June 20, 2021

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Metal Oxide-Based Photocatalysis

Metal Oxide-Based Photocatalysis
Author : Adriana Zaleska-Medynska
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-04-09
Category : Science
Total pages :364
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Metal Oxide-Based Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Prospects for Application explains the principles and fundamentals of metal oxide-based photocatalysis and the requirements necessary for their use in photocatalysis. It also discusses preparation methods for photocatalysis, and the advantages, disadvantages and achievements of the most important metal oxides (TiO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, Ta2O3, CuO, NiO, Cr2O3, RuO2, etc.). The book concludes with the most important photocatalytic applications and an overview of the future. Applications are organized by potential needs and solutions, addressing such areas as water treatment, hydrogen production, air treatment, chemical synthesis, and applications in medicine and construction. Provides coverage of applications, presenting needs and solutions Covers essential applications, such as water treatment, hydrogen production, air depollution, medical applications, and much more Includes the characterization of the most important metal oxides used in heterogeneous photocatalysis

Metal Oxide Nanocomposites

Metal Oxide Nanocomposites
Author : B. Raneesh,Visakh P. M.
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2020-12-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :432
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Metal Oxide Nanocomposites: Synthesis and Applications summarizes many of the recent research accomplishments in the area of metal oxide-based nanocomposites. This book focussing on the following topics: Nanocomposites preparation and characterization of metal oxide nanocomposites; synthesis of core/shell metal oxide nanocomposites; multilayer thin films; sequential assembly of nanocomposite materials; semiconducting polymer metal oxide nanocomposites; graphene-based metal and metal oxide nanocomposites; carbon nanotube–metal–oxide nanocomposites; silicon mixed oxide nanocomposites; gas semiconducting sensors based on metal oxide nanocomposites; metal9;]organic framework nanocomposite for hydrogen production and nanocomposites application towards photovoltaic and photocatalytic.

Metal Oxide Nanocomposites

Metal Oxide Nanocomposites
Author : B. Raneesh,Visakh P. M.
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2021-01-08
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :432
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Metal Oxide Nanocomposites: Synthesis and Applications summarizes many of the recent research accomplishments in the area of metal oxide-based nanocomposites. This book focussing on the following topics: Nanocomposites preparation and characterization of metal oxide nanocomposites; synthesis of core/shell metal oxide nanocomposites; multilayer thin films; sequential assembly of nanocomposite materials; semiconducting polymer metal oxide nanocomposites; graphene-based metal and metal oxide nanocomposites; carbon nanotube–metal–oxide nanocomposites; silicon mixed oxide nanocomposites; gas semiconducting sensors based on metal oxide nanocomposites; metal9;]organic framework nanocomposite for hydrogen production and nanocomposites application towards photovoltaic and photocatalytic.

Metal Oxide-Based Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Metal-Air Batteries

Metal Oxide-Based Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Metal-Air Batteries
Author : Teko Napporn,Yaovi Holade
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2021-02-12
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :292
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Metal Oxide-Based Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Metal-Air Batteries is a comprehensive book summarizing the recent overview of these new materials developed to date. The book is motivated by research that focuses on the reduction of noble metal content in catalysts to reduce the cost associated to the entire system. Metal oxides gained significant interest in heterogeneous catalysis for basic research and industrial deployment. Metal Oxide-Based Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Metal-Air Batteries puts these opportunities and challenges into a broad context, discusses the recent researches and technological advances, and finally provides several pathways and guidelines that could inspire the development of ground-breaking electrochemical devices for energy production or storage. Its primary focus is how materials development is an important approach to produce electricity for key applications such as automotive and industrial. The book is appropriate for those working in academia and R&D in the disciplines of materials science, chemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. Includes key aspects of materials design to improve the performance of electrode materials for energy conversion and storage device applications Reviews emerging metal oxide materials for hydrogen production, hydrogen oxidation, oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution Discusses metal oxide electrocatalysts for water-splitting, metal-air batteries, electrolyzer, and fuel cell applications

Environmentally Benign Photocatalysts

Environmentally Benign Photocatalysts
Author : Masakazu Anpo,Prashant V. Kamat
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-11-10
Category : Science
Total pages :757
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Over the past few decades, mankind has observed an unprecedented and remarkable growth in industry, resulting in a more prosperous lifestyle for peoples of many countries. In developing countries, however, explosive industrial growth is just now beginning to raise the living standards of the people. Most industries, especially in these developing countries, are still powered by the burning of fossil fuels; con- quently, a lack of clean energy resources has caused environmental pollution on an unprecedented large and global scale. Toxic wastes have been relentlessly released into the air and water leading to serious and devastating environmental and health problems while endangering the planet and life itself with the effects of global warming. To address these urgent environmental issues, new catalytic and photocatalytic processes as well as open-atmospheric systems are presently being developed that can operate at room temperature while being totally clean and ef?cient and thus environmentally harmonious. Essential to technologies harnessing the abundant solar energy that reaches the earth are the highly functional photocatalytic proce- es that can utilize not only UV light, but also visible light.

Emerging Materials for Environment Protection and Renewable Energy

Emerging Materials for Environment Protection and Renewable Energy
Author : M. Shaheer Akhtar,Sadia Ameen
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018-09-16
Category :
Total pages :434
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Emerging Materials for Environment Protection and Renewable Energy includes most of the published research articles from the editors along with the work of other authors. The central theme of this book is interrelatedness. Each part of this book highlights a work contributing to environmental protection and renewable energy, with the presentation of tables, graphs, and figures. This book considers three major parts: (1) Sensors, (2) Photocatalyst and (3) Renewable Energy; it also provides an in-depth knowledge for the synthesis of nanomaterials, characterization of nanomaterials, and the possibilities for full-scale applications of these nanomaterials for environmental protection and renewable energy. The major three parts of this book are further sub-sectioned into thirty-three chapters, covering the topics of metal oxides based gas sensors (Part I, Section One), zinc oxide based chemical sensors (Part I, Section Two), titanium oxide based chemical sensors (Part I, Section Three), conducting polymers based chemical sensors (Part I, Section Four), zinc oxide based photocatalysts (Part II, Section One), titanium oxide based photocatalysts (Part II, Section Two), conducting polymers based photocatalysts (Part II, Section Three), organic solar cells (Part III, Section One), zinc oxide based DSSCs (Part III, Section Two), titanium oxide based DSSCs (Part III, Section Three) and perovskite solar cells (Part III, Section Four).

Metal Oxide Photocatalysis

Metal Oxide Photocatalysis
Author : Muyao Guo,郭牧遥
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017-01-26
Category :
Total pages :129
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This dissertation, "Metal Oxide Photocatalysis" by Muyao, Guo, 郭牧遥, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Photocatalysis has been attracting much research interest because of its wide applications in renewable energy and environmental remediation. Among the photocatalysts, metal oxide semiconductors are the best choice due to distinctive properties, durability and cost effectiveness. However, the mechanisms of photocatalysis are still not entirely clear and the photocatalytic activity of the metal oxide materials needs to be improved. Therefore, this thesis concentrates on the study of the photocatalytic mechanism and the factors affecting the photocatalytic activity. The photocatalysis of different commercial metal oxide nanoparticles has been studied. Different photocatalytic experiments have been designed to find out the mechanisms of photocatalysis. It is found that the dominant mechanism of photocatalysis is direct charge transfer between metal oxide and organic compounds. Reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radicals also play a minor role in the photocatalysis. ZnO tetrapods were synthesized by evaporating Zn powder in the flow of Ar gas at high temperature in this study. They exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity. By the comparison between ZnO tetrapods and different ZnO nanoparticles, it is found that the photocatalytic activity of the metal oxide is strongly affected by the native defects, especially by the nonradiative defects. 1D TiO2 nanotubes and ZnO nanorods were synthesized by anodization and hydrothermal growth respectively. ZnO nanorods with alumina and titania shell were prepared by solution-based methods. These structures are interesting as supported catalysts, which is important for practical applications, since it enables simple removal of photocatalyst from treated water. The core shell structures are expected to improve the stability of ZnO. The results also imply that the photocatalytic avtivity of materials is affected by the native defects. Two different solution based methods hydrothermal growth and electrodeposition to grow CuxO layer were used. The hydrothermal grown CuxO exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity and good photocorrosion resistance. It was also found that the photocatalytic activity of the CuxO prepared by hydrothermal methods can be recovered by simple immersion of the sample into the precursor solution. DOI: 10.5353/th_b5043445 Subjects: Metallic oxides Photocatalysis

Chromium Oxide Nanomaterials Doped with Rhodium for Photocatalysis Applications

Chromium Oxide Nanomaterials Doped with Rhodium for Photocatalysis Applications
Author : Lukmon Olajide Aminu
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2014
Category : Chromium
Total pages :116
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Photocatalysis is potentially a useful means of conversion of solar energy to the production of hydrogen fuel from splitting of water. Although several metal oxides have been shown to have photocatalytic activity, most are limited because of their inefficiency. In order to use metal-oxide-based materials as photocatalysts, it is necessary to increase their efficiency. The use of noble metals, either through doping or co-deposition, has shown promise for increasing the overall efficiency of metal-oxide-based nanomaterials. Using hydrothermal methods, I precipitated Rh on the surface of Cr2O3 nanocrystallites and within chromium oxide thin films. The Rh surface-doped Cr2O3 nanoparticles were prepared in water at temperatures up to ~220 °C. Surface doping of nanophase materials with noble metals such as Rh has advantages in a more efficient use of a rare commodity and, in this case, is shown to cause greater structural phase stability of the nanoparticles than using bulk doping. Raman spectroscopy showed that the E1g mode occurring at 276 cm-1 for Cr2O3 nanoparticles is shifted to 281 cm-1 for Rh surface-doped Cr2O3 nanoparticles. The photoluminescence of the Rh surface-doped Cr2O3 nanoparticles in the visible range (~450--650 nm) is significantly enhanced relative to that of Cr2O3 nanoparticles, suggesting that surface precipitation of Rh may cause more efficient photocatalytic activity of the Cr2O3 nanomaterial. My results show that Rh doped chromium oxide thin films grown using pulsed laser deposition methods are composed of multiple phases.

Photocatalysis

Photocatalysis
Author : Carlo Alberto Bignozzi
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2013-11-27
Category : Science
Total pages :220
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Metal Oxide Photoanodes for Water Splitting, by J. Augustynski, B. D. Alexander and R. Solarska; Hydrogen Production with Nanostructured and Sensitized Metal Oxides , by Stefano Caramori, Vito Cristino, Laura Meda, Roberto Argazzi and Carlo Alberto Bignozzi; Surface Nanostructures in Photocatalysts for Visible-Light-Driven Water Splitting, by Kazuhiko Maeda and Kazunari Domen; Artificial Photosynthesis Challenges: Water Oxidation at Nanostructured Interfaces, by Mauro Carraro, Andrea Sartorel, Francesca Maria Toma, Fausto Puntoriero, Franco Scandola, Sebastiano Campagna, Maurizio Prato and Marcella Bonchio; Photocatalytic Reduction of CO2: From Molecules to Semiconductors, by Tatsuto Yui, Yusuke Tamaki, Keita Sekizawa and Osamu Ishitani; Design of Heterogeneous Photocatalysts Based on Metal Oxides to Control the Selectivity of Chemical Reactions, by Andrea Maldotti and Alessandra Molinari;

METAL OXIDE NANOMATERIALS FOR

METAL OXIDE NANOMATERIALS FOR
Author : Fangzhou Liu,劉方舟
Publisher : Open Dissertation Press
Release Date : 2017-01-26
Category : Science
Total pages :174
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This dissertation, "Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Photocatalytic and Photovoltaic Applications" by Fangzhou, Liu, 劉方舟, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Metal oxide nanomaterials are versatile functional materials for various applications. Among these materials, zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) have been intensively investigated for their photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications due to their excellent electronic properties and photoactivities. The distinctions in their properties have led to different research focuses regarding the applications of ZnO and TiO2. This thesis consists of two major research topics, with the first part focusing on the photocatalytic applications of ZnO, and the second part on the rapidly developing photovoltaic applications based on perovskite materials, in which TiO2 is commonly employed as charge transporting layers and/or mesoporous scaffolds. Research efforts were made to acquire fundamental understanding of the materials properties and their influence on the photocatalytic and photovoltaic behaviors of the materials. Regarding the photocatalytic applications of metal oxide nanomaterials, detailed understandings of processes and species involved in the photocatalytic degradation is necessary for rational design of high efficient photocatalysts. A comprehensive investigation of photocatalytic activities was conducted with various ZnO nanostructures exhibiting distinct material properties. The correlations between photocatalytic activities and the material properties including native defects, surface adsorbates, and luminescence properties were elucidated. Effects of native defects on the dye adsorption were discussed. In addition, various post-fabrication treatments were applied to modify different material properties resulting in changed photocatalytic performance. Regarding the photovoltaic applications of metal oxide nanomaterials, this thesis mainly focuses on the highly promising photovoltaic devices based on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials. Predominant research efforts have been concentrated on the optimization of synthesis approaches and device architectures to achieve higher energy converting efficiency, while the fundamental understanding of the perovskite material properties is considerably inadequate. In particular, stability of perovskite materials is a critical issue regarding practical applications of perovskite solar cells. TiO2 as the most commonly employed electron transporting and mesoporous scaffold materials is considered causing photodecomposition of the perovskite films due to its excellent photoactivity. Based on this perspective, the stability of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films is investigated, as well as the role of TiO2 compact layer in degradation of perovskite films. The detrimental effect of excess PbI2 on the intrinsic stability of perovskite films is highlighted. Stability testing of perovskite based devices was conducted both at room temperature and 85 C (accelerated aging) with light soaking. Subjects: Photovoltaic cells Metallic oxides - Microstructure Photocatalysis

Visible-Light-Active Photocatalysis

Visible-Light-Active Photocatalysis
Author : Srabanti Ghosh
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2018-03-23
Category : Science
Total pages :280
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A comprehensive and timely overview of this important and hot topic, with special emphasis placed on environmental applications and the potential for solar light harvesting. Following introductory chapters on environmental photocatalysis, water splitting, and applications in synthetic chemistry, further chapters focus on the synthesis and design of photocatalysts, solar energy conversion, and such environmental aspects as the removal of water pollutants, photocatalytic conversion of CO2. Besides metal oxide-based photocatalysts, the authors cover other relevant material classes including carbon-based nanomaterials and novel hybrid materials. Chapters on mechanistic aspects, computational modeling of photocatalysis and Challenges and perspectives of solar reactor design for industrial applications complete this unique survey of the subject. With its in-depth discussions ranging from a comprehensive understanding to the engineering of materials and applied devices, this is an invaluable resource for a range of disciplines.

Understanding and Enhancing the Photostability of Nanoporous Metal Oxide Thin Films for Solar Hydrogen Generation

Understanding and Enhancing the Photostability of Nanoporous Metal Oxide Thin Films for Solar Hydrogen Generation
Author : Kalyan Chakravarthi Chitrada
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2016
Category : Hydrogen as fuel
Total pages :408
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Solar water splitting is an environmentally benign process which has received wide attention in the recent years as an alternate method for a clean and safe production of hydrogen. This process employs a semiconductor based photocatalyst, water, and sunlight to produce hydrogen. Metal-oxide based semiconductors are considered to be ideal photocatalytic materials because of their stability against photo-corrosion combined with relatively narrow energy band-gap, appropriately placed band edge positions with reference to oxygen and hydrogen energy levels, less scattering of charges due to wider valence band, high dielectric constant, natural abundance, and non-toxicity. In this dissertation, two metal oxide based semiconductors viz., iron (III) oxide and bismuth (III) oxide were investigated to understand and enhance their photo activity as photoanodes for solar water splitting application. Iron (III) oxide has a well suited band gap to capture solar spectrum but it suffers from inappropriately positioned band edges, recombination losses due to low electron mobility, and a small minority carrier diffusion length. However, it was hypothesized that the Iron (III) oxide might show interesting photoelectrochemical properties by alloying with 4f elements and shifting the conduction band minimum of the iron oxide favorably to more negative potentials. In the present study, a nanoporous iron oxide layer incorporated with Nd3+ and B3+ was synthesized by electrochemical anodization of a FeNdB alloy. The photoelectrochemical behavior of this oxide was compared with thermally oxidized FeNdB alloy and the iron oxides obtained by anodization and thermal oxidation of pure iron foil. Incorporation of Nd3+ and B3+ in the iron oxide showed a direct bandgap of 2.05 eV, an indirect bandgap of 1.9 eV and shifted the flatband potentials to --0.8 VAg/AgCl in 1 M KOH solution. The FeNdB oxide showed marginally better catalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction than pure iron oxide under dark conditions. The binary bismuth (III) oxide, in spite being a good photocatalytic material, did not receive as much attention as other bismuth based ternary oxides for photoelectrochemical water splitting application. In this present study, large surface area nanoporous bismuth oxide thin films were synthesized by the electrochemical anodization. These anodic oxides exhibited a dual layered structure having a planar inner oxide and nanoporous outer oxide. Effect of the nanoscale dimensions of the oxides on the photoelectrochemical behavior was studied to understand the charge transport, charge recombination behavior, and long term stability of the material. A maximum photo current density of 0.97 mA/cm2 was observed for the sample anodized at 10 V at 1.53 VRHE. The nanoporous anodic oxides showed a charge carrier density in the range of 1.2 x 1017 -- 4.8 x 1018 cm−3 without illumination and about 60% increase in the charge carrier density upon illumination. However a decay in photo current was observed for the bismuth oxide samples was due to accumulation of holes on the electrode surface. This hole-accumulation was mitigated by the addition of hole scavengers. Addition of hydrogen peroxide as hole scavenger increased the photo current density by about 4 times in 0.5 M Na2SO4 (pH: 5.8) electrolyte. Addition of H2O2 in 1 M KOH (pH: 13.7) showed an increase-decrease behavior and high photo current density of ~10 mA/cm2 at a bias potential of 0.65 VRHE . The high photo activity observed in this electrolyte was attributed to the in-situ formation of Bi2O4-x phase by the photo-conversion of the [beta]-Bi2O3 at the surface. The photo-converted Bi2O4-x has a smaller band gap (1.4 eV) and therefore harvested more light in the visible region. This in-situ formation of low band gap phases in the presence of H2O2 during solar water splitting is an interesting observation which has been reported for the first time and this will help design material with very high photo-activity.

Environmentally Benign Photocatalysts

Environmentally Benign Photocatalysts
Author : Masakazu Anpo,Prashant V. Kamat
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-04-01
Category :
Total pages :772
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Titanium oxide-based catalysts show promise as a stable, non-toxic photofunctional material. This book covers approaches in the design of titanium oxide-based photocatalysts: sol-gel, precipitation, dip-coating, metal implantation and sputtering deposition.

Novel Metal Dissolution Approach for The Synthesis of Mesoporous, Multi-valent Metal Oxide Based Materials and Green, Heterogeneous Catalytic Activities and Excellent Adsorption Properties

Novel Metal Dissolution Approach for The Synthesis of Mesoporous, Multi-valent Metal Oxide Based Materials and Green, Heterogeneous Catalytic Activities and Excellent Adsorption Properties
Author : Wimalika Rasangi Kumari Thalgaspitiya
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category : Electronic dissertations
Total pages :129
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Research conducted on the synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activities on mesoporous metal oxide-based materials are reported. A novel metal dissolution approach is introduced to synthesize a series of mesoporous metal oxides which includes s block, p block, transition metal, and post-transition metal oxides. The materials show excellent liquid phase heterogeneous catalytic activities, dye adsorption, and photocatalytic dye degradation under green reaction conditions. Green, highly efficient sp2-sp3 C-C coupling by mesoporous molybdenum oxide and catalytic oxidation of organosulfur compounds by mesoporous tungsten oxide are reported. Furthermore, the syntheses and characterization of novel molybdenum tungsten mixed oxide (Mo0.5W0.5O3) and a series of high surface area metal titanates (where the metal = Bi, Mg, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, W, and Ce) are reported. Highly efficient catalytic sp3-sp2 C-C coupling reactions are conducted with mesoporous molybdenum tungsten mixed oxide. Furthermore, green catalytic oxidation of aniline to nitrosobenzene is conducted using mesoporous W/Ti binary metal oxide. A series of transition metal-doped titanium dioxide- reduced graphene oxide composites is synthesized by doping TiO2 with different transition metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Mo, and W) followed by anchoring the nano-particles on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The catalytic acetal formation and excellent dye adsorption and photocatalytic dye degradation properties of the composites are studied. The synthesized materials are comprehensively characterized using PXRD, in-situ PXRD, Raman, FT-IR, SEM, EDX, TEM, XPS, TGA, BET, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The products obtained from heterogeneous catalysis are analyzed using GCMS, 1H, and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques.

Green Photocatalysts for Energy and Environmental Process

Green Photocatalysts for Energy and Environmental Process
Author : Saravanan Rajendran,Mu. Naushad,Lorena Cornejo Ponce,Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-09-04
Category : Science
Total pages :321
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This book describes green photocatalysts and their diverse applications in the fields of environmental sciences and energy. It especially takes a closer look at the removal of air and water pollutants, the generation of hydrogen, photo fuel cells, electrophotocatalysts, solar energy conversions, and green biophotocatalysts. Furthermore it also discusses on the role of catalysts along with their chemical reactions, challenges, past developments and directions for further research on photocatalysts. It includes recent developments of quantum dots (QDs) and photocatalytic applications of QDs such as carbon materials like carbon and graphene based QDs, metal, metal sulfide and metal oxide based QDs as well as a detailed review on various types of templates used for the preparation of porous g-C3N4 and its applications in detail. This is done with special reference to dye degradation, reduction of hexavalent Cr, and reduction of CO2 and for the evolution of H2 photocatalytically. This book offers an intriguing and useful guide for a broad readership in various fields of catalysis, material sciences, environment and energy.