December 2, 2020

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Neurobiology of Language

Neurobiology of Language
Author : Gregory Hickok,Steven L. Small
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-08-15
Category : Science
Total pages :1188
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Neurobiology of Language explores the study of language, a field that has seen tremendous progress in the last two decades. Key to this progress is the accelerating trend toward integration of neurobiological approaches with the more established understanding of language within cognitive psychology, computer science, and linguistics. This volume serves as the definitive reference on the neurobiology of language, bringing these various advances together into a single volume of 100 concise entries. The organization includes sections on the field's major subfields, with each section covering both empirical data and theoretical perspectives. "Foundational" neurobiological coverage is also provided, including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, linguistic, and psycholinguistic data, and models. Foundational reference for the current state of the field of the neurobiology of language Enables brain and language researchers and students to remain up-to-date in this fast-moving field that crosses many disciplinary and subdisciplinary boundaries Provides an accessible entry point for other scientists interested in the area, but not actively working in it – e.g., speech therapists, neurologists, and cognitive psychologists Chapters authored by world leaders in the field – the broadest, most expert coverage available

Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language

Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language
Author : Annette M. B. de Groot,Peter Hagoort
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2017-10-23
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :392
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The first comprehensive guide to research methods and technologies in psycholinguistics and the neurobiology of language Bringing together contributions from a distinguished group of researchers and practitioners, editors Annette M. B. de Groot and Peter Hagoort explore the methods and technologies used by researchers of language acquisition, language processing, and communication, including: traditional observational and behavioral methods; computational modelling; corpus linguistics; and virtual reality. The book also examines neurobiological methods, including functional and structural neuroimaging and molecular genetics. Ideal for students engaged in the field, Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language examines the relative strengths and weaknesses of various methods in relation to competing approaches. It describes the apparatus involved, the nature of the stimuli and data used, and the data collection and analysis techniques for each method. Featuring numerous example studies, along with many full-color illustrations, this indispensable text will help readers gain a clear picture of the practices and tools described. Brings together contributions from distinguished researchers across an array of related disciplines who explain the underlying assumptions and rationales of their research methods Describes the apparatus involved, the nature of the stimuli and data used, and the data collection and analysis techniques for each method Explores the relative strengths and weaknesses of various methods in relation to competing approaches Features numerous real-world examples, along with many full-color illustrations, to help readers gain a clear picture of the practices and tools described

The Neurobiology of Affect in Language Learning

The Neurobiology of Affect in Language Learning
Author : John H. Schumann
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release Date : 1999-06-18
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :364
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This book presents a theory of how the psychology and neurobiology of stimulus appraisal influences the variability in second language acquisition. It then extends the notion of affect developed for second language acquisition to primary language acquisition and to cognition in general. Written by one of the leading scholars in the field, this book is an important research tool for students and professors of language studies and linguistics.

Neurobiology of Language

Neurobiology of Language
Author : Gregory Hickok,Steve Small
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-08-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :1188
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Neurobiology of Language explores the study of language, a field that has seen tremendous progress in the last two decades. Key to this progress is the accelerating trend toward integration of neurobiological approaches with the more established understanding of language within cognitive psychology, computer science, and linguistics. This volume serves as the definitive reference on the neurobiology of language, bringing these various advances together into a single volume of 100 concise entries. The organization includes sections on the field's major subfields, with each section covering both empirical data and theoretical perspectives. "Foundational" neurobiological coverage is also provided, including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, linguistic, and psycholinguistic data, and models. Foundational reference for the current state of the field of the neurobiology of language Enables brain and language researchers and students to remain up-to-date in this fast-moving field that crosses many disciplinary and subdisciplinary boundaries Provides an accessible entry point for other scientists interested in the area, but not actively working in it - e.g., speech therapists, neurologists, and cognitive psychologists Chapters authored by world leaders in the field - the broadest, most expert coverage available

The Neurobiology of Learning

The Neurobiology of Learning
Author : John H. Schumann,Sheila E. Crowell,Nancy E. Jones,Namhee Lee,Sara Ann Schuchert
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2014-04-04
Category : Education
Total pages :232
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This book constitutes a timely contribution to the existing literature by presenting a relatively comprehensive, neurobiological account of certain aspects of second language acquisition. It represents the collaborative efforts of members of the Neurobiology of Language Research Group in the Applied Linguistics and TESL Department at UCLA. Members of the group are trained in neurobiology and then use this knowledge to develop biological accounts of various aspects of applied linguistics. The volume avoids the corticocentric bias that characterizes many brain-language publications--both cortical and subcortical structures receive their appropriate attention. In addition, it demonstrates that enough is presently known about the brain to inform our conceptualizations of how humans acquire second languages, thus, it provides a refreshingly novel, highly integrative contribution to the (second) language acquisition literature. The goal of the research program was based on the need to draw more links between the neurobiological mechanisms and second language acquisition. As such, the book promotes a neurobiology of language that starts with the brain and moves to behavior. The fundamental insights presented should guide second language acquisition researchers for years to come.

Neurobiology of human language and its evolution: Primate and Nonprimate Perspectives

Neurobiology of human language and its evolution: Primate and Nonprimate Perspectives
Author : Constance Scharff,Angela D. Friederici,Michael Petrides
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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The evolution of human language has been discussed for centuries from different perspectives. Linguistic theory has proposed grammar as a core part of human language that has to be considered in this context. Recent advances in neurosciences have allowed us to take a new neurobiological look on the similarities and dissimilarities of cognitive capacities and their neural basis across both closely and distantly related species. A couple of decades ago the comparisons were mainly drawn between human and non-human primates, investigating the cytoarchitecture of particular brain areas and their structural connectivity. Moreover, comparative studies were conducted with respect to their ability to process grammars of different complexity. So far the available data suggest that non-human primates are able to learn simple probabilistic grammars, but not hierarchically structured complex grammars. The human brain, which easily learns both grammars, differs from the non-human brain (among others) in how two language-relevant brain regions (Broca’s area and superior temporal cortex) are connected structurally. Whether the more dominant dorsal pathway in humans compared to non-human primates is causally related to this behavioral difference is an issue of current debate. Ontogenetic findings suggest at least a correlation between the maturation of the dorsal pathway and the behavior to process syntactically complex structures, although a causal prove is still not available. Thus the neural basis of complex grammar processing in humans remains to be defined. More recently it has been reported that songbirds are also able to distinguish between sound sequences reflecting complex grammar. Interestingly, songbirds learn to sing by imitating adult song in a process not unlike language development in children. Moreover, the neural circuits supporting this behavior in songbirds bear anatomical and functional similarities to those in humans. In adult humans the fiber tract connecting the auditory cortex and motor cortex dorsally is known to be involved in the repetition of spoken language. This pathway is present already at birth and is taken to play a major role during language acquisition. In songbirds, detailed information exist concerning the interaction of auditory, motor and cortical-basal ganglia processing during song learning, and present a rich substrate for comparative studies. The scope of the Research Topic is to bring together contributions of researchers from different fields, who investigate grammar processing in humans, non-human primates and songbirds with the aim to find answers to the question of what constitutes the neurobiological basis of grammar learning. Open questions are: Which brain networks are relevant for grammar learning? Is there more than one dorsal pathway (one from temporal cortex to motor cortex and one to Broca’s area) and if so what are their functions? Has the ability to process sequences of a given hierarchical complexity evolved in different phylogenetic lines (birds, primates, other vocal production learners such as bats)? Is the presence of a sensory-to-motor circuit in humans a precondition for development of a dorsal pathway between the temporal cortex and Broca’s area? What role do subcortical structures (Basal Ganglia) play in vocal and grammar learning?

Language in Our Brain

Language in Our Brain
Author : Angela D. Friederici
Publisher : MIT Press
Release Date : 2017-11-16
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :304
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A comprehensive account of the neurobiological basis of language, arguing that species-specific brain differences may be at the root of the human capacity for language. Language makes us human. It is an intrinsic part of us, although we seldom think about it. Language is also an extremely complex entity with subcomponents responsible for its phonological, syntactic, and semantic aspects. In this landmark work, Angela Friederici offers a comprehensive account of these subcomponents and how they are integrated. Tracing the neurobiological basis of language across brain regions in humans and other primate species, she argues that species-specific brain differences may be at the root of the human capacity for language. Friederici shows which brain regions support the different language processes and, more important, how these brain regions are connected structurally and functionally to make language processes that take place in milliseconds possible. She finds that one particular brain structure (a white matter dorsal tract), connecting syntax-relevant brain regions, is present only in the mature human brain and only weakly present in other primate brains. Is this the “missing link” that explains humans' capacity for language? Friederici describes the basic language functions and their brain basis; the language networks connecting different language-related brain regions; the brain basis of language acquisition during early childhood and when learning a second language, proposing a neurocognitive model of the ontogeny of language; and the evolution of language and underlying neural constraints. She finds that it is the information exchange between the relevant brain regions, supported by the white matter tract, that is the crucial factor in both language development and evolution.

The Oxford Handbook of Neurolinguistics

The Oxford Handbook of Neurolinguistics
Author : Greig I. de Zubicaray,Niels O. Schiller
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2019-03-01
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :672
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Neurolinguistics is a young and highly interdisciplinary field, with influences from psycholinguistics, psychology, aphasiology, and (cognitive) neuroscience, as well as other fields. Neurolinguistics, like psycholinguistics, covers aspects of language processing; but unlike psycholinguistics, it draws on data from patients with damage to language processing capacities, or the use of modern neuroimaging technologies such as fMRI, TMS, or both. The burgeoning interest in neurolinguistics reflects that an understanding of the neural bases of this data can inform more biologically plausible models of the human capacity for language. The Oxford Handbook of Neurolinguistics provides concise overviews of this rapidly-growing field, and engages a broad audience with an interest in the neurobiology of language. The chapters do not attempt to provide exhaustive coverage, but rather present discussions of prominent questions posed by given topics. The volume opens with essential methodological chapters: Section I, Methods, covers the key techniques and technologies used to study the neurobiology of language today, with chapters structured along the basic divisions of the field. Section II addresses the neurobiology of language acquisition during healthy development and in response to challenges presented by congenital and acquired conditions. Section III covers the many facets of our articulate brain, or speech-language pathology, and the capacity for language production-written, spoken, and signed. Questions regarding how the brain comprehends meaning, including emotions at word and discourse levels, are addressed in Section IV. Finally, Section V reaches into broader territory, characterizing and contextualizing the neurobiology of language with respect to more fundamental neuroanatomical mechanisms and general cognitive domains.

Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language

Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language
Author : Brigitte Stemmer,Harry A. Whitaker
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2008-04-29
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :512
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In the last ten years the neuroscience of language has matured as a field. Ten years ago, neuroimaging was just being explored for neurolinguistic questions, whereas today it constitutes a routine component. At the same time there have been significant developments in linguistic and psychological theory that speak to the neuroscience of language. This book consolidates those advances into a single reference. The Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language provides a comprehensive overview of this field. Divided into five sections, section one discusses methods and techniques including clinical assessment approaches, methods of mapping the human brain, and a theoretical framework for interpreting the multiple levels of neural organization that contribute to language comprehension. Section two discusses the impact imaging techniques (PET, fMRI, ERPs, electrical stimulation of language cortex, TMS) have made to language research. Section three discusses experimental approaches to the field, including disorders at different language levels in reading as well as writing and number processing. Additionally, chapters here present computational models, discuss the role of mirror systems for language, and cover brain lateralization with respect to language. Part four focuses on language in special populations, in various disease processes, and in developmental disorders. The book ends with a listing of resources in the neuroscience of language and a glossary of items and concepts to help the novice become acquainted with the field. Editors Stemmer & Whitaker prepared this book to reflect recent developments in neurolinguistics, moving the book squarely into the cognitive neuroscience of language and capturing the developments in the field over the past 7 years. History section focuses on topics that play a current role in neurolinguistics research, aphasia syndromes, and lesion analysis Includes section on neuroimaging to reflect the dramatic changes in methodology over the past decade Experimental and clinical section reflects recent developments in the field

Cognitive Neuroscience of Language

Cognitive Neuroscience of Language
Author : David Kemmerer
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release Date : 2014-11-20
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :600
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Language is one of our most precious and uniquely human capacities, so it is not surprising that research on its neural substrates has been advancing quite rapidly in recent years. Until now, however, there has not been a single introductory textbook that focuses specifically on this topic. Cognitive Neuroscience of Language fills that gap by providing an up-to-date, wide-ranging, and pedagogically practical survey of the most important developments in the field. It guides students through all of the major areas of investigation, beginning with fundamental aspects of brain structure and function, and then proceeding to cover aphasia syndromes, the perception and production of speech, the processing of language in written and signed modalities, the meanings of words, and the formulation and comprehension of complex expressions, including grammatically inflected words, complete sentences, and entire stories. Drawing heavily on prominent theoretical models, the core chapters illustrate how such frameworks are supported, and sometimes challenged, by experiments employing diverse brain mapping techniques. Although much of the content is inherently challenging and intended primarily for graduate or upper-level undergraduate students, it requires no previous knowledge of either neuroscience or linguistics, defining technical terms and explaining important principles from both disciplines along the way.

The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics

The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics
Author : Robert B. Kaplan
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2010-09-30
Category : Foreign Language Study
Total pages :755
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The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics contains forty original chapters on a broad range of topics in applied linguistics by a diverse group of contributors. Its goal is to provide a comprehensive survey of the current state of the field, the many connections among its varioussub-disciplines, and the likely directions of its future development. The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics addresses a broad audience: applied linguists; educators and other scholars working in language acquisition, language learning, language planning, teaching, and testing; and linguistsconcerned with applications of their work. Early applied linguistics was predominantly associated with language-teaching. While this relationship continues, the field has long since diversified, becoming increasingly inter-related and multi-disciplinary. The volume addresses the diversity of questions facing applied linguists today: What isthe place of applied linguistics in the architecture of the university? Where does applied linguistics fit into the sociology of knowledge? What are the questions that applied linguistics ought to be addressing? What are the dominant paradigms guiding research in the field? What kinds of problemscan be solved through the mediation of applied linguistics? What aspects of linguistics can be empirically applied to language-based problems, and what spaces resist such application? What will new students of applied linguistics need to know in the coming years? Systematically encompassing the major areas of applied linguistics-and drawing from a wide range of disciplines such as education, language policy, bi- and multi-lingualism, literacy, language and gender, psycholinguistics/cognition, language and computers, discourse analysis, language andconcordinances, ecology of language, pragmatics, translation, psycholinguistics and cognition, and many other fields-the editors and contributors to The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics provide a panoramic and comprehensive look at this complex and vigorous field. This second edition includes three new chapters, and the remaining chapters have been thoroughly revised and updated to give a clear picture of the current state of applied linguistics.

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Second Language Acquisition

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Second Language Acquisition
Author : Marianne Gullberg,Peter Indefrey
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release Date : 2006-08-11
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :356
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This volume explores the cognitive neuroscience of second language acquisition from the perspectives of critical/sensitive periods, maturational effects, individual differences, neural regions involved, and processing characteristics. The research methods used include functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and event related potentials (ERP). The studies in this volume provide initial answers to core questions including: which brain areas are reliably activated in second language processing? Are they the same or different from those activated in first language acquisition and use? And what are the behavioral consequences of individual differences among brains?

The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language, 2 Volume Set

The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language, 2 Volume Set
Author : Miriam Faust
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-06-15
Category : Psychology
Total pages :1056
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This handbook provides a comprehensive review of new developments in the study of the relationship between the brain and language, from the perspectives of both basic research and clinical neuroscience. Includes contributions from an international team of leading figures in brain–language research Features a novel emphasis on state–of–the–art methodologies and their application to the central questions in the brain–language relationship Incorporates research on all parts of language, from syntax and semantics to spoken and written language Covers a wide range of issues, including basic level and high level linguistic functions, individual differences, and neurologically intact and different clinical populations

Language Development and Disorders

Language Development and Disorders
Author : W. Yule,M. Rutter
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 1987
Category : Medical
Total pages :482
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Communication disabilities are common, although their precise nature and degree of severity vary greatly among individuals. They are among the most handicapping of disabilities because they isolate a person and in so doing restrict social, educational, and occupational opportunities. One of the purposes of this book was to bring together theoretical, practical, and clinical knowledge from several disciplines that bear on language and communication into some reasonably accessible form. The intent is to provide a broad and multi-faceted view of language development and language disorders. Thus, contributions from education, linguistics, psychology, pediatrics, psychiatry, neurology, neuropsychology, and speech therapy are included. They describe our current knowledge of language development, suggest classifications for language pathology, outline what is known of the epidemiology of language difficulties, consider assessment and therapy, alternative communication systems and the impact of the new technology on communication aids. The variety of perspectives that it provides will make it particularly useful to the range of specialists who are concerned with the development of communication skills and language disorders.

Neuroscience and Multilingualism

Neuroscience and Multilingualism
Author : Edna Andrews
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2014-09-04
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Total pages :270
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Alongside an analysis of the theoretical and experimental contributions to the field of multilingualism, this title presents new data and analysis obtained from a multilingualism fMRI study and includes a longitudinal study of second and third language acquisition combined with extensive empirically valid language proficiency data of the subjects.