June 15, 2021

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Multiscale Biomechanical Modeling of the Brain

Multiscale Biomechanical Modeling of the Brain
Author : Raj K. Prabhu,Mark F. Horstemeyer
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-11-15
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :200
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Multiscale biomechanical modeling of the brain presents a robust description of the constitutive modeling of the brain at the various length scales (nanoscale, microscale, mesoscale, macroscale and structural scale). In each scale, the book goes through to the state-of-the- experimental and computational tools used to quantify critical deformational information at that length scale. Then, at the structural scale, several user-based constitutive material models are presented along with its real-world boundary value problems. Lastly, design and optimization concepts are presented for use in occupant-centric design framework. This book is useful for both academia and industry where there is focus on the basic science aspects or the applied research of head and brain protection. The multiscale approach to this topic is unique, and cannot be found in other books. This book includes meticulously selected materials that aim at interconnecting the mechanistic analysis of the brain tissue at size scales ranging from subcellular to organ levels, and is an excellent reference for students, researchers, and clinicians in the field of brain mechanics and trauma. Presents concepts in the theoretical and thermodynamic framework for each length scale Teaches readers how to use an existing multiscale model for the brain, or develop a new multiscale model for the brain Takes an integrated experimental-computational approach and gives structured multiscale coverage of the problems

Biomechanical Analysis of Blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury Using Multiscale Brain Modeling

Biomechanical Analysis of Blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury Using Multiscale Brain Modeling
Author : Mahdi Sotudeh Chafi
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2009
Category : Brain
Total pages :408
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Computer Models in Biomechanics

Computer Models in Biomechanics
Author : Gerhard Holzapfel,Ellen Kuhl
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-10-17
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :416
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This book contains a collection of papers that were presented at the IUTAM Symposium on “Computer Models in Biomechanics: From Nano to Macro” held at Stanford University, California, USA, from August 29 to September 2, 2011. It contains state-of-the-art papers on: - Protein and Cell Mechanics: coarse-grained model for unfolded proteins, collagen-proteoglycan structural interactions in the cornea, simulations of cell behavior on substrates - Muscle Mechanics: modeling approaches for Ca2+–regulated smooth muscle contraction, smooth muscle modeling using continuum thermodynamical frameworks, cross-bridge model describing the mechanoenergetics of actomyosin interaction, multiscale skeletal muscle modeling - Cardiovascular Mechanics: multiscale modeling of arterial adaptations by incorporating molecular mechanisms, cardiovascular tissue damage, dissection properties of aortic aneurysms, intracranial aneurysms, electromechanics of the heart, hemodynamic alterations associated with arterial remodeling following aortic coarctation, patient-specific surgery planning for the Fontan procedure - Multiphasic Models: solutes in hydrated biological tissues, reformulation of mixture theory-based poroelasticity for interstitial tissue growth, tumor therapies of brain tissue, remodeling of microcirculation in liver lobes, reactions, mass transport and mechanics of tumor growth, water transport modeling in the brain, crack modeling of swelling porous media - Morphogenesis, Biological Tissues and Organs: mechanisms of brain morphogenesis, micromechanical modeling of anterior cruciate ligaments, mechanical characterization of the human liver, in vivo validation of predictive models for bone remodeling and mechanobiology, bridging scales in respiratory mechanics

Biomechanics: Trends in Modeling and Simulation

Biomechanics: Trends in Modeling and Simulation
Author : Gerhard A. Holzapfel,Ray W. Ogden
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-09-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :316
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The book presents a state-of-the-art overview of biomechanical and mechanobiological modeling and simulation of soft biological tissues. Seven well-known scientists working in that particular field discuss topics such as biomolecules, networks and cells as well as failure, multi-scale, agent-based, bio-chemo-mechanical and finite element models appropriate for computational analysis. Applications include arteries, the heart, vascular stents and valve implants as well as adipose, brain, collagenous and engineered tissues. The mechanics of the whole cell and sub-cellular components as well as the extracellular matrix structure and mechanotransduction are described. In particular, the formation and remodeling of stress fibers, cytoskeletal contractility, cell adhesion and the mechanical regulation of fibroblast migration in healing myocardial infarcts are discussed. The essential ingredients of continuum mechanics are provided. Constitutive models of fiber-reinforced materials with an emphasis on arterial walls and the myocardium are discussed and the important influence of residual stresses on material response emphasized. The mechanics and function of the heart, the brain and adipose tissues are discussed as well. Particular attention is focused on microstructural and multi-scale modeling, finite element implementation and simulation of cells and tissues.

Multiscale Computer Modeling in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering

Multiscale Computer Modeling in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Author : Amit Gefen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2014-07-08
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :396
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This book reviews the state-of-the-art in multiscale computer modeling, in terms of both accomplishments and challenges. The information in the book is particularly useful for biomedical engineers, medical physicists and researchers in systems biology, mathematical biology, micro-biomechanics and biomaterials who are interested in how to bridge between traditional biomedical engineering work at the organ and tissue scales, and the newer arenas of cellular and molecular bioengineering.

Multiscale Modeling in Biomechanics and Mechanobiology

Multiscale Modeling in Biomechanics and Mechanobiology
Author : Suvranu De,Wonmuk Hwang,Ellen Kuhl
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-10-10
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :286
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Presenting a state-of-the-art overview of theoretical and computational models that link characteristic biomechanical phenomena, this book provides guidelines and examples for creating multiscale models in representative systems and organisms. It develops the reader's understanding of and intuition for multiscale phenomena in biomechanics and mechanobiology, and introduces a mathematical framework and computational techniques paramount to creating predictive multiscale models. Biomechanics involves the study of the interactions of physical forces with biological systems at all scales – including molecular, cellular, tissue and organ scales. The emerging field of mechanobiology focuses on the way that cells produce and respond to mechanical forces – bridging the science of mechanics with the disciplines of genetics and molecular biology. Linking disparate spatial and temporal scales using computational techniques is emerging as a key concept in investigating some of the complex problems underlying these disciplines. Providing an invaluable field manual for graduate students and researchers of theoretical and computational modelling in biology, this book is also intended for readers interested in biomedical engineering, applied mechanics and mathematical biology.

Tumors of the Central Nervous System, Volume 12

Tumors of the Central Nervous System, Volume 12
Author : M.A. Hayat
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-11-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :386
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As in the case of its eleven predecessors in the series Tumors of the Central Nervous System, this volume is distinguished for its thorough approach, its roster of 92 distinguished contributors representing 11 different countries and its detailed examination of leading-edge technology and methods. Volume 12: Molecular Mechanisms, Children’s Cancer, Treatments, and Radiosurgery offers a comprehensive review of the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of brain and spinal cord tumors. Coverage extends to a large number of tumor types, including neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, meningioma and chordoma. Molecular profiling of brain tumors to select appropriate therapy in clinical trials of brain tumors is discussed in detail, as is the classification/diagnosis of brain tumors based on function analysis. CDK6 as the molecular regulator of neuronal differentiation in the adult brain, and the role of aquaporins in human brain tumor growth are explained. Discussion also includes tumors affecting children, including neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. A full chapter is devoted to the role of molecular genetic alterations in medulloblastoma, and another examines survival differences between children and adults with medulloblastoma. The use of various types of imaging methods to diagnose brain tumors is explained. In-depth discussion of treatment options includes stereotactic radiosurgery, endoscopic neurosurgery, electrochemotherapy, transsphenoidal surgery, focal ablation, whole brain radiation therapy and recraniotomy.

Biomechanics of the Brain

Biomechanics of the Brain
Author : Karol Miller
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2019-08-08
Category : Science
Total pages :353
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This new edition presents an authoritative account of the current state of brain biomechanics research for engineers, scientists and medical professionals. Since the first edition in 2011, this topic has unquestionably entered into the mainstream of biomechanical research. The book brings together leading scientists in the diverse fields of anatomy, neuroimaging, image-guided neurosurgery, brain injury, solid and fluid mechanics, mathematical modelling and computer simulation to paint an inclusive picture of the rapidly evolving field. Covering topics from brain anatomy and imaging to sophisticated methods of modeling brain injury and neurosurgery (including the most recent applications of biomechanics to treat epilepsy), to the cutting edge methods in analyzing cerebrospinal fluid and blood flow, this book is the comprehensive reference in the field. Experienced researchers as well as students will find this book useful.

Biomechanics of the Cerebrum at Finite Strain

Biomechanics of the Cerebrum at Finite Strain
Author : Thibault Philippe Prévost
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2010
Category :
Total pages :124
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The present study addresses the large strain nonlinear mechanical response of the cerebral cortex at the macroscopic tissue level and at the microscopic cell level. Unconfined uniaxial compression tests were conducted in vitro on cortical samples of porcine brains. The tests consisted of load-unload and relaxation segments to 50% nominal deformation at 0.01 to 10 s-1 strain rates. The tissue exhibited moderate volumetric compressibility, marked hysteretic features, and substantial nonlinearities. Indentation tests - with displacement histories mirroring those imposed in compression - were performed on the cortex of porcine brains in vivo, in situ and in vitro, in order to assess and contrast the mechanical properties of the live and dead tissue. The tissue response shared similar qualitative nonlinear viscoelastic features under all testing conditions, although, quantitatively, the response was found to be significantly stiffer in situ than in vivo. Test protocols were also developed at the neuronal cell level using atomic force microscopy. The response of individual somata to cyclic load-unload and relaxation test sequences was found to be nonlinear with time dependencies and hysteretic patterns similar to those measured at the tissue level. A large strain kinematics nonlinear continuum model was proposed to capture the features of the tissue and cell responses. The model was numerically implemented into a three-dimensional finite-element framework. The continuum formulation was found to successfully account for the main experimental observations gathered in vitro at the tissue and cell levels. The present study provides novel insights into the tissue rheology in vivo, in situ and in vitro, at large strains, in the quasi-static and dynamic strain rate regime and reports the first body of observations on the large strain nonlinear viscoelastic properties of brain tissue in vivo. These observations could be directly compared to those pertaining to the tissue response in situ and in vitro, thereby providing a unique quantitative basis for further refinements of existing biomechanical models relying only on in vitro/situ measurements. The consistent set of mechanical data collected, and the constitutive framework proposed at the tissue and cell levels might support the development of multiscale numerical models to study traumatic brain injury.

Explosion and Blast-Related Injuries

Explosion and Blast-Related Injuries
Author : Nabil M. Elsayed, Ph.D.,James L. Atkins, MD, Ph.D.
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2010-07-26
Category : Science
Total pages :400
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Explosion and Blast-Related Injuries is an authoritative text that brings together diverse knowledge gained from both the experience of clinicians treating blast casualties and the insights of scientists obtained from research and modeling of blast exposures. By providing information on explosion and blast injury patterns, as well as the mechanism of blast-induced injuries, it is a useful reference for both physicians and researchers. With contributions by experts from around the globe, the book covers topics such as the epidemiology of blast and explosion injury, pathology and pathophysiology, and the modeling and mechanism of injury. Finally, this book might stimulate additional studies into ways to improve our current mass casualty response systems. * Contains contributions from experts who had first hand experience dealing with explosion and blast injuries. * Provides a diverse global experience derived from both military operations and terrorist attacks in civilian settings from the US, Europe and the Middle East. * Covers such topics as epidemiology of blast and explosion injury, pathology and pathophysiology, modeling and mechanism of injury, and finally presents the global experiences of blast injury and mass casualty management.

Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical Engineering
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2005
Category : Mechanical engineering
Total pages :129
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Biomechanics of Cells and Tissues

Biomechanics of Cells and Tissues
Author : Paola Lecca
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-01-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :168
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The application of methodological approaches and mathematical formalisms proper to Physics and Engineering to investigate and describe biological processes and design biological structures has led to the development of many disciplines in the context of computational biology and biotechnology. The best known applicative domain is tissue engineering and its branches. Recent domains of interest are in the field of biophysics, e.g.: multiscale mechanics of biological membranes and films and filaments; multiscale mechanics of adhesion; biomolecular motors and force generation. Modern hypotheses, models, and tools are currently emerging and resulting from the convergence of the methods and phylosophycal apporaches of the different research areas and disciplines. All these emerging approaches share the purpose of disentangling the complexity of organisms, tissues, and cells and mimiking the function of living systems. The contributions presented in this book are current research highlights of six challenging and representative applicative domains of phyisical, engineering, and computational approaches in medicine and biology, i.e tissue engineering, modelling of molecular structures, cell mechanics and cell adhesión processes, cancer physics, and physico-chemical processes of metabolic interactions. Each chapter presents a compendium or a review of the original results achieved by authors in the last years. Furthermore, the book also wants to pinpoint the questions that are still open and that could propel the future research.

Mathematical Models for Glioma Invasion in 3d Collagen-I Gel

Mathematical Models for Glioma Invasion in 3d Collagen-I Gel
Author : Andrew M. Stein
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2007
Category :
Total pages :129
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Information Processing in Medical Imaging

Information Processing in Medical Imaging
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2001
Category : Diagnostic imaging
Total pages :129
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Modeling Methods in Understanding and Ameliorating Central Nervous System Injury

Modeling Methods in Understanding and Ameliorating Central Nervous System Injury
Author : Sagar Singh
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2016
Category : Central nervous system
Total pages :220
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To improve the quality of life for victims of traumatic spinal cord and brain injury, a better understanding of how microstructural mechanical behavior influences bulk tissue and vice versa is necessary. Two aspects that warrant attention in this matter are primary injury and neural electrode-tissue interactions. While their respective biomechanics are measurable at the macroscopic level, it is difficult to measure microscopic deformations during injury in situ and in vivo experimentally. To overcome this limitation, we develop experimentally validated computational approaches to predict the multiscale translations involved in white matter tissue injury, and probe-tissue interfaces. In the first part of this dissertation, we developed approaches to model primary injury at the axon level. First we developed 3-D axon kinematic models to infer axonal strain as a function of tissue-level stretch. Embryonic chick spinal cord tissue was exposed to controlled stretch and axon tortuosity and kinematics were characterized in 3-dimensions. We determined that greater proportions of axons are predicted to behave with affine, composite-like kinematics. Next, we identified and evaluated contactin-associated protein (Caspr) for use as a fiducial marker in estimating axonal strain and axonal failure thresholds. Spinal cord tissue was exposed to controlled stretch, and displacements of immunostained Caspr proteins were measured. Changes in Caspr displacements reflected the applied macroscopic stretch directly at earlier stages of development but this trend deviated with further development. This shift in trend correlated with observations of axon failure at later stages of development, and we predicted axon failure thresholds to decrease with development. In the second part of this dissertation, we developed approaches to model multiscale mechanics in neural probe and tissue interactions. Finite element simulations were developed and experimentally validated to determine insertion and buckling forces for different coating and probe designs. Parameter sweeps of these features determined that probe length and coating thickness had the biggest impact on insertion forces. Next, we used the model to simulate the probe-tissue interface in order to correlate interfacial stress and tissue strain to chronic injury. Stress and strain predictions were made for a variety of probe designs and results were validated with parallel experiments using agarose tissue phantoms. We correlated predictions to gliosis through an in vitro model where astrocytes cultured in collagen gels were cast around a probe and exposed to micromotion. We determined that probe stiffness has a greater effect on chronic injury than size. We were also able to predict minimum strain thresholds for inducing astrocyte activation. The findings in this work help elucidate multiscale transfers in white matter injury and probe-tissue interfaces. These results can be applied to the design of better preventative measures for brain and spinal cord injury (sports and military equipment), as well as neural probes for long-term signal acquisition/stimulation in brain-to-computer interfaces.