November 25, 2020

Download Ebook Free Materials Of The Early Solar System

Meteorites and the Early Solar System II

Meteorites and the Early Solar System II
Author : Dante S. Lauretta,Harry Y. McSween
Publisher : University of Arizona Press
Release Date : 2006
Category : Science
Total pages :943
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They range in size from microscopic particles to masses of many tons. The geologic diversity of asteroids and other rocky bodies of the solar system are displayed in the enormous variety of textures and mineralogies observed in meteorites. The composition, chemistry, and mineralogy of primitive meteorites collectively provide evidence for a wide variety of chemical and physical processes. This book synthesizes our current understanding of the early solar system, summarizing information about processes that occurred before its formation. It will be valuable as a textbook for graduate education in planetary science and as a reference for meteoriticists and researchers in allied fields worldwide.

Oxygen in the Solar System

Oxygen in the Solar System
Author : Glenn J. MacPherson
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release Date : 2018-12-17
Category : Science
Total pages :618
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Volume 68 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry reviews Oxygen in the Solar System, an element that is so critically important in so many ways to planetary science. The book is based on three open workshops: Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, held in Santa Fe, NM July 20-23, 2004; Oxygen in Asteroids and Meteorites, held in Flagstaff, AZ June 2-3, 2005; and Oxygen in Earliest Solar System Materials and Processes (and including the outer planets and comets), held in Gatlinburg, TN September 19-22, 2005. As a consequence of the cross-cutting approach, the final book spans a wide range of fields relating to oxygen, from the stellar nucleosynthesis of oxygen, to its occurrence in the interstellar medium, to the oxidation and isotopic record preserved in 4.56 Ga grains formed at the Solar System's birth, to its abundance and speciation in planets large and small, to its role in the petrologic and physical evolution of the terrestrial planets. Contents: Introduction Oxygen isotopes in the early Solar System - A historical perspective Abundance, notation, and fractionation of light stable isotopes Nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of oxygen Oxygen in the interstellar medium Oxygen in the Sun Redox conditions in the solar nebula: observational, experimental, and theoretical constraints Oxygen isotopes of chondritic components Mass-independent oxygen isotope variation in the solar nebula Oxygen and other volatiles in the giant planets and their satellites Oxygen in comets and interplanetary dust particles Oxygen and asteroids Oxygen isotopes in asteroidal materials Oxygen isotopic composition and chemical correlations in meteorites and the terrestrial planets Record of low-temperature alteration in asteroids The oxygen cycle of the terrestrial planets: insights into the processing and history of oxygen in surface environments Redox conditions on small bodies, the Moon and Mars Terrestrial oxygen isotope variations and their implications for planetary lithospheres Basalts as probes of planetary interior redox state Rheological consequences of redox state

Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System

Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1998-04-29
Category : Science
Total pages :60
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In the last decade, our knowledge of the outer solar system has been transformed as a result of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune and its satellite Triton and from Earth-based observations of the Pluto-Charon system. However, the planetary system does not simply end at the distance of Pluto and Neptune. In the past few years, dozens of bodies have been discovered in near-circular, low inclination orbits near or beyond the orbit of Neptune. These bodies are now believed to be directly related to each other and to Pluto, Charon, and Triton, and as a class they define and occupy the inner boundary of a hitherto unexplored component of the solar system, the trans-neptunian region. Exploring the Trans-Neptunian Solar System reviews current understanding of the trans-neptunian solar system and makes recommendations for the future exploration of this distant realm.

Encyclopedia of the Solar System

Encyclopedia of the Solar System
Author : Lucy-Ann McFadden,Torrence Johnson,Paul Weissman
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2006-12-18
Category : Science
Total pages :992
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Long before Galileo published his discoveries about Jupiter, lunar craters, and the Milky Way in the Starry Messenger in 1610, people were fascinated with the planets and stars around them. That interest continues today, and scientists are making new discoveries at an astounding rate. Ancient lake beds on Mars, robotic spacecraft missions, and new definitions of planets now dominate the news. How can you take it all in? Start with the new Encyclopedia of the Solar System, Second Edition. This self-contained reference follows the trail blazed by the bestselling first edition. It provides a framework for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system, historical discoveries, and details about planetary bodies and how they interact—and has jumped light years ahead in terms of new information and visual impact. Offering more than 50% new material, the Encyclopedia includes the latest explorations and observations, hundreds of new color digital images and illustrations, and more than 1,000 pages. It stands alone as the definitive work in this field, and will serve as a modern messenger of scientific discovery and provide a look into the future of our solar system. · Forty-seven chapters from 75+ eminent authors review fundamental topics as well as new models, theories, and discussions · Each entry is detailed and scientifically rigorous, yet accessible to undergraduate students and amateur astronomers · More than 700 full-color digital images and diagrams from current space missions and observatories amplify the chapters · Thematic chapters provide up-to-date coverage, including a discussion on the new International Astronomical Union (IAU) vote on the definition of a planet · Information is easily accessible with numerous cross-references and a full glossary and index

The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System

The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System
Author : Michael M. Woolfson
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2000-01-01
Category : Science
Total pages :420
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The origin of the solar system has been a matter of speculation for many centuries, and since the time of Newton it has been possible to apply scientific principles to the problem. A succession of theories, starting with that of Pierre Laplace in 1796, has gained general acceptance, only to fall from favor due to its contradiction in some basic scientific principle or new heavenly observation. Modern observations by spacecraft of the solar system, the stars, and extra-solar planetary systems continuously provide new information that may be helpful in finding a plausible theory as well as present new constraints for any such theory to satisfy. The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System begins by describing historical (pre-1950) theories and illustrating why they became unacceptable. The main part of the book critically examines five extant theories, including the current paradigm, the solar nebula theory, to determine how well they fit with accepted scientific principles and observations. This analysis shows that the solar nebula theory satisfies the principles and observational constraints no better than its predecessors. The capture theory put forward by the author fares better and also indicates an initial scenario leading to a causal series of events that explain all the major features of the solar system.

An Introduction to the Solar System

An Introduction to the Solar System
Author : Philip A. Bland,Elaine A. Moore,Mike Widdowson
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2004-02-26
Category : Science
Total pages :412
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An elementary university text about the Solar System for introductory courses in planetary science.

Earth's Oldest Rocks

Earth's Oldest Rocks
Author : Martin J. van Kranendonk,Vickie Bennett,Hugh R.H. Smithies
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2007-10-26
Category : Science
Total pages :1330
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Earth’s Oldest Rocks provides a comprehensive overview of all aspects of early Earth, from planetary accretion through to development of protocratons with depleted lithospheric keels by c. 3.2 Ga, in a series of papers written by over 50 of the world's leading experts. The book is divided into two chapters on early Earth history, ten chapters on the geology of specific cratons, and two chapters on early Earth analogues and the tectonic framework of early Earth. Individual contributions address topics that range from planetary accretion, a review of Earth meteorites, significance and composition of Hadean protocrust, composition of Archaean mantle and deep crust, all aspects of the geology of Paleoarchean cratons, composition of Archean oceans and hydrothermal environments, evidence and geological settings of early life, early Earth analogues from Venus and New Zealand, and a tectonic framework for early Earth. * Contains comprehensive reviews of areas of ancient lithosphere on Earth, of planetary accretion processes, and of meteorites * Focuses on specific aspects of early Earth, including oldest putative life forms, evidence of the composition of the ancient atmosphere-hydrosphere, and the oldest evidence for subduction-accretion * Presents an overview of geological processes and model of the tectonic framework on early Earth

How to Build a Habitable Planet

How to Build a Habitable Planet
Author : Charles H. Langmuir,Wally Broecker
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release Date : 2012-07-22
Category : Science
Total pages :718
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Rev. and expanded ed. of: How to build a habitable planet / Wallace S. Broecker. 1985.

Radioactive and Stable Isotope Geology

Radioactive and Stable Isotope Geology
Author : H.-G. Attendorn,R. Bowen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :522
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Accelerating progress in the application of radioactive and stable isotope analysis to a varied range of geologicla and geochemical problems in geology has required a complete revision of Isotopes in the Earth Sciences, published in 1988. This new book comprises four parts: the first introduces isotopic chemistry and examines mass spectroscopic methods; the second eeals with radiometric dating methods. Part Three examines the importance of isotopes in climato-environmental studies, and increasingly significant area of research. The last part looks at extra-terrestrial matter, geothermometry and the isotopic geochemistry of the Earth's lithosphere. Post-graduate and post-doctoral researchers in geochemistry, as well as final year undergraduates in the earth and environmental sciences, will find Radioactive and Stable Isotope Geology an invaluable, uo-to-date and thorough treatment of the theory and practice of isotopie geology.

Cosmochemistry

Cosmochemistry
Author : Harry Y. McSween, Jr,Gary R. Huss
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2010-04-29
Category : Science
Total pages :129
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How did the Solar System's chemical composition evolve? This textbook provides the answers in the first interdisciplinary introduction to cosmochemistry. It makes this exciting and evolving field accessible to undergraduate and graduate students from a range of backgrounds, including geology, chemistry, astronomy and physics. The authors - two established leaders who have pioneered developments in the field - provide a complete background to cosmochemical processes and discoveries, enabling students outside geochemistry to understand and explore the Solar System's composition. Topics covered include: - synthesis of nuclides in stars - partitioning of elements between solids, liquids and gas in the solar nebula - overviews of the chemistry of extraterrestrial materials - isotopic tools used to investigate processes such as planet accretion and element fractionation - chronology of the early Solar System - geochemical exploration of planets Boxes provide basic definitions and mini-courses in mineralogy, organic chemistry, and other essential background information for students. Review questions and additional reading for each chapter encourage students to explore cosmochemistry further.

Radioactive Geochronometry

Radioactive Geochronometry
Author : Heinrich D Holland,Karl K. Turekian
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2010-09-30
Category : Science
Total pages :544
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The history of Earth in the Solar System has been unraveled using natural radioactivity. The sources of this radioactivity are the original creation of the elements and the subsequent bombardment of objects, including Earth, in the Solar System by cosmic rays. Both radioactive and radiogenic nuclides are harnessed to arrive at ages of various events and processes on Earth. This collection of chapters from the Treatise on Geochemistry displays the range of radioactive geochronometric studies that have been addressed by researchers in various fields of Earth science. These range from the age of Earth and the Solar System to the dating of the history of Earth that assists us in defining the major events in Earth history. In addition, the use of radioactive geochronometry in describing rates of Earth surface processes, including the climate history recorded in ocean sediments and the patterns of circulation of the fluid Earth, has extended the range of utility of radioactive isotopes as chronometric and tracer tools. Comprehensive, interdisciplinary and authoritative content selected by leading subject experts Robust illustrations, figures and tables Affordably priced sampling of content from the full Treatise on Geochemistry

Stable Isotope Geochemistry

Stable Isotope Geochemistry
Author : Jochen Hoefs
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-01-13
Category : Science
Total pages :285
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Stable Isotope Geochemistry is an introduction to the use of stable isotopes in the geosciences. It is subdivided into three parts: theoretical and experimental principles; fractionation processes of light and heavy elements; the natural variations of geologically important reservoirs. Since the application of stable isotopes to earth sciences has grown in the last few years, a new edition appears necessary. Recent progress in analysing the rare isotopes of certain elements for instance allow the distinction between mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionations. Special emphasis has been given to the growing field of "heavy" elements. Many new references have been added, which will enable quick access to recent literature. For students and scientists alike the book will be a primary source of information with regard to how and where stable isotopes can be used to solve geological problems.

Meteorites, Comets, and Planets

Meteorites, Comets, and Planets
Author : A.M. Davis
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2005-11-21
Category : Science
Total pages :756
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Volume 1 provides a broad overview of the chemistry of the solar system. It includes chapters on the origin of the elements and solar system abundances, the solar nebula and planet formation, meteorite classification, the major types of meteorites, important processes in early solar system history, geochemistry of the terrestrial planets, the giant planets and their satellite, comets, and the formation and early differentiation of the Earth. This volume is intended to be the first reference work one would consult to learn about the chemistry of the solar system. Reprinted individual volume from the acclaimed Treatise on Geochemistry (10 Volume Set, ISBN 0-08-043751-6, published in 2003)

Highlights of Astronomy

Highlights of Astronomy
Author : Derek McNally
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 1989-06-30
Category : Science
Total pages :720
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It is the customary practice to report the major events of a General Assembly -the Invited Discourses, Joint Discussions and Joint Commission Meetings in Highlights of Astronomy. Vol. 8 reports the highlights of the XXth General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, 1988 August 2-11, Baltimore, USA. The present volume contains the 3 Invited Discourses and papers presented at 7 Joint Discussion Meetings and 6 Joint Commission Meetings. Two Joint Commission Meetings will be reported elsewhere -JCM5 Spectroscopy of Individual Stars in Globular Clusters and the Early Chemical Evolution of our Galaxy (in summary only here, published by the Imprimerie de l'Observatoire de Paris) and JCM7 Star Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds (see Transactions of the IAU, Vol.XXB, report of Commission 37). I am most grateful to the authors of the invited discourses R.M. West and V.I. Moroz, M. Schmidt and M. Rees for sending me the manuscripts so promptly. I am also indebted to the Chairmen of the Joint Discussion and Joint Commission Meetings for their organisation of the meetings and for the assembly of their material for publication. Unfortunately the deadline for receipt of manuscripts coincided with an extended postal strike in France which seriously hindered the preparation of the volume for publication.

Composition and Origin of Cometary Materials

Composition and Origin of Cometary Materials
Author : K. Altwegg,P. Ehrenfreund,Johannes Geiss,W.F. Huebner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2000-01-31
Category : Science
Total pages :412
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Comet nuclei are the most primitive bodies in the solar system. They have been created far away from the early Sun and their material properties have been altered the least since their formation. Thus, the composition and structure of comet nuclei provide the best information about the chemical and thermodynamic conditions in the nebula from which our solar system formed. In this volume, cometary experts review a broad spectrum of ideas and conclusions based on in situ measurement of Comet Halley and remote sensing observations of the recent bright Comets Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake. The chemical character of comet nuclei suggests many close similarities with the composition of interstellar clouds. It also suggests material mixing from the inner solar nebula and challenges the importance of the accretion shock in the outer nebula. The book is intended to serve as a guide for researchers and graduate students working in the field of planetology and solar system exploration. Several special indexes focus the reader's attention to detailed results and discussions. It concludes with recommendations for laboratory investigations and for advanced modeling of comets, the solar nebula, and the collapse of interstellar clouds.