November 28, 2020

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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes
Author : Yaoliang Tang,Buddhadeb Dawn
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-09-02
Category : Medical
Total pages :288
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Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes are at the forefront of research in two of the most high profile and funded scientific areas – cardiovascular research and stem cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes provides insight into the biofunction and molecular mechanisms, practical tools for research, and a look toward the clinical applications of this exciting phenomenon which is emerging as an effective diagnostic. Primarily focused on the cardiovascular applications where there have been the greatest advancements toward the clinic, this is the first compendium for clinical and biomedical researchers who are interested in integrating MSC-derived exosomes as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Introduces the MSC-exosome mediated cell-cell communication Covers the major functional benefits in current MSC-derived exosome studies Discusses strategies for the use of MSC-derived exosomes in cardiovascular therapies

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes
Author : Yaoliang Tang,Buddhadeb Dawn
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-09-01
Category :
Total pages :288
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Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes are at the forefront of research in two of the most high profile and funded scientific areas - cardiovascular research and stem cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes provides insight into the biofunction and molecular mechanisms, practical tools for research, and a look toward the clinical applications of this exciting phenomenon which is emerging as an effective diagnostic. Primarily focused on the cardiovascular applications where there have been the greatest advancements toward the clinic, this is the first compendium for clinical and biomedical researchers who are interested in integrating MSC-derived exosomes as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Introduces the MSC-exosome mediated cell-cell communication Covers the major functional benefits in current MSC-derived exosome studies Discusses strategies for the use of MSC-derived exosomes in cardiovascular therapies

Regenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes

Regenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes
Author : Andrew P. Wong
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category :
Total pages :129
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Bone defects are a pervasive complication arising from many clinical conditions, both mechanical and pathological. Current treatments for large bony defects focus on applying bone grafts or synthetic materials to the defect area. Cell-based-and especially stem-cell-therapies have advanced greatly thanks to increasing attention focused on their ability to generate new tissues in situ with biomechanical properties approaching that of native tissue, but they suffer from their own shortcomings as well. Exosomes have been shown to play critical roles in cell-signaling and tissue regeneration and are therefore potentially ideal therapeutic vehicles for treating bone defects. Exosomes are small microvesicles counted amongst stem cells' paracrine factors capable of delivering nucleic acid and enzymatic protein cargoes in a targeted 2 manner. Our previous studies have shown that hM. S.C-Exosomes are both proliferative and chemotactic, inhibit inflammatory cytokine production, and suppress osteoclast differentiation. Our long term goal is to develop hMSC-Exosome as a clinical therapy for bone regeneration. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of hMSC-Exosome to enhance bone healing in a rat calvarial defect model, and to further investigate the integrity of the exosome under certain storage conditions. The specific aims of this study were: 1) To determine the osteogenic potential of hMSC-Exosomes in rat calvarial defects, and 2) To determine the impact of variable storage conditions on the integrity of exosomes. To investigate in vivo regenerative potential, rats with surgically-created craniotomy defects were treated with hMSC-Exosome suspension via a collagen gel matrix. After 4 weeks, the calvaria were harvested and analyzed via micro-CT. Volumetric micro-CT analysis showed that hMSC-Exosome could significantly enhance center healing, structural integrity, and growth uniformity in a calvarial defect model. Western blot and TEM showed thorough destruction of surface protein markers and decreased membrane integrity in lyophilized exosome fraction; moderate progressive surface protein marker loss and aggregation were observed with increasing freeze-thaw cycles. In summary, hMSC-Exosome is a promising therapeutic for treatment of bone defects.

Exam Prep for: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes; The ...

Exam Prep for: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Exosomes; The ...
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Lung Disease

Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Lung Disease
Author : Janette K. Burgess,Irene H. Heijink
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-11-23
Category : Science
Total pages :259
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This book presents state-of-the-art pre-clinical models and clinical applications of stem-cell-based therapies applied to different lung diseases, with a special focus on the translation of bench data into clinical studies. Starting with the assumption that abnormal lung tissue repair and regeneration has emerged as the driving force underlying pathogenesis and progression in many lung diseases, it sheds new light on the potential of stem/stromal cells as drivers of repair and sources of reparative factors in the lung. The first part of the book offers an overview of stem cell types and mechanisms involved in lung development, homeostasis, repair and regeneration, and reveals the crucial role of the extracellular matrix within the lung microenvironment. In the second part, leading experts present the latest pre-clinical evidence and clinical applications of stem-cell-based therapies in a wide variety of lung diseases, ranging from COPD and lung fibrosis to other rare lung diseases. The last section discusses stem cell delivery systems and devices, such as aerosolised spray application. This book appeals to pneumologists, stem cell and matrix biologists, as well as bioengeneers with a special interest in regenerative medicine applied to pulmonary diseases.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-derived Exosomes Ameliorate Disease in a Model of Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-derived Exosomes Ameliorate Disease in a Model of Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis
Author : Oliver Yuan
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :129
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease that results in neurological disability. There are now 15 medications approved to treat relapsing-remitting MS, however, none of the available therapies halts disease progression or directly reverses central nervous system damage. The two salient features of MS pathology involve an over-activation of the inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS) and auto-antibody targeting of the myelin sheath that insulates axons. Remyelination in MS does not occur due to the lack of differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelin-secreting mature oligodendrocytes. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (mExo) are small extracellular vesicles secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are capable of recapitulating many of the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of MSCs with a potentially simplified path to commercialization. Here we demonstrate that mExo significantly reduces the inflammatory response of lymphocytes, potentiates upregulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and induces OPC maturation. mExo significantly reduced symptoms in a murine model of relapsing-remitting MS, and increased Treg engraftment. These data indicate that mExo warrant further preclinical investigation as a regenerative therapy for the future treatment of MS.

Exosomes, Stem Cells and MicroRNA

Exosomes, Stem Cells and MicroRNA
Author : Karl L. Mettinger,Pranela Rameshwar,Vinod Kumar
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-04-07
Category : Science
Total pages :152
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This volume provides insight into the pivotal roles of stem cells, exosomes and other microvesicles in biofunction and molecular mechanisms and their therapeutic potential in translational nanomedicine. It further highlights evidence from recent studies as to how stem cell derived exosomes and microRNAs may restore and maintain tissue homeostasis, enable cells to recover critical cellular functions and begin repair regeneration. These early studies in animal models of aging also show evidence of improved immune, cardiovascular and cognitive functions as well as improved health span and life span. The use of exosomes from body fluids to define specific biomarkers for various tumors may also clear the path to patient-targeted treatments by developing exosome-derived microRNA based cancer therapeutics. It is essential reading for graduate students, research fellow and biomedical researchers in academia or the pharmaceutical or biotech industries.

Regulatory microRNA

Regulatory microRNA
Author : Y-h. Taguchi,Hsiuying Wang
Publisher : MDPI
Release Date : 2019-04-16
Category : Science
Total pages :348
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This book includes updated information about microRNA regulation, for example, in the fields of circular RNAs, multiomics analysis, biomarkers and oncogenes. The variety of topics included in this book reaffirms the extent to which microRNA regulation affects biological processes. Although microRNAs are not translated to proteins, their importance for biological processes is not less than proteins. An understanding of their roles in various biological processes is critical to understanding gene function in these biological processes. Although non-coding RNAs other than microRNAs have recently come under investigation, microRNA still remains the front runner as the subject of genetic and biological studies. In reading the collection of papers, readers can grasp the most updated information regarding microRNA regulation, which will continue to be an important topic in genetics and biology.

Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics

Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics
Author : Babak Arjmand
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-11-14
Category : Science
Total pages :199
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This book provides thorough coverage of high-throughput OMICs technologies for the monitoring of stem cells and regenerative medicine. Specific topics covered include the genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics aspects of regenerative medicine, metabolic profiling of mesenchymal stem cells, genome profiling of mesenchymal stem cells, OMICs monitoring of stem cell-derived exosomes, stem cell proteomics, lipidomics, OMICs profiling of cancer (stem) cells, and finally ethical considerations of OMICs-based investigations. Chapters are authored by world-renowned scientists who have valuable expertise in the field of OMICs and regenerative medicine. Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics: Stem Cells Monitoring in Regenerative Medicine, part of Springer’s Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series, is essential reading for researchers, clinicians, biologists, biochemists, and pharmaceutical experts conducting research in the fields of stem cell biology, molecular aspects of stem cell research, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, cellular therapy, OMICs, bioinformatics, and ethics.

Exosomes in Cardiovascular Diseases

Exosomes in Cardiovascular Diseases
Author : Junjie Xiao,Sanda Cretoiu
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-09-19
Category : Science
Total pages :307
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The book provides and intensive overview on exosomes in cardiovascular diseases, its potential as biomarkers, as well as pathological and therapeutic effects. It firstly describes the general aspects of exosomes including the definition, formation and secretion of exosomes and highlight their roles as biomarkers and pathological and therapeutic effects in cardiovascular diseases as well. Secondly, basic aspects of exosomes including the purification methods of exosomes, exosomes content, and functional roles of the cardiovascular exosomes are summarized. Thirdly, exosomes as biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases are overviewed including their roles in diagnosis, prognosis and reaction to therapy. Fourthly, pathological effects of exosomes and therapeutic effects of exosomes are highlighted. Finally, future prospects of exosomes in cardiovascular research would be provided. This is an essential reference for researchers working in cell biology and regeneration, as well as clinicians such as cardiologist.

Stem Cell Drugs - A New Generation of Biopharmaceuticals

Stem Cell Drugs - A New Generation of Biopharmaceuticals
Author : Phuc Van Pham
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-10-25
Category : Science
Total pages :157
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This invaluable resource discusses the current revolution in stem cell-based drugs and their potential use in clinical applications. Each chapter is contributed by a pre-eminent scientist in the field. An introductory section presents current stem cell drugs and stem cell-based products and a discussion of production, quality control, mechanisms, and efficacy. Following sections include discussions on stem cell-derived microvesicles based products, and derived exosomes based products. Stem Cell Drugs - A New Generation of Biopharmaceuticals and the other books in the Stem Cells in Clinical Applications series are invaluable to scientists, researchers, advanced students and clinicians working in stem cells, regenerative medicine or tissue engineering. This groundbreaking volume is also essential reading for those researching or studying drug development or pharmaceutical science.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy
Author : Lucas G. Chase,Mohan C Vemuri
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-12
Category : Science
Total pages :456
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Over the past decade, significant efforts have been made to develop stem cell-based therapies for difficult to treat diseases. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), appear to hold great promise in regards to a regenerative cell-based therapy for the treatment of these diseases. Currently, more than 200 clinical trials are underway worldwide exploring the use of MSCs for the treatment of a wide range of disorders including bone, cartilage and tendon damage, myocardial infarction, graft-versus-host disease, Crohn’s disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, critical limb ischemia and many others. MSCs were first identified by Friendenstein and colleagues as an adherent stromal cell population within the bone marrow with the ability to form clonogenic colonies in vitro. In regards to the basic biology associated with MSCs, there has been tremendous progress towards understanding this cell population’s phenotype and function from a range of tissue sources. Despite enormous progress and an overall increased understanding of MSCs at the molecular and cellular level, several critical questions remain to be answered in regards to the use of these cells in therapeutic applications. Clinically, both autologous and allogenic approaches for the transplantation of MSCs are being explored. Several of the processing steps needed for the clinical application of MSCs, including isolation from various tissues, scalable in vitro expansion, cell banking, dose preparation, quality control parameters, delivery methods and numerous others are being extensively studied. Despite a significant number of ongoing clinical trials, none of the current therapeutic approaches have, at this point, become a standard of care treatment. Although exceptionally promising, the clinical translation of MSC-based therapies is still a work in progress. The extensive number of ongoing clinical trials is expected to provide a clearer path forward for the realization and implementation of MSCs in regenerative medicine. Towards this end, reviews of current clinical trial results and discussions of relevant topics association with the clinical application of MSCs are compiled in this book from some of the leading researchers in this exciting and rapidly advancing field. Although not absolutely all-inclusive, we hope the chapters within this book can promote and enable a better understanding of the translation of MSCs from bench-to-bedside and inspire researchers to further explore this promising and quickly evolving field.

Perinatal Stem Cells

Perinatal Stem Cells
Author : Zhong Chao Han,Tsuneo A. Takahashi,Zhibo Han,Zongjin Li
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2019-04-06
Category : Health & Fitness
Total pages :173
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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to various types of perinatal stem cells. Given their unique regenerative abilities, stem cells offer a promising avenue in the treatment of degenerative diseases or injury. Currently, the limitations of postnatal cell sources and expanding efficiency may limit autologous stem cell therapies. Although embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be cultured indefinitely ex vivo, and can differentiate into three germ layers, ethical issues, the teratoma formation of ESCs and oncogenic risk of iPSCs are major obstacles to their clinical application. More recently, perinatal stem cells have been isolated from the umbilical cord, Wharton’s Jelly, placenta, amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid, which are normally discarded as medical waste. This book, after describing perinatal stem cells in detail, introduces readers to the various types of perinatal stem cells, addressing their characterization, banking, quality control and stability. Importantly, it also reviews the clinical applications of perinatal stem cells to therapy of diseases. Accordingly, it offers a valuable resource for clinicians, researchers and graduate students alike.

Cardiac Regeneration

Cardiac Regeneration
Author : Masaki Ieda,Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-10-27
Category : Medical
Total pages :274
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This Volume of the series Cardiac and Vascular Biology offers a comprehensive and exciting, state-of-the-art work on the current options and potentials of cardiac regeneration and repair. Several techniques and approaches have been developed for heart failure repair: direct injection of cells, programming of scar tissue into functional myocardium, and tissue-engineered heart muscle support. The book introduces the rationale for these different approaches in cell-based heart regeneration and discusses the most important considerations for clinical translation. Expert authors discuss when, why, and how heart muscle can be salvaged. The book represents a valuable resource for stem cell researchers, cardiologists, bioengineers, and biomedical scientists studying cardiac function and regeneration.

0410 - Effect of Combined Platelet-Rich Plasma and Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes on Chondrocyte Gene Expression

0410 - Effect of Combined Platelet-Rich Plasma and Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes on Chondrocyte Gene Expression
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category :
Total pages :129
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INTRODUCTION: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serve as two of the most popular potential therapies to enhance cartilage regeneration. Platelets contain alpha granules that house a plethora of growth factors, cytokines, and other molecules that may potentiate tissue healing. Some studies posit that MSCs exert regenerative effects via paracrine signaling [1] which may be mediated by exosomes. Defined as extracellular vesicles released from the fusion of a cytosolic multivesicular body with the cell membrane, exosomes have been implicated in intracellular communication and molecular transport [2]. Early evidence suggests that MSC-derived exosomes possess chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties [3]. Similarly, PRP has been shown to increase chondrocyte proliferation and gene expression indicative of extracellular matrix (ECM) production [4]. However, no studies have examined the concomitant effects of PRP and MSC-derived exosomes on chondrocyte gene expression in both a neutral and inflammatory environment. It was hypothesized that chondrocytes cultured in a combination of PRP and exosomes would demonstrate enhanced gene expression suggestive of ECM synthesis and decreased inflammation than chondrocytes grown with PRP or exosomes in isolation.METHODS: Articular chondrocytes were harvested from articular surfaces of bovine ankle joints and cultured in DMEM-F12 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic (AA) solution. MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured in low-glucose DMEM medium with 15% FBS and 1% AA. Both cell lines were incubated with 5% CO2 at 37u00b0C. PRP was obtained from one healthy donor using a Regen PRP kit. Following a previously published protocol [5], exosomes were obtained from MSCs as a 100K pellet. Chondrocytes were seeded at 50,000 cells/well into 24-well plates. They were partitioned into one control (media only) and five experimental conditions: exosomes alone (Exo), 1% unactivated PRP (1u), 5u, combined exosomes and 1% uPRP (Exo1), and Exo5. Exosomes were added to the appropriate treatment groups at a concentration of 10 u03bcg/ml. All conditions were further allocated into one of two environments: with or without IL-1u03b2 (10 ng/ml) to simulate an osteoarthritic or neutral environment respectively. Following 1 and 3 days, RNA was harvested, isolated, and reverse transcribed into cDNA. Quantitative RT-PCR was then performed (n = 3 per condition), using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as the endogenous control, for the following target genes: aggrecan (ACAN), sex-determining region Y box 9 (SOX9), alpha-1 chain of type I collagen (Col1), alpha-1 chain of type II collagen (Col2), and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The data were analyzed according to the 2-u0394u0394CT method. Because significant deviations from normality were observed, within-day comparisons across conditions and within-condition comparisons across days were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Conover-Iman post hoc tests. Due to the large number of comparisons performed, the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure was employed to control the false discovery rate. Significance was determined if p