November 26, 2020

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Mixing of Rubber Compounds

Mixing of Rubber Compounds
Author : Andreas Limper
Publisher : Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
Release Date : 2012-02-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :240
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The book covers the major aspects of rubber compounding. For the first time, the reader will find all relevant issues, whether it is machine design, process technology, or material parameters, covered in one comprehensive volume. - Compounding (System Description) - The Mixer - Process Technology in Compounding - Correlation between Material Parameters and the Compounding Process - Correlation between Processing and Properties for Technical Parts Made from Rubber - Properties of Synthetic Polymers during Compounding - Production of Silica Compounds - Physical Phenomena in the Manufacture of Rubber Compounds

The Mixing of Rubber

The Mixing of Rubber
Author : R.F. Grossman
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 1997-05-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :242
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Despite mature applications, advanced technology, and high volume, rubber compounding has never had a book of its own. Today, emerging applications such as tire reclamation and smoke-resistant cables combine with an industry push into engineering materials to create new kinds of compounds with new quality control problems. The Mixing of Rubber has been developed over several years in conjunction with the Farrel Corp./Connecticut Rubber Group course to educate the hands-on compounder and the end user as well. It covers machinery, mixing, process control, quality control, plant operations and mixing advice for specific compounds. Like the course, the book assumes no prior knowledge of rubber compounding but leads the technologist through the process from mix procedure to test.

Mixing of Rubber Compounds

Mixing of Rubber Compounds
Author : Andreas Limper
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2012
Category : Mixing machinery
Total pages :239
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Mixing of Rubber Compounds

Mixing of Rubber Compounds
Author : Andreas Limper
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2012
Category : Mixing machinery
Total pages :239
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The book covers the major aspects of rubber compounding. For the first time, the reader will find all relevant issues, whether it is machine design, process technology, or material parameters, covered in one comprehensive volume.

Rubber Compounding

Rubber Compounding
Author : Barlow
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1993-08-03
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :312
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This revised and expanded single-source reference analyzes all compounding material classes of dry rubber compounds, such as carbon blacks, platicizers and age resisters, integrating detailed information on how elastomers are built up. The work provides practical compounding tips on how to avoid oil or antioxidant bloom, how to adjust electrical conductivity and how to meet volume swell requirements.;This second edition: provides material on government regulations regarding rubber waste; presents current insights into the fast-growing polymer technology of thermoplastic elastomers; discusses the ramifications of the commercial availability of epoxidized natural rubber; and offers a comprehensive tabular chart on the properties of polymers.

Economic Mixing of Silica-rubber Compounds

Economic Mixing of Silica-rubber Compounds
Author : Wilma Karola Dierkes
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2005
Category :
Total pages :233
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The Complete Book on Rubber Processing and Compounding Technology (with Machinery Details) 2nd Revised Edition

The Complete Book on Rubber Processing and Compounding Technology (with Machinery Details) 2nd Revised Edition
Author : NIIR Board of Consultants and Engineers
Publisher : ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
Release Date : 2010-02-05
Category :
Total pages :680
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The production of rubber and rubber products is a large and diverse industry. The rubber product manufacturing industry is basically divided into two major sectors: tyre and non-tyre. The tyre sector produces all types of automotive and nonautomotive tyres whereas the non-tyre sector produces high technology and sophisticated products like conveyor belts , rubber seals etc. The wide range of rubber products manufactured by the rubber industry comprises all types of heavy duty earth moving tyres, auto tyres, tubes, automobile parts, footwear, beltings etc. The rubber industry has been growing tremendously over the years. The future of the rubber industry is tied to the global economy. Rapidly growing automotive sector in developing economies and increased demand for high-performance tyres are expected to contribute to the growth of the global industrial rubber market. The current scenario reveals that there is a tremendous scope for the development of rubber processing industries. The global market for industrial rubber products is projected to increase 5.8 % per year. Investment in rubber industry is expected to offer significant opportunities in the near future and realizing returns to investors willing to explore this sector. This book deals with all aspects of rubber processing; mixing, milling, extrusion and molding, reclaiming and manufacturing process of rubber products. The major contents of the book are rubbers materials and processing, mixing technology of rubber, techniques of vulcanization, rubber vulcanization, rubber compounding, rubber reclaiming, manufacture of rubber products, latex and foam rubber, silicone rubber, polybutadiene and polyisoprene, styrene butadiene rubber, rubber natural etc. The book contains addresses of plant & machinery suppliers with their Photographs. It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of rubber processing technology. TAGS Basic compounding and processing of rubber, Best small and cottage scale industries, Business guidance for rubber processing, Business guidance for rubber compounding, Business guidance to clients, Business Plan for a Startup Business, Business plan on Rubber, Business start-up, How is rubber made?, How to Start a Rubber business?, How to Start a Rubber Production Business, How to start a successful Rubber Processing business, How to Start Rubber processing Business, How to Start Rubber Processing Industry in India, Manufacture of Rubber Products, Modern small and cottage scale industries, Most Profitable Rubber Processing Business Ideas, Natural Rubber Processing Line, Natural rubber processing method, Natural Rubber Processing, New small scale ideas in Rubber processing industry, Opportunities in Rubber industries for new business, Processing and Profiting from Rubber, Processing methods for rubber materials, Profitable Rubber Business Ideas Small Scale Manufacturing, Profitable small and cottage scale industries, Profitable Small Scale Rubber Manufacturing, Rubber and Rubber Products, Rubber based Industries processing, Rubber Based Small Scale Industries Projects, Rubber business plan, Rubber Chemistry, Rubber compounding, Rubber Compounding & Mixing, Rubber compounding ingredients, Rubber compounding method, Rubber compounding process, Rubber compounding technology, Rubber Extrusion, Rubber Materials, Rubber mixing process, Rubber Mixing, Rubber Principles, Rubber processing, Rubber Processing & Rubber Based Profitable Projects, Rubber Processing and Profiting, Rubber Processing Business, Rubber Processing Industry in India, Rubber processing methods, Rubber Processing Projects, Rubber processing technology, Rubber Products manufacturing, Rubber Products, Rubber Reclaiming, Rubber technology, Rubber Technology and Manufacturing Process of Rubber Products, Rubber Vulcanization, Rubbers: materials and processing technology, Setting up of Rubber Processing Units, Small scale manufacturing business in rubber industry, Small Scale Rubber Processing Projects, Small scale Rubber production line, Small Start-up Business Project, Start up India, Stand up India, Starting a Rubber Processing Business, Startup, Start-up Business Plan for Rubber Processing, Startup ideas, Startup Project, Startup Project for Rubber processing and compounding, Startup project plan, Steps in processing of rubber, Vulcanization of rubber, Vulcanization of rubber compounds, Vulcanized rubber properties, Rubber processing and compounding

Rubber Compounding Ingredients: Need, Theory and Innovation

Rubber Compounding Ingredients: Need, Theory and Innovation
Author : C. Hepburn
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release Date : 1997
Category : Adhesives
Total pages :144
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The objectives of rubber compounding may be essentially defined as providing optimised performance and processability, generally at minimum cost, by the incorporation of non-rubber ingredients. Optimised performance in this context refers not only to mechanical properties but also, for example, resistance to bacteria or particular chemicals. In some applications a rubber may also need to be coloured, or bonded to another material, and further ingredients may be required. For many years, rubber compounding was largely empirical and frequently described as a black art. Today it is practised predominantly on the basis of scientific principles elucidated over years of study and is still the subject of intensive research. In this new report Claude Hepburn reviews the following range of compounding ingredients, considering the range of materials available, their particular actions and recent interesting advances: Process and extender oils; Process aids and surfactants; Coupling agents and adhesion promoters; Fire retardants, bactericides and blowing agents, colourants and odourants. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Polymer Library provides many more examples of novel materials and their applications.

Rubber Processing

Rubber Processing
Author : Peter S. Johnson
Publisher : Hanser Verlag
Release Date : 2001
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :145
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1 Overview of Rubber Processing p. 1 1.1 Introduction p. 1 1.2 Testing p. 2 1.2.1 Raw Materials Quality Assurance p. 2 1.2.2 Processability Testing of Mixed Compounds p. 2 1.2.3 End Product Testing p. 3 1.3 Conclusion p. 3 References p. 4 2 Raw Materials Acceptance and Specifications p. 5 2.1 Introduction p. 5 2.2 Raw Materials Specifications p. 5 2.2.1 Elastomers p. 6 2.2.2 Fillers p. 7 3 Mixing of Rubber Compounds p. 9 3.1 Introduction p. 9 3.2 Material Flow to the Mixer p. 10 3.2.1 Receipt and Storage of Raw Materials p. 11 3.2.2 Feeding, Weighing, and Charging Raw Materials p. 12 3.2.2.1 Weighing Major Ingredients p. 14 3.2.2.2 Small Component Weighing p. 14 3.3 The Mixing Process p. 15 3.3.1 Incorporation p. 16 3.3.2 Dispersion p. 17 3.3.3 Distribution p. 19 3.3.4 Plasticization p. 20 3.3.5 Natural Rubber Mastication p. 20 3.3.6 Flow Visualization and Modeling of the Mixing Process p. 20 3.3.6.1 Flow Visualization p. 21 3.3.6.2 Modeling p. 21 3.3.7 Flow Behavior on Mills p. 24 3.4 Internal Mixers p. 26 3.4.1 Developments in Internal Mixers p. 29 3.4.1.1 Farrel Mixers p. 29 3.4.1.2 Kobelco Stewart Bolling Mixers p. 30 3.4.1.3 Krupp-Midwest Werner und Pfleiderer Mixers p. 31 3.4.1.4. Pomini Mixers p. 31 3.4.2 Choosing a Mixer p. 32 3.4.3 Inspection and Preventative Maintenance of Mixers p. 32 3.4.4 Internal Mixer Operation p. 33 3.4.4.1 Mixing Procedures p. 33 3.4.4.2 Temperature Control in Internal Mixers p. 37 3.4.4.3 Rotor Speed p. 37 3.4.4.4 Ram Pressure p. 38 3.4.4.5 Batch Size p. 38 3.4.4.6 Dump Criteria p. 40 3.4.5 Control of the Mixing Process p. 41 3.4.6 Scale-Up p. 41 3.5 Take-Off Systems p. 43 3.5.1 Dump Mills p. 43 3.5.2 Packaging p. 44 3.5.3 Single Pass Mixing p. 45 3.6 Other Mixing Equipment p. 45 3.6.1 Mill Mixing p. 45 3.6.2 Continuous Mixing p. 47 3.7 Custom Compounding p. 47 3.8 Troubleshooting the Mixing Process p. 48 3.8.1 Inadequate Dispersion or Distribution p. 49 3.8.2 Scorchy Compound p. 49 3.8.3 Contamination p. 49 3.8.4 Poor Handling on Dump Mill p. 49 3.8.5 Batch-to-Batch Variation p. 49 3.9 Concluding Comments p. 50 References p. 50 4 Flow Behavior of Compounds p. 53 4.1 Introduction p. 53 4.2 Fundamentals of Rheology p. 53 4.3 Effect of Compounding Ingredients on Processing Behavior p. 58 4.3.1 Elastomers p. 58 4.3.2 Fillers p. 59 4.3.2.1 Carbon Blacks p. 59 4.3.3 Plasticizers and Processing Aids p. 60 4.3.3.1 Plasticizers p. 61 4.3.3.2 Processing Aids p. 62 4.3.4 Elasticity p. 63 4.3.5 Conclusion p. 64 References p. 64 5 Testing of Compounds After Mixing p. 65 5.1 Introduction p. 65 5.2 Processability Test Instruments p. 68 5.2.1 The Mooney Viscometer p. 68 5.2.1.1 Delta Mooney p. 69 5.2.1.2 TMS Rheometer p. 70 5.2.2 Capillary Rheometers p. 80 5.2.3 Oscillating Disk Curemeters p. 73 5.2.4 Rotorless Curemeters p. 75 5.2.5 Dynamic Mechanical Rheological Testers p. 75 5.2.6 Stress Relaxation Instruments p. 75 5.2.7 ODR Cure Times Correlation with MDR p. 77 5.3 Comparison of Alpha Technologies Processability Test Instruments p. 78 5.4 Conclusion p. 80 References p. 80 6 The Curing Process p. 83 6.1 Introduction p. 84 6.2 Scorch or Premature Vulcanization p. 84 References p. 85 7 Calendering of Rubber p. 87 7.1 Introduction p. 87 7.2 Equipment p. 87 7.3 Processes p. 88 7.3.1 Feeding p. 88 7.3.2 Sheeting p. 88 7.3.3 Frictioning p. 88 7.3.4 Coating p. 89 7.3.5 Roller Dies p. 89 7.3.6 Downstream Processes p. 90 7.4 Modeling the Calendering Process p. 90 7.5 Troubleshooting Problems in Calendering p. 91 7.5.1 Scorch p. 91 7.5.2 Blistering p. 91 7.5.3 Rough or Holed Sheet p. 91 7.5.4 Tack p. 91 7.5.5 Bloom p. 91 7.6 Conclusions p. 91 References p. 92 8 Extrusion of Rubber p. 93 8.1 Introduction p. 93 8.2 Feeding p. 93 8.2.1 Cold-Feed versus Hot-Feed Extruders p. 94 8.3 Mass Transfer, Conveying, or Pumping p. 96 8.3.1 Flow Mechanism p. 97 8.3.2 Extruder Designs p. 98 8.3.2.1 The Maillefer Screw p. 99 8.3.2.2 The Iddon Screw p. 100 8.3.2.3 The Transfermix p. 101 8.3.2.4 The EVK Screw p. 101 8.3.2.5 The Pin Barrel Extruder p. 101 8.3.2.6 The Cavity Transfer Mixer p. 102 8.3.2.7 Vented Extruders p. 104 8.3.2.8 Dump Extruders p. 104 8.3.2.9 Strainers p. 105 8.3.2.10 Extruder Barrels p. 105 8.4 Extruder Operation and Control p. 105 8.5 Shaping p. 108 8.5.1 Extruder Heads p. 108 8.5.1.1 Coextrusion p. 109 8.5.1.2 Crossheading p. 109 8.5.1.3 Shear Heads p. 109 8.5.2 Dies p. 111 8.5.2.1 Pressure Drop p. 111 8.5.2.2 Die Swell p. 111 8.6 Take-Off and Curing p. 112 8.6.1 Continuous Vulcanization Systems p. 113 8.6.1.1 Pressurized Steam Systems p. 113 8.6.1.2 Hot Air Curing Systems p. 113 8.6.1.3 Hot Air Fluidized Bed Systems p. 114 8.6.1.4 Liquid Salt Bath Systems p. 114 8.6.1.5 Microwave Systems p. 114 8.6.1.6 Shear Head Systems p. 115 8.6.1.7 Electron Beam Systems p. 115 8.6.1.8 Steel Belt Presses p. 116 8.6.1.9 Ultrasonic Vulcanization p. 116 8.7 Troubleshooting the Extrusion Process p. 116 8.7.1 Low Output Rate p. 116 8.7.2 Poor Dimensional Stability of Extrudate p. 117 8.7.3 Excessive Heat Buildup in Compound p. 117 8.7.4 Rough Surface on Extrudate p. 117 8.7.5 Contamination p. 117 8.7.6 Porosity in Extrudate p. 117 8.7.7 Strip Difficult to Feed p. 117 8.7.8 Surging Output p. 118 8.8 Concluding Comments p. 118 References p. 118 9 Molding of Rubber p. 119 9.1 Introduction p. 119 9.2 Compression and Transfer Molding p. 120 9.3 Injection Molding of Rubber p. 122 9.3.1 Injection Molding Equipment p. 125 9.3.1.1 Delivery Systems p. 125 9.3.1.2 Nozzles, Runners, and Gates p. 127 9.3.1.3 Molds p. 128 9.3.1.4 Automatic Ejection p. 129 9.3.1.5 Deflashing p. 129 9.3.2 The Injection Molding Process p. 130 9.3.2.1 Injection Temperature p. 130 9.3.2.2 Screw Speed p. 131 9.3.2.3 Back Pressure p. 131 9.3.2.4 Injection Pressure p. 131 9.3.2.5 Summary p. 131 9.3.3 Monitoring and Modeling the Injection Molding Process p. 131 9.3.4 Control of the Injection Molding Process p. 132 9.3.5 Compounds for Injection Molding p. 133 9.3.6 Problems in Injection Molding of Rubber p. 133 References p. 136 10 Finished Product Testing p. 137 10.1 Introduction p. 137 10.2 Test of Filler Distribution and Dispersion p. 138 10.2.1 Microscopy p. 138 10.2.2 Surface Roughness p. 138 10.3 Tests on Cured Specimens p. 138 10.3.1 Tensile Tests p. 139 10.3.2 Hardness p. 139 10.3.3 Compression Set p. 139 10.3.4 Solvent Resistance p. 140 10.3.5 Aging p. 140 10.3.6 Ozone Cracking p. 140 References p. 140 Index p. 143.

Rubber Mixing

Rubber Mixing
Author : P. R. Wood
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release Date : 1996
Category : Mixing machinery
Total pages :100
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This report describes the current state of the art in mixing in the rubber industry from a practical and essentially technological viewpoint. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.

Mixing of Vulcanisable Rubbers and Thermoplastic Elastomers

Mixing of Vulcanisable Rubbers and Thermoplastic Elastomers
Author : P. R. Wood
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release Date : 2005
Category : Elastomers
Total pages :128
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This report describes the current state-of-the-art in mixing from a practical viewpoint. It begins by offering historical background against which the latest developments are set. It considers both batch and continuous systems, containing details of key developments by equipment manufacturers, with the different concepts discussed in layman's terms. This report also summarises the range of mixing techniques applied in the industry as well as methods for monitoring mixing quality both off- and on-line are also covered. Recent academic research in rubber mixing is briefly considered, providing an indication of possible future practical advances in this field. This review of rubber mixing is supported by an indexed section containing several hundred key references and abstracts selected from the Rapra Abstracts database.

Rubber Technologist's Handbook

Rubber Technologist's Handbook
Author : Sadhan K. De,Jim R. White
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release Date : 2001
Category : Rubber
Total pages :576
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Annotation. This book provides a foundation in rubber technology and discusses the most recent developments in the subject. The fourteen chapters cover natural rubber, synthetic rubber, thermoplastic elastomers, fillers, compounding additives, mixing, engineering design, testing, tyre technology, automotive applications, footwear, rubbers in construction, durability of rubber products and rubber recycling.

Mixing and Compounding of Polymers

Mixing and Compounding of Polymers
Author : Ica Manas-Zloczower
Publisher : Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
Release Date : 2012-11-12
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :1182
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Finally available again in its second edition, this classic covers everything from the basic principles to the various practical applications of state-of-the-art mixing and compounding. Part I: Mechanisms and Theory Basic Concepts - Mixing of Miscible Fluids - Mixing of Immiscible Fluids - Dispersive Mixing of Solid Additives - Distributive Mixing - Distribution Functions and Measures of Mixing Part II: Mixing Equipment - Modeling, Simulation, Visualization Batch Equipment Simulation - Batch Equipment Visualization - Continuous Equipment Simulation - Dispersive Mixing Devices in Single Screw - Twin Rotor Mixers - Co-Kneader - Visualization - Scale-up of Mixing Equipment - Scale-down of Mixing Equipment Part III Material Consideration, Properties and Characterization Solid additives (inorganic) - Solid additives (organic) - Compatibilizers (mechanisms, theory) - Material Consideration for Mixing at Nanoscale - Effect of Mixing on Properties of Compounds - Effect of Mixing on Rubber Properties Part IV Mixing Practices Internal Mixers - Single Screw Extruders - Twin Screw Extruders - Intermeshing Twin Screw Extruders - Reciprocating Screws - Reactive Compounding - Farrel Continuous Mixer

Advances in Rubber

Advances in Rubber
Author : Charoen Nakason,Anoma Thitithammawong,Suwaluk Wisunthorn
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release Date : 2013-11-15
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :534
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Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 1st Asia Pacific Rubber Conference 2013, (APRC 2013) September 5–6, 2013, Surat Thani, Thailand. The 119 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Rubber Agronomy, Socio-Economics and Biotechnology; Chapter 2: Rubber Processing and Products; Chapter 3: Rubber Compounding and Composites; Chapter 4: Rubber Chemistry and Chemical Modification; Chapter 5: Industrial Rubber Application

Encyclopedia of Polymer Blends, Volume 2

Encyclopedia of Polymer Blends, Volume 2
Author : Avraam I. Isayev,Sanjay Palsule
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2016-09-12
Category : Science
Total pages :422
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A complete and timely overview of the topic, this volume imparts knowledge of fundamental principles and their applications for academicians, scientists and researchers, while informing engineers, industrialists and entrepreneurs of the current state of the technology and its utilization. Each article is uniformly structured for easy navigation, containing the latest research & development and its basic principles and applications, examples of case studies, laboratory and pilot plant experiments, as well as due reference to the published and patented literature.