November 30, 2020

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Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation
Author : Cristina M. Alberini
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-03-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :334
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As little as 10 years ago, it was believed that memory went from short to long term via one consolidation practice that made that memory intractable. Since then, research has shown that long-term memories can be activated, modified, and reconsolidated in their new form. This research indicates that memories are more dynamic than once believed. And understanding how this process works and helping people to redefine established memories can be clinically useful if those memories lead to problems, as is the case in post-traumatic stress disorder. This book provides a comprehensive overview of research on memory reconsolidation; what this has to say about the formation, storage, and changeability of memory; and the potential applications of this research to treating clinical disorders. Presents both neuroscience and psychological research on memory reconsolidation Discusses what findings mean for understanding memory formation, storage, and retrieval Includes treatment applications of these findings

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation
Author : Michelle H. Lonergan,Alain Brunet,Lening A. Olivera-Figueroa,Roger K. Pitman
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-03-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :334
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Background: Considering the pivotal role of negative emotional experiences in the development and persistence of mental disorders, effectively interfering with the consolidation/reconsolidation of such experiences would open the door to a novel treatment approach in psychiatry. Objective: We assessed the current evidence regarding the capacity of the β-blocker propranolol to block the consolidation/reconsolidation of emotional memories by means of a meta-analytic review. Data sources: An extensive multilingual literature search from 1994 to 2011 yielded 189 potential articles. Study selection: Selected studies consisted of randomized, double-blind experiments assessing long-term memory for emotional material in adults and involving at least one propranolol and one placebo condition. Of 189 potential studies, 13 consolidation ( n = 310) and 9 reconsolidation ( n = 327) experiments with adults met inclusion criteria for statistical analysis. Data extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted outcome and descriptive data from each study. Effect sizes were calculated using a random effects model. Data synthesis: Compared to placebo, propranolol given before memory consolidation reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced stories, pictures, word lists, and the expression of cue-elicited fear responses: Hedge’s g = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.22–0.72. Moreover, compared to placebo, propranolol before memory reconsolidation reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced emotional words, as well as the expression of cue-elicited fear responses, g = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.16–1.01. Splitting the results according to episodic retention and physiological responding did not yield a significant difference in effect size for consolidation or reconsolidation blockade. Removing the clinical studies from the larger group of nonclinical studies did not impact the statistical significance of the results either. Conclusions: Propranolol shows promise in reducing subsequent memory for new or recalled emotional material in healthy subjects. Studies of clinical populations, however, have yet to independently demonstrate that such findings can translate into powerful clinical effects.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation
Author : Jacek Dębiec,Joseph E. LeDoux
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-03-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :334
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The ability to learn about adverse events has a special significance for survival. A body of work established the key role of the amygdala in acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of defense (fear) responses that protect the organism in the presence of learned threats. More than a decade ago, our lab showed that exposure to a learned threat, leading to the retrieval or reactivation of the memory, leads to a reconsolidation (re-storage) of the memory in the amygdala. This finding reinvigorated interest in the role of memory retrieval in memory stability and change. In this chapter, we summarize research on the role of the amygdala in defense learning and memory and then discuss memory reconsolidation in the amygdala and its theoretical and clinical implications.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation
Author : Elizabeth A. Phelps,Daniela Schiller
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-03-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :334
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This chapter provides a comprehensive review of research on reconsolidation in humans to date. It examines the different techniques that have been used to explore memory reconsolidation in humans and highlights some of the unique challenges that arise when investigating reconsolidation in human participants. Through this survey of existing studies, we explore some of the reasons why this science has been slow to emerge, and we suggest some potential avenues for future research.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation
Author : Karim Nader
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-03-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :334
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Research on reconsolidation has demonstrated that consolidated memories may again enter states of transient instability following reactivation from which they must restabilize in order to persist, contradicting the previously dominant view describing memory and its associated plasticity mechanisms as progressively and irreversibly declining with time. We are now witness to an exciting time as diverse fields begin embracing a position, long-held in cognitive psychology, that recognizes memory as a principally dynamic process. This chapter discusses the history of this exciting field, which has been “discovered” twice. Today, there has been an explosion of research on the topic and demonstrations of reconsolidation across species, behavioral tasks, and amnesic treatments.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation
Author : Almut Hupbach,Rebecca Gomez,Lynn Nadel
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-03-18
Category : Psychology
Total pages :334
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In contrast to the study of memory reconsolidation in animals, research in humans is still in the early stages. This reflects the challenge to directly target memory reconsolidation without the use of pharmacological interventions that are often not safe for humans. Most studies therefore use paradigms in which new material is presented soon after memory reactivation. These studies show that human memories can be modified contingent upon their reactivation. Specifically, the novel material leads to interference in the original memories. This chapter reviews research on episodic memory reconsolidation that uses this approach in an object-learning paradigm. Learning a new set of objects after reactivation of a previous object-set memory causes the new objects to become integrated into the reactivated memory. We present studies that assess different types of reminders and the effects of memory strength and time delays, and we evaluate different theoretical accounts of our findings.

Memory Reconsolidation Applied

Memory Reconsolidation Applied
Author : Lars Clausen
Publisher : CreateSpace
Release Date : 2015-05-01
Category :
Total pages :188
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Is your fight/flight/freeze stress response triggering from long ago events? What if you could calm your past to live a better future? In Memory Reconsolidation Applied, you'll discover how to turn off your stress response and live calm. Memory Reconsolidation Applied shares the science of using Memory Reconsolidation for emotional relief and physical well-being. Discover how the brain can permanently replace stored upsets with emotions of calm. Learn the simple ICE Method which has helped hundreds of people bring calm to past memories. Read the stories of people who applied Memory Reconsolidation and found relief from PTSD, anxiety, emotional distress, and even chronic physical pain.

Computational Explorations of Memory Consolidation, Memory Reconsolidation, and Related Phenomena

Computational Explorations of Memory Consolidation, Memory Reconsolidation, and Related Phenomena
Author : Peter Helfer
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category :
Total pages :129
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"The term memory consolidation is used to describe two different groups of phenomena, on the one hand a family of fast intra-cellular processes believed to stabilize new memory traces, and on the other hand larger-scale and slower processes whereby new memory traces, initially hippocampus-dependent, are reorganized and gradually become independent of the hippocampus. To avoid confusion, the former type is referred to as synaptic consolidation and the latter as systems consolidation. A related term, memory reconsolidation, refers to a temporary instability that memories undergo after retrieval. Like consolidation, reconsolidation has also been observed at both the synaptic and the systems level. An enormous effort has been channeled into understanding these phenomena, and a large volume of data has been collected. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood and different explanations have been suggested for many findings. In this dissertation I present two computational models designed to investigate proposed mechanisms of memory consolidation and reconsolidation. The first model concerns mechanisms at the synaptic level and the second addresses systems consolidation and reconsolidation. Both models incorporate mechanisms inspired by recent neuroscience discoveries, allowing them to capture findings not covered by previously published works. Predictions are derived from the models, suggesting experiments that may test their correctness"--

Unlocking the Emotional Brain

Unlocking the Emotional Brain
Author : Bruce Ecker,Robin Ticic,Laurel Hulley
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2012-10-12
Category : Psychology
Total pages :264
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Psychotherapy that regularly yields liberating, lasting change was, in the last century, a futuristic vision, but it has now become reality, thanks to a convergence of remarkable advances in clinical knowledge and brain science. In Unlocking the Emotional Brain, authors Ecker, Ticic and Hulley equip readers to carry out focused, empathic therapy using the process found by researchers to induce memory reconsolidation, the recently discovered and only known process for actually unlocking emotional memory at the synaptic level. Emotional memory's tenacity is the familiar bane of therapists, and researchers have long believed that emotional memory forms indelible learning. Reconsolidation has overturned these views. It allows new learning to erase, not just suppress, the deep, unconscious, intensely problematic emotional learnings that form during childhood or in later tribulations and generate most of the symptoms that bring people to therapy. Readers will learn methods that precisely eliminate unwanted, ingrained emotional responses—whether moods, behaviors or thought patterns—causing no loss of ordinary narrative memory, while restoring clients' well-being. Numerous case examples show the versatile use of this process in AEDP, Coherence Therapy, EFT, EMDR and IPNB.

Memory Reconsolidation in Psychotherapy

Memory Reconsolidation in Psychotherapy
Author : Bruce Ecker,Robin Ticic,Elise Kushner,Kymberly Lasser,Ricky Greenwald
Publisher : CreateSpace
Release Date : 2015-01-21
Category : Psychology
Total pages :184
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Memory reconsolidation (MR)—a foundational process with the potential, if properly understood, to consistently bring about the kind of transformational change that we look for in the lives of clients—is the subject of this book. Featured in this issue is Bruce Ecker, one of the foremost experts in applying techniques that fulfil the neurobiological requirements to achieve MR in clinical practice. In fact all of the authors in this issue are experts in their respective fields, demonstrating the unifying nature of MR in such diverse therapies as the Alexander technique, energy psychology, neuro-linguistic programming, and progressive counting. Understanding the biological basis of our memory and how it can be modified is the key to effective therapeutic change, especially when emotional memories are driving unwanted symptoms.The content of this special issue has been previously published in The Neuropsychotherapist or the International Journal of Neuropsychotherapy.

Rethinking Trauma Treatment: Attachment, Memory Reconsolidation, and Resilience

Rethinking Trauma Treatment: Attachment, Memory Reconsolidation, and Resilience
Author : Courtney Armstrong
Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
Release Date : 2019-06-25
Category : Psychology
Total pages :288
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Creating safety, hope, and secure attachment to transform traumatic memories. What makes trauma therapy effective? The answers might surprise you. While therapists have been bombarded with brain science, hundreds of new models, and pressure to use evidence-based techniques, research has demonstrated that the therapeutic relationship ultimately predicts therapy outcomes. This is especially true for traumatized clients. But, what kind of therapeutic relationship? Forming a secure therapeutic alliance with traumatized clients is tricky. How do you help clients trust you after they’ve been abused, betrayed, or exploited? How do you instill hope and convince clients who’ve been devastated by loss to believe that a better life is possible? In this accessible guide, Courtney Armstrong distills discoveries from attachment theory, brain science, and post-traumatic growth into practical strategies you can use to: 1) build trust and a secure therapeutic relationship; 2) transform traumatic memories into stories of triumph and courage; and 3) help clients cultivate resilience and a positive post-trauma identity. Packed with dozens of scripts, step-by-step worksheets, and inspiring client stories, this book gives you tools for each phase of the trauma therapy process and shows you how to: Engage and motivate clients based on their attachment style Manage trauma-related dissociation, anxiety, and anger Transform traumatic memories so they no longer haunt your client Work with different types of trauma, from sexual abuse to traumatic grief Evoke inner resources for healing and positive emotional states Counter compassion fatigue and burnout so youcan thrive as a therapist Merely talking about a traumatic event is not enough because the parts of the brain where traumatic, implicit memories are stored don’t understand words. Heartfelt, relational experiences catalyze brain change and buffer the impact of trauma. In this book, Armstrong demonstrates that neuroscience is validating what therapists have suspected all along: the brain changes through the heart.

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation
Author : Nikolai Axmacher,Björn Rasch
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-02-09
Category : Psychology
Total pages :417
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This edited volume provides an overview the state-of-the-art in the field of cognitive neuroscience of memory consolidation. In a number of sections, the editors collect contributions of leading researchers . The topical focus lies on current issues of interest such as memory consolidation including working and long-term memory. In particular, the role of sleep in relation to memory consolidation will be addressed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

Reducing Intrusive Memories of Real-world Stimuli Via Memory Reconsolidation

Reducing Intrusive Memories of Real-world Stimuli Via Memory Reconsolidation
Author : Elizabeth H. Marks
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :162
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After a distressing event, intrusive memories often persist and, for some, become pathological and debilitating (e.g., Brewin et al., 2010). Methods that enhance extinction learning may translate to improved exposure-based interventions that target intrusive memories. One possible opportunity for enhancing extinction is through memory reconsolidation (Nader, Schafe, & LeDoux, 2000; Monfils, Cowsanage, Klann, & LeDoux, 2009; Schiller et al., 2010). A retrieved memory reactivated by conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation is thought to enter a labile state as proteins are synthesized, and the effects of new learning that occurs within the reconsolidation window (about 10 min to 6 hrs post-retrieval) is more robust (e.g., Nader et al., 2000). To date, memory reconsolidation reseach in humans has been limited by fear learning paradigms that lack ecological validity (e.g., Elsey & Kindt, 2017), and parameters of boundary conditions (e.g., memory strength, retrieval cue specificity, prediction error) remain unclear (e.g., Treanor, Brown, Rissman, & Craske, 2017). In a two-study sequence, both behavioral and biological mechanisms underlying memory reconsolidation were examined, first in a non-clinical sample, and then in a sample of trauma-exposed individuals with and without current trauma-related intrusive memories. We used the film fear learning paradigm in order to elicit and then reduce film-related intrusive memories. Neutral and negative cues were used to explore differences in cue valence, given that previously, a negative CS retrieval cue elicited higher distress and more intrusive memories than non-retrieval conditions (Marks & Zoellner, 2014). Timing of cues were varied to examine any enhanced effects of extinction within the reconsolidation window. In Study 1, participants (N = 173) were randomized to one of four CS cueing conditions: Pre Neutral CS, Pre Negative CS, or Pre Scrambled cue, presented 10 min prior to extinction, or Delayed Neutral CS presented 10 min after extinction. Intrusive memories were assessed 24 hr and 72 hr after acquisition. There were no differences in intrusive memory frequency or distress 72 hr after acquisition between participants in the Pre Neutral and Pre Negative cue conditions, nor were there differences between the Pre Neutral and Pre Delayed conditions. Larger increases in sAA during acquisition, b = .23, and larger increases in cortisol and sAA together, b = .25, during acquisition predicted higher intrusive memory frequency 72 hr after acquisition. Larger cortisol increase, b = .28, and sAA increase, b = .25, during extinction also predicted intrusive memories 72 hr after acquisition, and a larger increase in sAA, b = .27, also predicted higher intrusive memory distress 72 hr after acquisition. Negative affect after acquisition predicted intrusive memory frequency and distress 72 hr after acquisition, b = .35 and b = .44 respectively. Boundary conditions of reconsolidation as they relate to more ecologically valid stimuli and intrusive memories remain elusive. Study 2 sought to extend this work to a clinical sample, characterized by persistent intrusive memories, and to better understand the specific type of new learning during extinction that may be required to initiate reconsolidation. Importantly, intrusive memories are a transdiagnostic construct present in a range of psychopathology (e.g., Brewin et al., 2010). Participants (N = 14) in the PTSD/MDD (n = 11) and control (n = 3) groups were randomized to one of three extinction conditions: an image extinction condition, where a brief 20 sec film segment that preceded the analogue trauma during acquisition is presented repeatedly in the absence of the analogue trauma, and a film extinction condition, where the acquisition segment is shown repeatedly, and an assessment only control condition, where participants do not engage in any kind of extinction procedure. All data from this study is preliminary. Patterns of intrusive memories 72 hr after acquisition suggest that, though intrusive memory frequency did not decrease d = 0.08, related distress did decrease, d = 0.85. Participants in the PTSD/MDD group reported more intrusive memories than the control group both 24 hr (d = 1.12) and 72 hr (d = 0.54) after acquisition. Intrusive memory frequency decreased in the assessment only (d = 0.89) but not in the extinction conditions 72 hr after acquisition (d = 0.07), but patterns of distress reduction from 24 to 72 hr post-acquisition appeared similar across conditions. Parameters of reconsolidation boundary conditions when more complex, ecologically valid stimuli and outcome measures are used remain unclear; neither cue valence nor timing of retrieval cue affected intrusive memories after extinction. Glucocorticoid and noradrenergic system activity predicted intrusive memories, illustrating the importance of these two systems in strengthening emotional memory. As efforts to push reconsolidation toward clinical settings continue, preliminary findings from Study 2 highlight the importance of capturing distressing and persistent intrusive memories and determining whether these intrusive memories are amenable to enhanced extinction, as these are the kinds of intrusive re-experiencing representative of psychopathology that are often missed in experimental paradigms.

Exam Prep for: Memory Reconsolidation

Exam Prep for: Memory Reconsolidation
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Neural Plasticity and Memory

Neural Plasticity and Memory
Author : Federico Bermudez-Rattoni
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2007-04-17
Category : Science
Total pages :368
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A comprehensive, multidisciplinary review, Neural Plasticity and Memory: From Genes to Brain Imaging provides an in-depth, up-to-date analysis of the study of the neurobiology of memory. Leading specialists share their scientific experience in the field, covering a wide range of topics where molecular, genetic, behavioral, and brain imaging techniques have been used to investigate how cellular and brain circuits may be modified by experience. In each chapter, researchers present findings and explain their innovative methodologies. The book begins by introducing key issues and providing a historical overview of the field of memory consolidation. The following chapters review the putative genetic and molecular mechanisms of cell plasticity, elaborating on how experience could induce gene and protein expression and describing their role in synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation. They explore how putative modifications of brain circuits and synaptic elements through experience can become relatively permanent and hence improve brain function. Interdisciplinary reviews focus on how nerve cell circuitry, molecular expression, neurotransmitter release, and electrical activity are modified during the acquisition and consolidation of long-term memory. The book also covers receptor activation/deactivation by different neurotransmitters that enable the intracellular activation of second messengers during memory formation. It concludes with a summary of current research on the modulation and regulation that different neurotransmitters and stress hormones have on formation and consolidation of memory.