December 3, 2020

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Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Mark Schulz,Vesselin Shanov,Zhangzhang Yin,Marc Cahay
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2019-03-29
Category : Science
Total pages :972
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Nanotube Superfiber Materials: Science, Manufacturing, Commercialization, Second Edition, helps engineers and entrepreneurs understand the science behind the unique properties of nanotube fiber materials, how to efficiency and safely produce them, and how to transition them into commercial products. Each chapter gives an account of the basic science, manufacturing, properties and commercial potential of a specific nanotube material form and its application. New discoveries and technologies are explained, along with experiences in handing-off the improved materials to industry. This book spans nano-science, nano-manufacturing, and the commercialization of nanotube superfiber materials. As such, it opens up the vast commercial potential of nanotube superfiber materials. Applications for nanotube superfiber materials cut across most of the fields of engineering, including spacecraft, automobiles, drones, hyperloop tracks, water and air filters, infrastructure, wind energy, composites, and medicine where nanotube materials enable development of tiny machines that can work inside our bodies to diagnose and treat disease. Provides up to date information on the applications of nanotube fiber materials Explores both the manufacturing and commercialization of nanotube superfibers Sets out the processes for producing macro-scale materials from carbon nanotubes Describes the unique properties of these materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Mark Schulz,Vesselin Shanov,Zhangzhang Yin
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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Nanotube Superfiber Materials refers to different forms of macroscale materials with unique properties constructed from carbon nanotubes. These materials include nanotube arrays, ribbons, scrolls, yarn, braid, and sheets. Nanotube materials are in the early stage of development and this is the first dedicated book on the subject. Transitioning from molecules to materials is a breakthrough that will positively impact almost all industries and areas of society. Key properties of superfiber materials are high flexibility and fatigue resistance, high energy absorption, high strength, good electrical conductivity, high maximum current density, reduced skin and proximity effects, high thermal conductivity, lightweight, good field emission, piezoresistive, magnetoresistive, thermoelectric, and other properties. These properties will open up the door to dozens of applications including replacing copper wire for power conduction, EMI shielding, coax cable, carbon biofiber, bullet-proof vests, impact resistant glass, wearable antennas, biomedical microdevices, biosensors, self-sensing composites, supercapacitors, superinductors, hybrid superconductor, reinforced elastomers, nerve scaffolding, energy storage, and many others. The scope of the book covers three main areas: Part I: Processing; Part II: Properties; and Part III: Applications. Processing involves nanotube synthesis and macro scale material formation methods. Properties covers the mechanical, electrical, chemical and other properties of nanotubes and macroscale materials. Different approaches to growing high quality long nanotubes and spinning the nanotubes into yarn are explained in detail. The best ideas are collected from all around the world including commercial approaches. Applications of nanotube superfiber cover a huge field and provides a broad survey of uses. The book gives a broad overview starting from bioelectronics to carbon industrial machines. First book to explore the production and applications of macro-scale materials made from nano-scale particles. Sets out the processes for producing macro-scale materials from carbon nanotubes, and describes the unique properties of these materials Potential applications for CNT fiber/yarn include replacing copper wire for power conduction, EMI shielding, coax cable, carbon biofiber, bullet-proof vests, impact resistant glass, wearable antennas, biomedical microdevices, biosensors, self-sensing composites, supercapacitors, superinductors, hybrid superconductor, reinforced elastomers, nerve scaffolding, energy storage, and many others.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Mark Schulz,Vesselin Shanov,Zhangzhang Yin
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2018-09
Category :
Total pages :848
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Nanotube Superfiber Materials: Science, Manufacturing, Commercialization, Second Edition, helps engineers and entrepreneurs understand the science behind the unique properties of nanotube fiber materials, how to efficiency and safely produce them, and how to transition them into commercial products. Each chapter gives an account of the basic science, manufacturing, properties and commercial potential of a specific nanotube material form and its application. New discoveries and technologies are explained, along with experiences in handing-off the improved materials to industry. This book spans nano-science, nano-manufacturing, and the commercialization of nanotube superfiber materials. As such, it opens up the vast commercial potential of nanotube superfiber materials. Applications for nanotube superfiber materials cut across most of the fields of engineering, including spacecraft, automobiles, drones, hyperloop tracks, water and air filters, infrastructure, wind energy, composites, and medicine where nanotube materials enable development of tiny machines that can work inside our bodies to diagnose and treat disease. Provides up to date information on the applications of nanotube fiber materials Explores both the manufacturing and commercialization of nanotube superfibers Sets out the processes for producing macro-scale materials from carbon nanotubes Describes the unique properties of these materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Canh-Dung Tran
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn, a macroscopic structure of CNTs with many potential applications, has attracted increased attention around the world and across many research areas and industrial fields, including materials science, electronics, medical biology and ecology. Spinning CNTs into yarn based on traditional textile spinning principles has demonstrated the potential in many important applications by producing weavable multifunctionalized yarns. Between 1991 and 2010, new manufacturing methods have enabled the production of pure CNT yarns and CNT-based composite yarns called superfiber suitable for weaving, knitting and braiding with continuous improvements. Especially various novel technologies are used to recently produce yarns for electrochemical devices and medical bioengineering. Thus, the studies on assembling individual CNTs into macrostructures of controlled and oriented configurations continue to play an important role in exploiting CNT potential applications.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Xin Wang,Philip D. Bradford,Qingwen Li,Yuntian Zhu
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess the unique combination of extreme mechanical and physical properties at the level of the individual tube. They are often considered one of the best candidates for the reinforcement of the next generation of multifunctional composite materials. It is essential to assemble the CNTs into macroscopic assemblies resembling traditional fiber-reinforced composites to begin to realize their potential and make them a serious candidate for commercial composite structures. This chapter presents a general introduction to aligned and high-volume fraction CNT composites and then explores two recent promising approaches for fabricating strong, stiff and multifunctional aligned CNT/polymer composite prepregs at satisfactory processing rates. One approach involves incorporating drawable superaligned CNT sheets into high-volume fraction composites through spraying or spray-stretching and winding. The other approach is based on directly shear pressing vertically aligned CNT arrays into horizontally aligned sheets with subsequent polymer infiltration. Both approaches produced CNT composite prepregs with desirable structural features and excellent properties. Aligned CNT/bismaleimide composites produced by stretch winding exhibited a combined tensile strength and elastic modulus exceeding carbon fiber composites. The exceptional mechanical performance coupled with unique electrical and thermal properties makes these materials promising for a wide range of applications, such as multifunctional composite structures, lightweight and flexible conductors, thermal interface materials, and sensors.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Rufan Zhang,Yingying Zhang,Fei Wei
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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Ultralong carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are ideal building blocks for nanodevices and superstrong fibers. Due to their high-aspect-ratio structure formed from sp2 hybrid C–C bonds, they have extraordinary mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. It is of great importance to synthesize ultralong CNTs with controlled structures as well as optimized properties for their applications. This chapter discusses the synthesis methods, growth mechanisms, structures, electrical and mechanical properties, as well as the applications of ultralong CNTs. We show that the controlled synthesis of ultralong CNTs with certain structures and properties is of fundamental importance for their applications. Finally, we also show that the mechanical properties of ultralong CNTs are near the theoretical value, showing great potential for their applications in superstrong fibers.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Ana Laura Elías,Néstor Perea-López,Lakshmy Pulickal Rajukumar,Amber McCreary,Florentino López-Urías,Humberto Terrones,Mauricio Terrones
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered one-dimensional systems that possess fascinating electronic, chemical and mechanical properties. They exhibit metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the nanotube diameter and chirality, and they are ultrarobust and lightweight. Moreover, their surface can be chemically activated thus being able to establish different types of bonds between the carbon nanotube surface and a large number of chemical species; for instance, they could be introduced into a polymeric matrix improving its mechanical or electronic properties. In addition, CNTs are able to host different species in their hollow core, such as ferromagnetic clusters, molecules, and gases. Nowadays, synthesis techniques have achieved control of the length and diameter of CNTs, which constitutes a step forward toward applications. In this chapter, we address the issue of using CNTs as fundamental building blocks for constructing three-dimensional (3D) networks. Here, we present a review of the experimental and theoretical investigations on the formation of 3D networks using CNTs as the main component. In addition, the latest advances on the synthesis and characterization of different carbon nanostructures involving CNTs such as branches, junctions and foams are discussed.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : N. Govindaraju,R.N. Singh
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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Nanostructured materials such as nanotubes exhibit properties significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The effect of the length scale on nanostructure material properties, in general, is briefly discussed. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are wide-bandgap (Bandgap: ∼5 eV) semiconductor materials with attractive electrical, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. The structure of BNNTs is delineated followed by a description of their main methods of synthesis. Electrical, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties of BNNTs are discussed and contrasted with those of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It is shown that the properties of BNNTs rival, if not exceed CNTs in several areas. It is envisaged that with further research, BNNTs will find applications in nanoelectromechanical systems, as ultraviolet light sources, in composite materials, and for storing gases.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Fabrizio Pinto
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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A novel approach leading to potentially extremely high-density energy and power storage is proposed based upon the energy exchange between the dispersion force field in an assembly of aligned telescoping nanotubes and the electrostatic field produced by an external voltage source biasing such nanostructures with respect to a facing electrode. We show that the retraction of a telescoping core into the outer nanotube shell in quasi-equilibrium results in the conversion of energy stored in the van der Waals field of the system into an electric current along with heat dissipated into the environment. On a macroscopic scale, the combined effect of the large effective areas and dominant dispersion force magnitudes typical of nanotubes makes such an implementation quite competitive as a storage system, conservatively capable of energy densities ∼1–3×102W·h/kg, depending on the particular class of nanotube employed, and with power densities in principle limited only by the dynamical response of the driving electronics. Additionally, since the mechanism of energy storage and release is ultimately related to quantum–electrodynamical dispersion interactions, the system charge and discharge time profiles can be directly addressed by the user on the nanoscale and are not limited by the electrochemical processes.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Weifeng Li,Brad Ruff,John Yin,Rajiv Venkatasubramanian,David Mast,Anshuman Sowani,Arvind Krishnaswamy,Vesselin Shanov,Noe Alvarez,Rachit Malik,Mark Haase,Madhura Patwardhan,Mark Schulz,Sergey Yarmolenko,Svitlana Fialkova,Salil Desai,Ge Li
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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Medical change is coming. Robots and tiny machines built using nanoscale materials are going to fundamentally change engineering at the microscale and medicine will be the first area to benefit. In tiny machine design, copper and iron are replaced with carbon nanotube superfiber wire and magnetic nanocomposite materials. Because of the small size of tiny machines, high magnetic fields can be generated and high-force, high-speed devices can be built. Tiny machines are still in the early stages of being built and this chapter describes their engineering design and the work underway to build them. The tiny machines will operate inside the body and detect disease at an early stage, then provide precise therapy or surgery. There will also be engineering applications for the tiny machines such as performing high-throughput manufacturing operations at the microscale. The design principles and materials processing techniques described herein will facilitate the development of nanomaterial robots and tiny machines for myriad applications ranging from miniaturized sensors, actuators, energy harvesting devices, high-performance electric motors, and energy storage devices to smart structures with built-in artificial responsive behavior.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Mark J. Schulz,Brad Ruff,Aaron Johnson,Kumar Vemaganti,Weifeng Li,Murali M. Sundaram,Guangfeng Hou,Arvind Krishnaswamy,Ge Li,Svitlana Fialkova,Sergey Yarmolenko,Anli Wang,Yijun Liu,James Sullivan,Noe Alvarez,Vesselin Shanov,Sarah Pixley
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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Nanotubes are a unique class of materials because their properties depend not only on their composition but also on their geometry. The diameter, number of walls, length, chirality, van der Waals forces, and quality all affect the properties and performance of nanotubes. This dependence on geometry is what makes scaling-up nanotubes to form bulk material so challenging. Nanotubes are also unusual because they stick together to form bundles or strands. Nanotube superfiber materials are fibrous assemblages of nanotubes and strands. The hope and dream of researchers around the world is that nanotube superfiber materials will have broad applications and change engineering design. This chapter gives a perspective on nanotube superfiber development. This chapter discusses new applications—where we think we can go with the material properties and what applications will be enabled—and new techniques for developing superfiber material.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Michael B. Jakubinek
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported to have the highest thermal conductivities of any known material. However, significant variability exists both for the reported thermal conductivities of individual CNTs and the thermal conductivities measured for macroscopic CNT assemblies (e.g. CNT films, buckypapers, arrays, and fibers), which range from comparable to metals to aerogel-like. This chapter reviews the current status of the field, summarizing a wide selection of experimental results and drawing conclusions regarding present limitations of the thermal conductivity of CNT assemblies and opportunities for improvement of the performance of nanotube superfiber materials.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Miao Zhu,Hongwei Zhu
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn represents one of the most remarkable macrostructures of CNT with its excellent performance in terms of mechanical and electrical properties. Various synthesis methods have been developed and an increasing number of applications have been reported to date, making yarn production one of the most active fields in current research on nanomaterials. In this chapter, we focus on the direct synthesis of long CNT yarns by chemical vapor deposition, including some discussions of the growth parameters and key characteristics of as-grown yarns. A general introduction to the potential applications of CNT yarns/fibers is given to outline its broad prospects in different fields.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials
Author : Adam Hehr,Yi Song,Bolaji Suberu,Joe Sullivan,Vesselin Shanov,Mark Schulz
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :848
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This chapter investigates the use of carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor thread in distributed structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, specifically as embedded damage and strain sensors. The CNT sensor thread has shown potential to be integrated into/onto composite materials to provide confident damage detection, localization, and characterization in complex geometries without complicated detection algorithms and minimal sensing channels. This chapter articulates current work done with CNT thread in Nanoworld Laboratories, specifically CNT thread performance as a sensor; past, current, and future embedded sensing work; and potential SHM design architectures for aircraft, along with a description of a few potential multifunctional aspects of the material. Multifunctional here implies improving the composite material besides self-sensing of damage and strain. Some of these multifunctional characteristics include self-sensing of moisture, oxidation, and temperature; improved mechanical properties of damping, toughness, stiffness, and strength; and improved thermal and electrical transport, among many other potential areas. Besides these multifunctional characteristics, CNT thread is low in weight and small in size and the material is modest in cost. As a consequence of these strong sensor and material characteristics, the authors believe that this could be a game-changing material for high-cost composite commercial and defense vehicles. Future military and commercial composite vehicles will have “nano inside” to provide safety, reliability, durability, condition-based maintenance, and multifunctionality.

Synthesis, Technology and Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials

Synthesis, Technology and Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials
Author : Suraya Abdul Rashid,Raja Nor Izawati Raja Othman,Mohd Zobir Hussein
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-10-10
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :363
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Synthesis, Technology and Applications of Carbon Nanomaterials explores the chemical properties of different classes of carbon nanomaterials and their major applications. As carbon nanomaterials are used for a variety of applications due to their versatile properties and characteristics, this book discusses recent advances in synthesis methods, characterization, and applications of 0D -3D dimensional carbon nanomaterials. It is an essential resource for readers focusing on carbon nanomaterials research. Explores the chemical properties of different classes of carbon nanomaterials and their major applications Discusses recent advances in synthesis methods, characterization, and applications of 0D -3D dimensional carbon nanomaterials