December 2, 2020

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Mid-Latitude Slope Deposits (Cover Beds)

Mid-Latitude Slope Deposits (Cover Beds)
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-02-26
Category : Science
Total pages :320
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Slope deposits are common in any inclined relief. So-called cover beds may veil entire landscapes, in which case they are commonly overlooked or confused with soil horizons. This book focuses on these widespread deposits and discusses their properties, genesis, and age mainly in subdued mountains of Central Europe, where to date most research on the matter has been conducted. The ecological consequences of such slope deposits on soils, slope water dynamics, and slope failures are addressed. Finally, transfer of the cover-bed concept to other mid-latitude regions is attempted for the reconstruction of landscape evolution. This unique compilation, covering several decades of a facies-oriented approach to slope-deposit research, delivers deep insight into the wide field of research on cover beds and encourages researchers all over the world to take an in-depth look at the critical zone as to its possible stratified nature. Unique compilation of several decades of slope-deposit research Facies-oriented approach Addresses ecological consequences on soils, slope water dynamics, and slope failures

Mid-Latitude Slope Deposits (Cover Beds)

Mid-Latitude Slope Deposits (Cover Beds)
Author : A. Kleber,B. Terhorst,H. Bullmann,D. Hülle,M. Leopold,S. Müller,T. Raab,D. Sauer,T. Scholten,M. Dietze,P. Felix-Henningsen,J. Heinrich,E.-D. Spies,H. Thiemeyer
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-02-26
Category : Science
Total pages :320
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Slope deposits, which veil entire slopes or large parts of them in a rather uniform manner (cover beds), are ubiquitous in the subdued mountains of Central Europe. Here we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on these deposits. The Central European cover beds are divided into (1) the upper layer that is ubiquitously distributed and displays a relatively constant thickness; (2) the intermediate layer the distribution of which is mainly restricted to flat relief, to slope depressions, and to lee-ward facing slopes; and (3) the basal layer, which is rather widespread again. Both the upper and intermediate layer contain intermixed loess, whereas the basal layer is free of loess and typically has a high bulk density. Aside from the loess content, the composition of the layers differs, reflecting varying portions of crushed and chemically weathered rock allocated from up-slope. This causes notable diversity depending on bedrock and, thus, induces remarkable regional differences. Cover beds were mainly formed by periglacial gelifluction. The upper layer formed in the Late Glacial possibly during several short episodes of activity. In contrast, the underlying layers may be diachronous; nevertheless, they display recurring vertical sequences. This is probably due to the fact that loess-free layers usually could not deposit as long as there was loess in the environs, which may have been inherited from older deposits. Thus, the last phase of surface wash, during which older loess was removed, determines the age of the lower layers.

Mid-Latitude Slope Deposits (Cover Beds)

Mid-Latitude Slope Deposits (Cover Beds)
Author : C. Lorz,M. Frühauf,R. Mailänder,J.D. Phillips,A. Kleber
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-02-26
Category : Science
Total pages :320
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The genesis of soils has been seen mostly as an autochthonistic process, that is, formation in situ. However, soil geomorphologists have recognized addition and loss of materials, for example, through eolian and colluvial processes, as a major contribution to allochthonistic soil formation. The most important characteristic of these soils is the lithological discontinuity, which separates the lower residual material from the upper allochthonic soil. The chapter deals with (1) developing a model joining the ideas of in situ formation and near-surface processes such as adding or removing material, (2) the pedogenetic processes in soils with lithological discontinuities, and (3) the effect of lithological discontinuities on physical and chemical properties of soils.

Mid-Latitude Slope Deposits (Cover Beds)

Mid-Latitude Slope Deposits (Cover Beds)
Author : K.-M. Moldenhauer,K. Heller,P. Chifflard,R. Hübner,A. Kleber
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-02-26
Category : Science
Total pages :320
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Numerous case studies carried out in the subdued mountains of Germany during the last decades have revealed that periglacial cover beds play a decisive role in hillslope hydrology. Considering the omnipresence of cover beds in sloped terrain of the mid-latitudes, knowledge of slope-water paths is crucial not only for flood forecast but also for understanding how contaminants pass through ecosystems. Since periglacial cover beds are usually composed of different sedimentary layers, they show a high spatial variability of physical soil parameters, which are, in turn, responsible for small-scale variations of the hydraulic properties. Regardless of bedrock type, the observations reported in this chapter from different regions lead to the conclusion that there is a clear relationship between subsurface layering and runoff-generation processes. The hydraulic anisotropic structure of the deepest (basal) layer is the major factor controlling subsurface water-flow paths. On one hand, this layer acts as an aquitard for seeping water because of its high bulk density. On the other hand, once water has percolated into this layer, it is able to flow in lateral directions because of the coarse clasts oriented parallel to the slope. Therefore, such a cover bed may be treated neither as an aquifer nor as an aquiclude. Besides, as a function of pre-moisture, a nonlinear runoff response to precipitation or snow-melt of the investigated catchments was identified.

Mid-Latitude Slope Deposits (Cover Beds)

Mid-Latitude Slope Deposits (Cover Beds)
Author : B. Damm,B. Terhorst,F. Ottner
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-02-26
Category : Science
Total pages :320
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The occurrence and spatial distribution of cover beds are decisive for modern hillslope morphodynamics. This aspect is strongly associated with the geotechnical properties of cover beds and especially with their anisotropy. The impact of periglacial cover beds on mass movements, in particular landslides in subdued mountains, will be discussed in this section. The case studies in this chapter show that soil-physical and soil-mechanical properties significantly influence the forces in periglacial cover beds and, thus, directly control the slope stability. In contrast to long-lasting stable geomorphological factors, the reduction of shear strength, friction angle, and cohesion as well as the deformability may induce abrupt instability. Abrupt instabilities in periglacial cover beds particularly arise, when the soil-water content increases and, consequently, both the pore water and the hydrostatic pressures rise. In particular, we show that landslides to a large extent occur in hillslope sediments which are weakly consolidated and sensitive to water penetration.

Annales de géomorphologie

Annales de géomorphologie
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1960
Category : Geology
Total pages :129
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Quaternary Geology for Scientists and Engineers

Quaternary Geology for Scientists and Engineers
Author : J. A. Catt
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1988
Category : Engineering geology
Total pages :340
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On the effects of Quaternary processes of erosion, deposition, soil development, and recognition and interpretation. Methods of classifying, correlating, mapping and dating are described, and the useful interrelations with other disciplines involved in Quaternary studies are explored. The wide range of analytical laboratory techniques applicable to Quaternary deposits are not described in detail, but their uses and limitations are discussed so that the field geologist can decide when it is worth calling upon the services of an expert analyst. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Geographical Review of Japan

Geographical Review of Japan
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2005
Category : Geography
Total pages :129
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Neritic Carbonate Sediments in a Temperate Realm

Neritic Carbonate Sediments in a Temperate Realm
Author : Noel P. James,Yvonne Bone
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-10-05
Category : Science
Total pages :254
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This book is the first comprehensive documentation and interpretation of modern neritic carbonate sediments on the southern Australian continental margin, the largest cool-water carbonate depositional system on the globe. The approach is classical but the information is new. A brief chapter of introduction is followed by a section that describes the setting of the continental margin in terms of the regional geology, its evolution through time, the climate, and the complex oceanography. The setting is further explored in chapter 3 that outlines the Pleistocene history of sedimentation in this region. This is particularly important since many of the surficial sediments have a partial older history. The following section on the carbonate factory describes in detail the nature of the animals and plants that determine the nature of the sediments and the environmental conditions that control their distribution. The shelf itself cannot be discussed in isolation and thus a short chapter on the marginal marine environment is presented. The core of the book comprises two chapters that document the suite of depositional facies and their composition and then the suite of depositional environments where these sediments are found. The variety of deposits in this vast area is such that three chapters are devoted to the character of the materials on the southwestern shelf the south Australian sea and the southeastern shelf. The diagenesis that affects these sediments is tackled in a chapter after all the attributes are documented because they are intimately linked to different controls. The book finishes with a summary chapter that also addresses the various controls on sedimentation and models the effects to be expected when these are changed outside those present in the current realm. Audience: The book is an invaluable source of information about this vast region and will be a critical reference for researchers, graduate students, and professionals engaged in marine and environmental research. It will be of particular importance for geologists interpreting the ancient rock record.

Martian Geomorphology

Martian Geomorphology
Author : Matthew R. Balme
Publisher : Geological Society of London
Release Date : 2011
Category : Science
Total pages :307
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Stratigraphy and Depositional History of the Mesozoic Continental Margin of Central Nepal

Stratigraphy and Depositional History of the Mesozoic Continental Margin of Central Nepal
Author : Felix M. Gradstein
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1992
Category : Geology
Total pages :141
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From Archive to Process

From Archive to Process
Author : Deutscher Arbeitskreis für Geomorphologie. Tagung
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category : Eolian processes
Total pages :132
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中國地質學會會刊

中國地質學會會刊
Author : Zhongguo di zhi xue hui (Taipei, Taiwan)
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1958
Category : Geology
Total pages :129
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Oceanographica Sinica

Oceanographica Sinica
Author : Tingying Ma
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1957
Category : Oceanography
Total pages :129
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The Case For Mars

The Case For Mars
Author : Robert Zubrin
Publisher : Simon and Schuster
Release Date : 2012-12-11
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :320
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Since the beginning of human history Mars has been an alluring dream; the stuff of legends, gods, and mystery. The planet most like ours, it has still been thought impossible to reach, let alone explore and inhabit. Now with the advent of a revolutionary new plan, all this has changed. Leading space exploration authority Robert Zubrin has crafted a daring new blueprint, Mars Direct, presented here with illustrations, photographs, and engaging anecdotes. The Case for Mars is not a vision for the far future or one that will cost us impossible billions. It explains step-by-step how we can use present-day technology to send humans to Mars within ten years; actually produce fuel and oxygen on the planet's surface with Martian natural resources; how we can build bases and settlements; and how we can one day "terraform" Mars; a process that can alter the atmosphere of planets and pave the way for sustainable life.