts with diverse priorities can apply the framework. This report will be an essential resource to the chemical industry, environmentalists, ecologists, and state and local governments.