June 18, 2021

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Neuropsychological Tools for Dementia

Neuropsychological Tools for Dementia
Author : Helmut Hildebrandt
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-11-27
Category : Psychology
Total pages :412
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Neuropsychological Tools for Dementia: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment takes a unique approach by combining the neuroscientific background of neuropsychology, neuropsychological tools for diagnosis and disease staging, and neuropsychological treatment into one comprehensive book for researchers and clinicians. Sections present an introduction to neuropsychological assessment in dementias, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body dementia (alpha-synucleinopathies), atypical Parkinson’s diseases (tauopathies), language and behavioral variants of frontotemporal lobe degeneration, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Each chapter elucidates the point that neuropsychological measures provide the tools to differentiate disease-specific impairments from normal age-related cognitive decline, and from other neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, the book discusses the possibility of helping patients through neuropsychological intervention. Case studies aid in the reader’s comprehension of the field, and two short guidelines for each disease’s specific assessment and treatment prepare readers for handling real-life patients. Includes epidemiological information regarding dementia Demonstrates the use of neuropsychological tests and screening tools in diagnosing and differentiating patients with dementia Outlines which investigation strategy and neuropsychological tests work best for assessing patients for different neurodegenerative diseases Reviews specific interventions to slow the progress of dementia wherever possible Discusses the neuropathology, diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

Handbook on the Neuropsychology of Aging and Dementia

Handbook on the Neuropsychology of Aging and Dementia
Author : Lisa D. Ravdin,Heather Katzen
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-01-17
Category : Psychology
Total pages :527
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With the aging of the baby boomers and medical advances that promote longevity, older adults are rapidly becoming the fastest growing segment of the population. As the population ages, so does the incidence of age related disorders. Many predict that 15% - 20% of the baby-boomer generation will develop some form of cognitive decline over the course of their lifetime, with estimates escalating to up to 50% in those achieving advanced age. Although much attention has been directed at Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, it is estimated that nearly one third of those cases of cognitive decline result from other neuropathological mechanisms. In fact, many patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease likely have co-morbid disorders that can also influence cognition (i.e., vascular cognitive impairment), suggesting mixed dementias are grossly under diagnosed. The Clinical Handbook on the Neuropsychology of Aging and Dementia is a unique work that provides clinicians with expert guidance and a hands-on approach to neuropsychological practice with older adults. The book will be divided into two sections, the first addressing special considerations for the evaluation of older adults, and the second half focusing on common referral questions likely to be encountered when working with this age group. The authors of the chapters are experts and are recognized by their peers as opinion leaders in their chosen chapter topics. The field of neuropsychology has played a critical role in developing methods for early identification of late life cognitive disorders as well as the differential diagnosis of dementia. Neuropsychological assessment provides valuable clinical information regarding the nature and severity of cognitive symptoms associated with dementia. Each chapter will reinforce the notion that neuropsychological measures provide the clinician with sensitive tools to differentiate normal age-related cognitive decline from disease-associated impairment, aid in differential diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in older adults, as well as identify cognitive deficits most likely to translate into functional impairments in everyday life.

Advancing Knowledge Into the Clinical Assessment of Dementia

Advancing Knowledge Into the Clinical Assessment of Dementia
Author : Simon Thompson
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release Date : 2011-03
Category :
Total pages :436
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This book aims to identify and measure cognitive and social abilities in people with dementia and also in people with additional learning disabilities. Definitions of dementia are discussed in detail, outlining the neuropathology, neuropsychology and clinical signs of Alzheimer s disease, and the neuropsychology of multi-infarct dementia. Discussion is made of the difficulties of a differential diagnosis and also the difficulties in assessing learning disability and dementia. A critique of instruments used in the clinical studies includes details of their reliability, validity, and standard error and norms of each tool. Empirical studies are presented together with the design and development of a neuropsychological test battery for the clinical assessment of people with dementia and learning disability. A link between cognitive performance and social abilities is presented for people with Down s syndrome and dementia that highlights failure in the Central Executive System and Articulatory Loop System, important in normal memory. Emphasis is made on the need to improve and widen access in service provision for these valued people.

Diagnostic Issues in Dementia

Diagnostic Issues in Dementia
Author : Trey Sunderland,Dilip V. Jeste,Olusegun Baiyewu,Paul J. Sirovatka,Darrel A. Regier
Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
Release Date : 2008-05-20
Category : Medical
Total pages :165
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Advancing the Research Agenda for DSM-V, Diagnostic Issues in Dementia comprises nine chapters with research suggestions for consideration for the upcoming DSM-V process, reflecting the nascent effort toward a new diagnostic nomenclature in the still rapidly evolving field of dementia. Here, 18 experts provide critical pieces of the dementia diagnostic story: The all-important neuropathological criteria of Alzheimer's disease and the aging brain; current epidemiologic literature and the challenges of making even minor changes in the general definition of dementia; and a scholarly review of the diagnostic nomenclature across the existing criteria, with numerous critiques and suggestion for future research The growing evidence for mild cognitive impairment as an identifiable entity suitable for inclusion in DSM-V; the current neuropsychological profiling that serves as the centerpiece of the diagnostic criteria for dementia and suggests that new instruments evaluating even broader aspects of cognition, including executive function, will be important in helping to identify dementia at an earlier stage of development The various behavioral syndromes associated with dementia, with emphasis on the need for great diagnostic clarity to help focus appropriate therapy in this area of increased burden for patients and family caregivers Biomarkers in dementia that may already be appropriate for inclusion in our diagnostic criteria; the current diagnostic utility of specific imaging modalities, which, combined with expanding ligand technology or markers of genetic predisposition, might further enhance diagnostic accuracy A review of the tremendous explosion of information in this field, asserting that, with the exception of the rare Mendelian disorders, genetic profiles are not yet ready to make substantial contributions to nosology Despite all of these exciting findings, the editors state that we are still dealing with primarily clinical syndromes and therefore are still using clinical diagnostic criteria established at consensus conferences. In the spirit of scientific humility, they assert that these experts' views must be considered within the vast and expanding literature related to the dementias. Given the associated but still generally nonspecific biological mechanisms underlying these syndromes, new scientific developments might occur at any time and immediately affect the interpretations and considerations presented here. This remarkably concise and insightful collection reviews today's -- and suggests directions for tomorrow's -- important diagnostic and research issues in dementia, and as such is a "must read" for clinicians and researchers alike.

Psychology of Aging

Psychology of Aging
Author : Martin Orrell,Aimee Spector
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2009
Category : Family & Relationships
Total pages :406
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This volume offers a collection of classic, original and often widely-cited papers, including some older papers which may be hard to find through conventional searches. They address a broad range of key issues such as cognitive changes related to aging, social and emotional changes, lifestyle factors, dependency on carers and related mental health problems in old-age.

Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment

Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment
Author : Robert L. Mapou,Jack Spector
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-06-29
Category : Medical
Total pages :362
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Practicing neuropsychologists and students in clinical neuropsychology must increas ingly cross disciplinary boundaries to understand and appreciate the neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacological bases of cognition and behavior, cur rent cognitive theory in many different domains of functioning, and the nature and tools of clinical assessment. Although the cognitive functions and abilities of interest are often the same, each of these fields has grappled with them from sometimes very different perspectives. Terminology is often specific to a particular discipline or ap proach, methods are diverse, and the goals or outcomes of study or investigation are usually very different. This book poises itself to provide a largely missing link between traditional approaches to assessment and the growing area of cognitive neuropsy chology. Historically, neuropsychology had as its central core the consideration of evidence from clinical cases. It was the early work of neurologists such as Broca, Wernicke, Hughlings-Jackson, and Liepmann, who evaluated and described the behavioral cor relates of prescribed lesions in individual patients and focused investigation on the lateralization and localization of cognitive abilities in humans. An outgrowth of those approaches was the systematic development of experimental tasks that could be used to elucidate the nature of cognitive changes in individuals with well-described brain lesions.

Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's Disease
Author : James M. Turnball,Joellyn Edwards
Publisher : Mosby Incorporated
Release Date : 1998
Category : Medical
Total pages :451
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This text meets the needs of physicians, nurses, therapists, caregivers, and family members. It contains a wealth of practical information about the effects of Alzheimer's on the patient's day-to-day life, and offers detailed descriptions of the stages of the disease, the options for treatment, and the effects of other mental and physical characteristics upon the expression of Alzheimer's. Additionally, it offers valuable suggestions for approaching issues such as nutrition, sleep habits, safety, caregiver stress, and therapy. The book is a perfect bridge between an interdisciplinary panel of expert contributors who know most about the disease and those who know most about the patient. * Takes a reader-friendly look at the structure and function of the normal brain, along with the higher brain functions, providing the proper background needed to study the various types of dementia. * Explores the neuropsychological assessment of dementia as well as the tools, such as brain imaging, used in the process to lay a clinical foundation for the student. * Examines current concepts in the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, as well as the pathology, clinical presentation, and clinical diagnosis of the disease to bring the reader up to speed on new and established research. * Compares and contrasts Alzheimer's disease with other forms of dementias so that the properties unique to Alzheimer's are well understood. * Presents the general principles of management of Alzheimer's along with ways to manage the difficult behaviors that accompany it. * Provides valuable information for dealing with everything from fecal and urinary incontinence to preventing accidents in the home to managing daily care and planning activities. * Analyzes ethical and legal issues involved in caregiving, an area that continues to grow in complexity. * Details the many avenues of community support, from social services to the Alzheimer's Association. * Provides a glossary so that the reader has quick access to the definitions of important terms.

Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia

Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia
Author : Mast, Benjamin T.,Yochim, Brian P.
Publisher : Hogrefe Publishing
Release Date : 2017-11-30
Category : Psychology
Total pages :84
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An essential guide to assessing and treating people with dementia syndromes. As the number of older adults with dementia continues to skyrocket, every health care professional needs accurate, up-to-date knowledge of these conditions, their prevention, and possible treatments. This compact, evidence-based book discusses essential aspects of the diagnosis, assessment, and interventions of Alzheimer’s disease and the syndromes of dementia and mild cognitive impairment. It reviews the diagnostic criteria from the National Institute on Aging, Alzheimer’s Association, and the DSM-5 and provides a broad range of treatment options, including psychosocial, educational, and lifestyle interventions. Practitioners will especially appreciate the current overview of caregiver interventions. Practitioners and students alike will find the clear information, the tools for assessment, and other resources provided in this volume extremely useful for helping patients and their families cope with dementia.

Neuropsychological Evaluation of the Older Adult

Neuropsychological Evaluation of the Older Adult
Author : Joanne Green
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2000
Category : Medical
Total pages :311
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One of the largest patient populations seen by neuropsychologists are older adults suffering from problems associated with aging. Further, the proportion of the population aged 65 and above is rising rapidly. This book provides a guide to neuropsychological clinicians increasingly called upon to assess this population. The book details in a step-by-step fashion the phases and considerations in performing a neuropsychological assessment of an older patient. It covers procedural details including review of patient's medical records, clinical interview, formal testing, interpretation of test scores, addressing referral questions, and preparing an evaluation report. Key Features * Outlines a clear, logical approach to neuropsychological evaluation * Provides specific clinical practice guidelines for each phase of the evaluation * Integrates clinical practice with up-to-date research findings * Recommends specific tests for evaluating older adults * Details how to interpret test findings and identify the patient's neuropsychological profile * Illustrates important points with examples and case materials, many neuropathologically-confirmed * Includes forms useful in clinical practice

Clinical Neuropsychology

Clinical Neuropsychology
Author : Peter J. Snyder,Paul David Nussbaum,Diana L. Robins
Publisher : Amer Psychological Assn
Release Date : 2006
Category : Medical
Total pages :769
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"Neuropsychologists consult in diverse health care settings, such as emergency care, oncology, infectious disease, cardiology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. A pocket reference is a critical resource for interns, postdoctoral fellows, and practicing clinicians alike. With over 100 quick-reference tables, lists, diagrams, photos, and decision trees, this handbook offers guidance through the complicated work of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. This new edition of Clinical Neuropsychology builds on the success of the best-selling first edition by adding information on how to use and interpret cutting-edge neuroimaging technologies and how to integrate pharmacological approaches into treatment. The reader will also find new chapters on neuro-oncology, schizophrenia, late-life depression, and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder"--Cover.

The Dementias

The Dementias
Author : Karl Herholz,Daniela Perani,Chris Morris
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2006-06-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :455
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The only guide to focus primarily on current molecular methods of diagnosis and early stage evaluation, this reference presents the latest techniques and technologies for dementia identification and evaluation, including neuropathological strategies, neuropsychological tests, biomarkers, CT, MRI, functional MRI, PET, and SPECT. Offering practical care and examination guidelines, each chapter provides findings that are particularly relevant for the assessment of disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia, and fronto-temporal dementia.

International Handbook of Cross-cultural Neuropsychology

International Handbook of Cross-cultural Neuropsychology
Author : Barbara P. Uzzell,Marcel O. Pontón,Alfredo Ardila
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release Date : 2007
Category : Psychology
Total pages :393
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The role of culture is significant when measuring cognitive abilities during neuropsychological assessments. However, cultural diversity is a frequently overlooked moderating variable. The International Handbook of Cross-Cultural Neuropsychology emphasizes major distinctions among cultural groups in North and South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia to heighten awareness of nuances, as well as culturally-influenced differences and similarities. The goal of this important handbook is to view assessments and rehabilitation from different perspectives, thereby offering opportunities for increasing knowledge and understanding, while improving clinical skills and laying the groundwork for establishing international and cross-culture collaborations. Clinical judgment can be colored by previous experiences from different cultures, expectancy rates of pathology among certain groups, and differences in socioeconomic levels. As clinical experiences increase with people from different cultures, the limitations of neuropsychological tools to make accurate assessments become evident. It is through gaining knowledge about the values of a different culture that neuropsychologists can develop a cross-cultural understanding. Professionals in areas such as neuropsychology, cross-cultural psychology, and social psychology, to name a few, will find the material in this volume to be a stimulating addition to existing literature.

Diurnal Neuropsychological Performance Variations in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD).

Diurnal Neuropsychological Performance Variations in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD).
Author : Amity Rhodes Ruth
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2000
Category :
Total pages :149
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Cognitive performance, or efficiency, varies rhythmically throughout and across days in non-demented individuals. To date, however, no studies have objectively measured the presence and nature of diurnal fluctuations in cognitive test performance in patients with PRAD. The present study characterizes changes in cognitive test performance over the course of the day in patients with a clinical diagnosis of PRAD and compares them to those observed in non-demented controls.

Machine Learning Techniques Applied to Alzheimer's Prediction Based on Neuropsychological Data

Machine Learning Techniques Applied to Alzheimer's Prediction Based on Neuropsychological Data
Author : Álvaro Fernández Quílez
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category :
Total pages :129
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Population suffering from dementia is steadily growing, being Alzheimer's Disease (AD) one of the most common underlying pathologies. Nowadays, AD accounts for an estimated 60 to 80 % of dementia cases. The detection of AD at early stages and the distinction from other causes for cognitive impairment can be crucial to bring an optimal support to individuals suffering from it, as well as for early treatments. Neuropsychological tests are a powerful tool to carry out the detection, which has traditionally been carried out manually by clinicians. Such manual detection is time intensive and it is also subject to the efficiency and accuracy of the person in charge of it. Machine learning (ML) algorithms are an alternative method that can provide an automated process of detection. Moreover, they can also provide valuable insights into diagnosis and classification that otherwise could not been possible to obtain. In this project, it was aimed to classify subjects in three clinical diagnosis classes: normal aging (NA), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD), through the implementation of five ML algorithms: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and a combination technique called Bagging. Additionally, a feature extraction method called multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) has been tried for a two features projection and a one feature projection case, for each of the designed classifiers. The Bagging algorithm implemented with ANN's as a base classifier has provided the best results in terms of error probability while the QDA has offered the lowest one. Also, the usage of MDA has proved that better results can be obtained with it rather than without a projection strategy. Overall, the results shown in this project indicate that ML classifiers can be used to automatize clinical diagnosis of individuals with cognitive impairment.

Dementia Screening in Ethnolinguistically Diverse Populations

Dementia Screening in Ethnolinguistically Diverse Populations
Author : Tracey Jane
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2006
Category : Dementia
Total pages :140
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Cognitive screening tools for dementia have often shown a cultural bias. Although in the preliminary stages of research, the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) (Storey, Rowland, Conforti, & Dickson, 2004) has recently shown promise. It obtains high sensitivities and specificities, does not appear susceptible to the effects of translation, and appears applicable in a multicultural setting. Therefore; the aim of the current research was to examine further the performance of the RUDAS in an ethnolinguistically diverse sample. Archival data consisting of scores on the RUDAS and on a comprehensive test battery was gathered from 64 neuropsychological referrals to an Australian health service from 2002-2006. The majority (83%) of these referrals were from a non-English speaking background and were tested in their preferred language. The RUDAS was found to be a fairly cohesive measure, and domain subscales were strongly correlated with corresponding scores on other neuropsychological tests indicating accurate performance. Although moderately predictive of diagnoses of dementia and cognitive decline (obtaining sensitivities of 71% and 62% respectively) the RUDAS lacked specificity, a finding which may be attributed to the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in the sample. The RUDAS fullscale score was found resilient to age, gender, English language proficiency and education effects; however subscale scores were differentially affected, perhaps indicating a tendency towards bias. Overall, this study suggests that the RUDAS is a useful screening instrument in an ethnolinguistically diverse clinical population.