November 26, 2020

Download Ebook Free Metabolic Syndrome And Psychiatric Illness

Metabolic Syndrome and Psychiatric Illness: Interactions, Pathophysiology, Assessment and Treatment

Metabolic Syndrome and Psychiatric Illness: Interactions, Pathophysiology, Assessment and Treatment
Author : Scott D Mendelson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2007-12-19
Category : Psychology
Total pages :224
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Metabolic syndrome is a set of risk factors that includes: abdominal obesity, a decreased ability to process glucose (insulin resistance), dyslipidemia (unhealthy lipid levels), and hypertension. Patients who have this syndrome have been shown to be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome is a common condition that goes by many names (dysmetabolic syndrome, syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, obesity syndrome, and Reaven's syndrome). This is the first book to fully explain the relationships between psychiatric illness, Metabolic Syndrome, diet, sleep, exercise, medications, and lifestyle choices. Metabolic Syndrome is a major risk factor in Major Depression, Alzheimer's Disease, Sleep Disorders, Sexual Dysfunction, Fibromyalgia, and several other illnesses of psychiatric significance. Conversely, some psychiatric illnesses tend to predispose patients to Metabolic Syndrome. Of further interest is the fact that some of the medications used in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses have been found to cause or exacerbate Metabolic Syndrome. The author here provides basic information about what genetic predispositions, medical conditions, and lifestyle choices make Metabolic Syndrome more likely to occur. Among the contributing factors that are discussed are genetics, habitual intake of high glycemic index carbohydrates, fructose, saturated fats, trans fatty acids, vitamins, micronutrients, obesity, smoking, and lack of exercise. The author describes the actual mechanisms by which Metabolic Syndrome progresses and causes damage in the body, including the action of insulin and the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. Details are provided on what occurs in the liver, pancreas, muscle, fat cells, and immune system as Metabolic Syndrome progresses. New findings are presented on fat cells, including the fact that they are beginning to be considered as endocrine cells. There is a substantive discussion of leptin, which is one of the important adipocytokines. Also carbohydrate, 'bad fats', inflammation, oxidative damage, over-stimulation of the 'fight or flight' system, and high levels of the stress hormone cortisol can actually cause the manifestations of Metabolic Syndrome. These explanations set the stage for an explanation of the inter-relationships between Metabolic Syndrome, psychiatric illness, dementia and effects of not only diet and life choices, but also the effects of psychiatric medications. Finally, there is an important and unique section on the relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and various psychiatric illnesses, and how they exacerbate each other. The significance of Metabolic Syndrome in Major Depression, Bipolar Affective Disorder, Schizophrenia, fibromyalgia and Polycystic Ovary Disease is vast and it is important to realise the effects of psychiatric medications on Metabolic Syndrome. The author discusses antidepressants, mood stabilizers and the new atypical antipsychotics. There are dramatic differences among medications in the way they affect Metabolic Syndrome and pharmaceutical companies will want to promote patient awareness with this book.

Brain-Metabolic Crossroads in Severe Mental Disorders – Focus on Metabolic Syndrome

Brain-Metabolic Crossroads in Severe Mental Disorders – Focus on Metabolic Syndrome
Author : Virginio Salvi,Tomas Hajek
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2019-10-23
Category :
Total pages :97
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Metabolic Effects of Psychotropic Drugs

Metabolic Effects of Psychotropic Drugs
Author : Jogin H. Thakore,B. E. Leonard
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release Date : 2009-01-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :133
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Major depression and bipolar disorder are chronic enduring serious mental illnesses (SMI) with devastating effects on psychosocial functioning and may culminate in suicide. Over the past years, it has become apparent that subjects with these conditions can also develop the metabolic syndrome, which is a series of obesity-related physical conditions with an endocrine basis. This book brings together reviews that help put into context exactly why subjects with SMI develop obesity, prediabetic status, overt type 2 diabetes mellitus and related cardiovascular events. The relationship between prolactin and bone mineral density in subjects under medical treatment and the underlying dopaminergic mechanisms as well as the immunological changes occurring as an integral part of SMI and their effects on endocrine function are discussed and reviewed. Psychiatrists, diabetologists, cardiologists, family practitioners, public health physicians as well as basic science researchers will find valuable guidelines when screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in SMI.

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults, Third Edition

The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines for the Psychiatric Evaluation of Adults, Third Edition
Author : American Psychiatric Association
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release Date : 2015-07-29
Category : Medical
Total pages :170
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Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust in 2011, there has been an increasing emphasis on assuring that clinical practice guidelines are trustworthy, developed in a transparent fashion, and based on a systematic review of the available research evidence. To align with the IOM recommendations and to meet the new requirements for inclusion of a guideline in the National Guidelines Clearinghouse of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), American Psychiatric Association (APA) has adopted a new process for practice guideline development. Under this new process APA's practice guidelines also seek to provide better clinical utility and usability. Rather than a broad overview of treatment for a disorder, new practice guidelines focus on a set of discrete clinical questions of relevance to an overarching subject area. A systematic review of evidence is conducted to address these clinical questions and involves a detailed assessment of individual studies. The quality of the overall body of evidence is also rated and is summarized in the practice guideline. With the new process, recommendations are determined by weighing potential benefits and harms of an intervention in a specific clinical context. Clear, concise, and actionable recommendation statements help clinicians to incorporate recommendations into clinical practice, with the goal of improving quality of care. The new practice guideline format is also designed to be more user friendly by dividing information into modules on specific clinical questions. Each module has a consistent organization, which will assist users in finding clinically useful and relevant information quickly and easily. This new edition of the practice guidelines on psychiatric evaluation for adults is the first set of the APA's guidelines developed under the new guideline development process. These guidelines address the following nine topics, in the context of an initial psychiatric evaluation: review of psychiatric symptoms, trauma history, and treatment history; substance use assessment; assessment of suicide risk; assessment for risk of aggressive behaviors; assessment of cultural factors; assessment of medical health; quantitative assessment; involvement of the patient in treatment decision making; and documentation of the psychiatric evaluation. Each guideline recommends or suggests topics to include during an initial psychiatric evaluation. Findings from an expert opinion survey have also been taken into consideration in making recommendations or suggestions. In addition to reviewing the available evidence on psychiatry evaluation, each guideline also provides guidance to clinicians on implementing these recommendations to enhance patient care.

Handbook of Sleep Disorders in Medical Conditions

Handbook of Sleep Disorders in Medical Conditions
Author : Josee Savard,Marie-Christine Ouellet
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-03-14
Category : Science
Total pages :472
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Handbook of Sleep Disorders in Medical Conditions reviews the current knowledge on the nature and manifestations of sleep disorders associated with a variety of common medical conditions, including epilepsy, traumatic brain injury and dementia. It also provides clinical guidelines on how to assess and treat them with pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Although the general principles of sleep medicine may be applied to some extent to patients with comorbid medical conditions, this book makes the case that an adaptive approach is warranted when considering the particularities of each condition. In addition, clinicians must also be cautious when prescribing sleep medications as some pharmacological agents are known to exacerbate symptoms associated with the medical condition, such as cognitive deficits (i.e. difficulties with memory and attention) in cancer patients experiencing chemo brain, or in persons with neurologic conditions (e.g. mild cognitive impairment, dementia, stroke, brain injury). A differential approach to evaluating and treating sleep is thus warranted. Presents a general overview on assessing and treating sleep disorders that are applicable to a diverse set of patients Provides a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the literature on the prevalence and manifestations of sleep problems related to specific medical conditions Includes practical information regarding special considerations for the assessment and treatment of sleep issues in specific medical conditions

The Organic Psychoses

The Organic Psychoses
Author : John G. Dewan,William B. Spaulding
Publisher : University of Toronto Press
Release Date : 1958-12-15
Category : Medical
Total pages :129
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Psychoses due to physical disturbances involving the brain are common and can complicate a bewildering variety of illnesses. Patients with such disorders may be encountered in general practice, emergency wards, medical services, on the surgical ward, post-operatively as well as in psychiatric clinics and of course in mental hospitals. A specialist in psychiatry and a specialist in internal medicine have collaborated to fill an important gap in medical literature of practical value to the physician. Throughout the book the needs of doctors who are responsible for such patients has been kept in mind. In this well-organized, concise monograph the organic psychoses are classified in a comprehensive manner which can be easily applied to clinical cases. The chief diagnostic features of the various organic syndromes have been presented, together with full references to the clinical literature. The diagnostic approach to the various clinical problems has been considered and illustrated by a group of case histories. As teachers, the authors have become aware of the need for a clarification of this complicated area of medicine in order that the practitioner, postgraduate physician, interne, and undergraduate student may have a ready guide to aid him in the diagnosis of these complicated disorders. Many doctors in a number of branches of medical practice will find this a handy, useful book to own.

Biomarkers and Mental Illness

Biomarkers and Mental Illness
Author : Paul C. Guest
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-12-02
Category : Science
Total pages :203
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Employing accessible language throughout, this book covers the history of psychiatric research, the current state-of-the art in psychiatric practice, the physiological systems affected by psychiatric illnesses, the whole-body nature of these diseases and the impact that this aspect has on emerging biomarker discoveries. Further, it provides descriptions of the major specific psychiatric disorders and the special challenges regarding the diagnosis and treatment of each. The book concludes with insights into the latest developments in hand-held biomarker test devices, which can provide diagnostic information in less than 15 minutes in point-of-care settings. This book investigates the emerging use of biomarkers in the study of psychiatric diseases, a topic of considerable importance for a broad range of people including researchers, clinicians, psychiatrists, university students and even those whose lives are affected in some way by a psychiatric illness. The last category is hardly trivial, since a staggering one in three people worldwide show the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at some point in their lifetime.

Physical Illness and Schizophrenia

Physical Illness and Schizophrenia
Author : Stefan Leucht
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2007-11-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :208
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Provides a comprehensive review of research evidence on physical diseases in people with schizophrenia.

Quick Guide to Psychiatric Emergencies

Quick Guide to Psychiatric Emergencies
Author : Kimberly D. Nordstrom,Michael P. Wilson
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-03-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :292
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This volume provides an “on-the-go” guide to the most common behavioral emergencies a physician may encounter. Each chapter represents a disease state or symptom cluster and concisely summarizes the disease state, provides background, symptoms and signs, differential diagnoses, and immediate and long-term treatment options. All chapters conclude with a diagnosis or treatment algorithm or another easy-to-use visual tool. Chapters named after a specific disease state or symptom cluster, arranged alphabetically for use in the field. The text begins with chapters covering patient evaluation: getting a good history, suicide risk assessment, physical exam, and when and how to use studies. Written by experts in psychiatry and emergency medicine, this text is the first to consider both medical perspectives in a concise guide. Quick Guide to Psychiatric Emergencies is an excellent resource for psychiatrists, emergency medicine physicians, residents, nurses, and other medical professionals that handle behavioral emergencies on a regular basis.

Herbal Treatment of Major Depression: Scientific Basis and Practical Use

Herbal Treatment of Major Depression: Scientific Basis and Practical Use
Author : Scott D Mendelson
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-11-27
Category : Medical
Total pages :422
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This unique volume presents new understandings of the neurochemical nature of major depression, and how herbs and their constituent flavonoids and terpenes appear to address some of the mechanisms now thought to be involved. It explores how recent studies of the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine inform neuroscientists about deep intracellular mechanisms of antidepressant action that have little to do with simple enhancement of monoaminergic activity. These mechanisms include actions on PI3K, Akt, mTOR, GSK3, BDNF, and other intracellular pathways. New theories of the pathophysiology underlying major depression, such as oxidative damage, inflammation, stress and insulin resistance are then explored. Key Features: Focuses on oxidative damage, inflammation, and metabolic syndrome. Explains that a significant percentage of people treated for major depression obtain little if any relief from standard antidepressant medications. These facts lead to discussion of herbs that can be used to treat major depression, as well as consideration of the scientific basis for how these herbs act. The antidepressant properties of 66 herbs are discussed, along with dosing and safety information.

Managing Metabolic Abnormalities in the Psychiatrically Ill

Managing Metabolic Abnormalities in the Psychiatrically Ill
Author : Evelyn McElroy
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release Date : 2007-04-02
Category : Medical
Total pages :326
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Patients with mental and substance use disorders have shown higher rates of morbidity and mortality from medical illnesses than the general population, and physicians are also increasingly aware of adverse effects of psychiatric medications on metabolic and cardiovascular health. In light of these problems, this book addresses an important unmet need of patients with mental disorders -- namely, the lack of integration of general medical care with psychiatric care and the related problem of barriers to collaboration and communication among health care providers. Managing Metabolic Abnormalities in the Psychiatrically Ill is the first book to provide a current review of the relationships among psychiatric illnesses, metabolic abnormalities, and treatment, focusing on how clinicians can tailor care to those doubly-afflicted patients. The book integrates research findings into practical clinical guidelines that spell out what psychiatrists need to know when their patients with mental illness suffer from -- or are at risk of developing -- obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or the metabolic syndrome. The contributors address those risks that need to be considered in the overall context of treatment, background risks of medical illnesses associated with specific psychiatric disorders themselves, and the means of applying these data to treatment recommendations, monitoring, and clinical practice. Among the specific topics addressed are: Potential effects of psychotropics on appetite, body weight, and metabolic parameters in obese patients, and the potential effects of anti-obesity agents on psychotic, manic, and depressive syndromes Increased risk of type 2 diabetes among individuals with psychotic and mood disorders due to neurobiological changes and behavioral effects associated with these disorders Greater risk for cardiovascular disease among the mentally ill, stressing the importance of mental health providers understanding cardiovascular risk classification and modification strategies An association between dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and the related risk of type 2 diabetes during treatment with any of the eight second-generation antipsychotics currently available in the United States Guidance in choice of medications and appropriate monitoring strategies for hyperlipidemia, along with recognition of which antipsychotics pose the greatest risk and an understanding of the common dyslipidemia patterns seen with their use Chapters include key clinical concepts, quick-reference tables, and extensive references, and a final chapter provides an assessment tool for evaluating patients' metabolic risk. Together, the chapters in this book constitute an authoritative clinical guide that enables psychiatrists to better integrate the treatment of patients' mental disorders with their metabolic conditions.

Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

Nonsuicidal Self-Injury
Author : E. David Klonsky,Jennifer Muehlenkamp,Stephen P. Lewis,Barent Walsh
Publisher : Hogrefe Publishing
Release Date : 2011
Category : Psychology
Total pages :98
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Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a baffling, troubling, and hard to treat phenomenon that has increased markedly in recent years. Key issues in diagnosing and treating NSSI adequately include differentiating it from attempted suicide and other mental disorders, as well as understanding the motivations for self-injury and the context in which it occurs. This accessible and practical book provides therapists and students with a clear understanding of these key issues, as well as of suitable assessment techniques. It then goes on to delineate research-informed treatment approaches for NSSI, with an emphasis on functional assessment, emotion regulation, and problem solving, including motivational interviewing, interpersonal skills, CBT, DBT, behavioral management strategies, delay behaviors, exercise, family therapy, risk management, and medication, as well as how to successfully combine methods.

Pharmacological Treatment of Mental Disorders in Primary Health Care

Pharmacological Treatment of Mental Disorders in Primary Health Care
Author : World Health Organization
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release Date : 2009
Category : Medical
Total pages :68
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This manual attempts to provide simple, adequate and evidence-based information to health care professionals in primary health care especially in low- and middle-income countries to be able to provide pharmacological treatment to persons with mental disorders. The manual contains basic principles of prescribing followed by chapters on medicines used in psychotic disorders; depressive disorders; bipolar disorders; generalized anxiety and sleep disorders; obsessive compulsive disorders and panic attacks; and alcohol and opioid dependence. The annexes provide information on evidence retrieval, assessment and synthesis and the peer view process.

Life-Threatening Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs

Life-Threatening Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs
Author : Peter Manu,Robert J. Flanagan,Kathlyn J. Ronaldson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-08-16
Category : Medical
Total pages :394
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Life-Threatening Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs describes in detail more than 20 life-threatening effects associated with antipsychotics, presents the best available data on their incidence and case fatality, and gives comprehensive advice on diagnosis, management and preventive strategies. In addition, the book discusses the benefit of antipsychotic medication in a range of therapeutic indications, and demonstrates the gain in life-expectancy associated with clozapine use in severe mental illness despite its serious, potentially life-threatening adverse effects. Covers cardiovascular, neurological, muscular, hematological, gastrointestinal, autonomic and metabolic effects Gives advice on risk factors, confounding diagnoses and measures to minimise seriousness Discusses clozapine rechallenge after each of its serious adverse reactions Makes suggestions for optimum management of somatic disease in those with severe mental illness, to improve life-expectancy Includes data on post-mortem considerations

Reducing the Mortality Gap in People with Severe Mental Disorders: the Role of Lifestyle Psychosocial Interventions

Reducing the Mortality Gap in People with Severe Mental Disorders: the Role of Lifestyle Psychosocial Interventions
Author : Andrea Fiorillo,Maurizio Pompili,Mario Luciano,Norman Sartorius
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2019-10-15
Category :
Total pages :129
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Patients with severe mental disorders (SMD), including major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and related spectrum disorders, have a reduced life expectancy of 10-25 year compared with the general population. This life expectancy gap is mainly due to the co-occurrence of many physical diseases, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, hepatitis and HIV. Factors contributing to the reduced life expectancy can be grouped into three main categories: a) factors related to the patient; b) factors related to clinicians; and c) factors related to the health system. As regards the first group, patients with SMD often adopt unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, including heavy smoking, reduced physical activity, sedentary behaviors, poor diet and alcohol or drug abuse, and are reluctant to seek for physical care with GPs and other medical specialists. Increasing the levels of physical activity, improving the dietary patterns, and reducing the smoking habits of people with severe mental disorders represent a global health challenge and a public health priority. Until now, attempts made to reduce this mortality gap have acted at three different levels: health system level, physician level, and patient level. The third-level interventions include electronic alerts through smartphones and web-based platforms, intensive case management, promotion of healthy habits, complex psychosocial interventions. Several population-based studies have showed that lifestyle behaviors are amenable to change through the adoption of specific psychosocial interventions. However, most clinical guidelines, although emphasizing the importance of health monitoring and regular check-ups for patients with severe mental illnesses, do not make specific recommendations on the provision of lifestyle interventions. These lifestyle-oriented interventions, consisting of behavioral, educational, and psychological components, have been conducted mainly in research settings, and have shown a good impact on patients’ physical health. Despite this, their feasibility in routine settings has not been tested yet. It seems to be clinically and ethically relevant to develop, validate and carry out interventions to improve the lifestyle’s behaviors of patients with severe mental disorders, to reduce the presence of comorbidities and to improve their life expectancy. In this Research Topic we will summarize the available knowledge of the efficacy and effectiveness of psychosocial interventions aimed at improving healthy lifestyle behaviors and promoting the physical health of patients with severe mental disorders. Total number of articles: 19