November 24, 2020

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NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Lynda Addou-Klouche
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category : Medicine
Total pages :129
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Natural killer (NK) cells are crucial components of the innate immune system and play critical roles in host immunity against viral infections and cancer. NK cells' activity is controlled by the interaction of a wide range of receptors expressed on their surfaces with cell surface ligands. Opposite signals delivered by inhibitory and activating receptors tightly regulate NK cells' cytotoxicity. Natural killer cells can discriminate between normal and cancer cells. NK cells are known to directly recognize and kill malignant cells or induce apoptosis. However, tumor cells have the ability to evade those attacks. The main mechanisms involve the lack of expression or downregulation of the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and secretion of soluble NKG2D ligands by tumor cells. Furthermore, tumors harbor a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can drive tumor progression and therapeutical resistance. This chapter highlights the roles of NK cells in tumor immunosurveillance and their applications for cancer immunotherapy. NK cell biology and function as well as the role of their receptor interactions will be described. We will discuss the therapeutic applications of NK cells in cancer and NK cells targeting CSCs as a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges
Author : Anahid Jewett
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-03-15
Category : Science
Total pages :350
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NK cells in cancer immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges explains the latest immunotherapeutic strategies focusing on NK cells to allow the best and precise combination treatment to be offered to cancer patients. It provides existing background knowledge in the field of immunotherapy and discusses the future areas of research required to carry out cutting edge validated therapies for patients. Immunotherapy is fast becoming the method of choice for cancer therapy. Although remarkable advances have been made in the field of immunotherapy, there are significant challenges and difficulties ahead since many of the current immunotherapeutic strategies do not provide long-lasting treatment strategies, and therefore are not very effective. This book provides recent advances in the immunotherapeutic strategies, in particular the use of NK cells with and without T cell therapy in the treatment of cancer and discusses the problems and challenges that are facing the field and the practitioners. The book is a valuable resource for cancer researchers, oncologists, graduate students and several members of biomedical field who are interested in learning more about novel strategies to treat cancer patients. Covers CAR/T and CAR/NK and adoptive NK cell therapy with and without T cell therapies Discusses basic biology of NK cells and mouse models of human cancers, and the role of NK cells in metastatic cancer and in cancer stem cells Encompasses information on combination therapies using check point inhibition, adoptive transfer of cytotoxic effector cells, chemotherapeutic drugs and activating and inhibitory antibodies

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy
Author : Krassimir Metodiev
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-04-26
Category : Medical
Total pages :414
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This is another attempt of InTechOpen to continue the dissemination of international knowledge and experience in the field of immunology. The present book includes a number of modern concepts of specialists and experts in the field of immunotherapy, covering the major topics and analyzing the history, current stage, and future ideas of application of modern immunomodulation. It is always a benefit, but also a compliment, to gather a team of internationally distinguished authors and to motivate them to reveal their expertise for the benefit of medical science and health practice. On behalf of all readers, immunologists, immunogeneticists, biologists, oncologists, microbiologists, virologists, hematologists, chemotherapists, health-care experts, as well as students and medical specialists, also on my personal behalf, I would like to extend my gratitude and highest appreciation to InTechOpen for giving me the unique chance to be the editor of this exclusive book.

Oncoimmunology

Oncoimmunology
Author : Laurence Zitvogel,Guido Kroemer
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-12-13
Category : Medical
Total pages :724
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In this book, leading experts in cancer immunotherapy join forces to provide a comprehensive guide that sets out the main principles of oncoimmunology and examines the latest advances and their implications for clinical practice, focusing in particular on drugs with FDA/EMA approvals and breakthrough status. The aim is to deliver a landmark educational tool that will serve as the definitive reference for MD and PhD students while also meeting the needs of established researchers and healthcare professionals. Immunotherapy-based approaches are now inducing long-lasting clinical responses across multiple histological types of neoplasia, in previously difficult-to-treat metastatic cancers. The future challenges for oncologists are to understand and exploit the cellular and molecular components of complex immune networks, to optimize combinatorial regimens, to avoid immune-related side effects, and to plan immunomonitoring studies for biomarker discovery. The editors hope that this book will guide future and established health professionals toward the effective application of cancer immunology and immunotherapy and contribute significantly to further progress in the field.

Immunopathogenesis and Immune-based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders

Immunopathogenesis and Immune-based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders
Author : Mourad Aribi
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-03-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :182
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The book Immunopathogenesis and Immune-Based Therapy for Selected Autoimmune Disorders is a synthesis work that discusses two main aspects of autoimmunity: Immunopathogenesis and therapeutic approaches essentially based on the immunotherapies. This book deals with different topics on a number of autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes, autoimmune cardiomyopathy, autoimmunity of gastrointestinal tract, systemic sclerosis, and myasthenia gravis. This book will be useful to clinicians, biologists, researchers, teachers, and students who are interested in immunology and immunopathology.

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells
Author : Jacques Zimmer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-01-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :428
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Natural killer (NK) cells have been at the forefront of immunology for two decades. During that time, a great amount of information about these cells has been obtained. They are important in antiinfectious and antitumoral defense and shape the adaptive immune response. In addition, they can act as immunoregulatory cells. In recent years, the therapeutic potential of NK cells in cancer immunotherapy has become increasingly evident. This book describes in detail current knowledge about NK cells and covers a broad range of NK cell-related topics, including those that are not frequently reviewed, e.g. NK cells and allergy or NK cells and skin diseases.

The Memory Activation of NK Cells: New Methods in Cancer Immunotherapy

The Memory Activation of NK Cells: New Methods in Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Gheorghita Isvoranu
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category : Medicine
Total pages :129
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Cancer remains a main cause of mortality, despite the research efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms and for developing personalized targeted therapies with acceptable side effects. In cancer, both players, the aggressor (tumor cells) and the endogenous defenders (immune cells), are key therapeutic targets. Immunotherapy is nowadays considered the fourth therapeutical approach in cancer, complementing and sometimes replacing surgery and chemo- and radiotherapy. Natural killer (NK) cells, generally considered part of the innate immune system, play a critical role in defense against pathogens and tumors. Immunological memory is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. However, NK cells have been shown to mediate Ag-specific recall responses and acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. This chapter summarizes evidence for NK cell immunotherapy, evidence and characteristics of NK cell memory and mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these cells. There is no doubt that NK cells have major role in cancer treatments and viral infections, and in the future, NK cell immunotherapy from "a new hope" may become "a reality" for malignant diseases.

Natural Killer Cells: the Future of Cancer Immunotherapy

Natural Killer Cells: the Future of Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Priyanka Senthil
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020-04-20
Category :
Total pages :53
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Cellular therapeutics is an emerging field with significant advances in the engineering of immune effector cells that play a revolutionary role in treatment for cancer. Up until now, most immunomodulatory strategies focus on enhancing T cells, which are lymphocyte immune cells that are important for cell-mediated immunity to fight pathogens and cancer. T cells have proven their ability in successful cellular therapies against leukemia, but may soon face competition. Through several preclinical studies, researchers have discovered new guardian immune cells called chimeric antigen receptor-modified natural killer (CAR NK) cells that have been genetically engineered to produce an artificial T-cell receptor for use in immunotherapy. With chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), CAR NK cells can specifically recognize antigen-expressing tumors and show cytotoxic activity against various solid tumor types. Natural killer (NK) cells target cells that lack expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I like tumors and virus-infected cells. The preclinical evidence suggests that NK cells have the same cancer-homing receptors as T cells and the ability to effectively recognize and kill targets through genetic modification. However, for the cell to be effective, scientists need to provide antigen specificity, for which they have found strategies to introduce CARs into NK cells and cell lines. If scientists can overcome the challenge of properly manufacturing engineered NK cells, CAR NK cells could be safer, cheaper, easier to produce, and more widely applicable than T cells. This book focuses on recent advances in NK cell engineering and discusses how NK cells contribute to new immunotherapeutic approaches for treatment against refractory hematological malignancies.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : George C. Prendergast,Elizabeth M. Jaffee
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-04-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :428
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There has been major growth in understanding immune suppression mechanisms and its relationship to cancer progression and therapy. This book highlights emerging new principles of immune suppression that drive cancer and it offers radically new ideas about how therapy can be improved by attacking these principles. Following work that firmly establishes immune escape as an essential trait of cancer, recent studies have now defined specific mechanisms of tumoral immune suppression. It also demonstrates how attacking tumors with molecular targeted therapeutics or traditional chemotherapeutic drugs can produce potent anti-tumor effects in preclinical models. This book provides basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers an indispensable overview of immune escape as a critical trait in cancer and how applying specific combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to attack this trait may radically improve the treatment of advanced disease. * Offers a synthesis of concepts that are useful to cancer immunologists and pharmacologists, who tend to work in disparate fields with little cross-communication * Drs Prendergast and Jaffee are internationally recognized leaders in cancer biology and immunology who have created a unique synthesis of fundamental and applied concepts in this important new area of cancer research * Summarizes the latest insights into how immune escape defines an essential trait of cancer * Includes numerous illustrations including: how molecular-targeted therapeutic drugs or traditional chemotherapy can be combined with immunotherapy to improve anti-tumor efficacy; and how reversing immune suppression by the tumor can cause tumor regression

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy
Author : Robert C. Rees
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date : 2014-05-20
Category : Medical
Total pages :442
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Patients are beginning to benefit from antibody based, cellular and vaccine approaches that are effective against genetically diverse and therapy-resistance cancers. BCG immunotherapy is now being used as a first line treatment for human bladder cancer and the introduction of prophylactic vaccination against Hepatitis B and HPV cancers is starting to show positive results. Following recent FDA approval for a vaccination against prostate cancer, and optimistic results in clinical trials for a vaccine targeting cancer antigens in lung cancer, cancer immunotherapy is now significantly impacting patient clinical management. Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy provides an up-to-date and comprehensive account of cancer immunity and immunotherapy. It discusses our adaptive and innate immunity to cancer, the mechanisms underpinning our immune response, current approaches to cancer immunotherapy, and how tumour and host responses can circumvent effective anti-cancer immunity. The book examines recent results, publications and current areas of interest including 'immune editing' and the specific issues that are affecting the research and development of vaccines, providing insight into how these problems may be overcome, as viewed by world leaders in the field. Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy will appeal to clinicians working in oncology and cancer immunotherapy, and research scientists including PhD and masters students, post-doctoral researchers and senior investigators.

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells
Author : Srinivas S. Somanchi
Publisher : Humana Press
Release Date : 2016-05-13
Category : Medical
Total pages :365
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This volume contains collection of Natural Killer Cell methodologies relevant for both basic and translational research. These methodologies present new developments in the natural killer (NK) cell field, such as understanding the influence of NK cells metabolism on its function, identifying complexity of NK cell subsets through mass cytometry, and determining the emergence of memory NK cells in murine model of MCMV infection. Methods that study NK cell migration and cytotoxicity through endpoint analysis or live single cell imaging are also discussed. Chapters also describe methods pertaining to translational application of NK cells, such as ex vivo expansion of NK cells on K562 cell lines genetically modified to express either membrane bound IL-15 or membrane bound IL-21, large scale NK cell culture, current techniques for engineering NK cells to express chimeric antigen receptors or chemokine receptors using retroviral vectors, electroporation of mRNA, and the natural phenomenon of trogocytosis. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, these chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting edge and thorough, Natural Killer Cells: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for researchers who not only want to understand mechanisms that govern NK cell behavior and diversity, but also for those who want to understand how to systematically evaluate NK cells for adoptive immunotherapy applications.

Advances in Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy

Advances in Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy
Author : Joseph D. Rosenblatt,Eckhard R. Podack,Glen N. Barber,Augusto Ochoa
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-10-25
Category : Medical
Total pages :371
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Recent advances in understanding of fundamental immunology have created new insights into the dynamic interactions between tumors and the immune system. This includes new understanding of T- and B-cell interaction, immune inhibitory mechanisms including the biology of T regulatory cells, myeloid suppressor cells, and dendritic cell subsets. Enhanced understanding of mechanisms underlying T-cell anergy such as arginine deprivation, immunosuppressive cytokines, defective innate and interferon response pathways, and NKG2D downregulation have all provided new insight into suppression of anti-tumor immunity and tumor evasion. In addition to emerging understanding of tumor evasion, new immune targets such as CTLA4 blockade, NK stimulatory receptors, manipulation of the antigen processing and presentation, cytokine and costimulatory responses all provide new possibilities for enhancing anti-tumor immunity even in tumors previously felt to be resistant to immune attack. Several of these strategies have already been realized in the clinic. The volume will explore evolving paradigms in antigen presentation, dendritic cell biology, the innate response and immunosuppressive mechanisms, and emerging strategies for manipulation of the immune system for therapeutic benefit that have realized success in neuroblastoma, leukemia, melanoma, lung cancer, and allogeneic transplantation. Early successes as well as failures will be highlighted to provide a snapshot of the state of clinical immunotherapy with an eye to future possibilities such as combination therapies, adoptive T-cell transfer, and the retargeting of immune cells via T-cell receptor engineering.

Chemical Immunology

Chemical Immunology
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2002
Category : Immunochemistry
Total pages :219
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Immunotherapy in Translational Cancer Research

Immunotherapy in Translational Cancer Research
Author : Laurence J. N. Cooper,Elizabeth A. Mittendorf,Judy Moyes,Sabitha Prabhakaran
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2018-05-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :312
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A guide to state-of-the-art cancer immunotherapy in translational cancer research A volume in the Translational Oncology series, Immunotherapy in Translational Cancer Research explores the recent developments in the role that immunotherapy plays in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. The editors present key concepts, illustrative examples, and suggest alternative strategies in order to achieve individualized targeted therapy. Comprehensive in scope, Immunotherapy in Translational Cancer Research reviews the relevant history, current state, and the future of burgeoning cancer-fighting therapies. The book also includes critical information on drug development, clinical trials, and governmental resources and regulatory issues. Each chapter is created to feature: development of the immunotherapy; challenges that have been overcome in order to scale up and undertake clinical trials; and clinical experience and application of research. This authoritative volume is edited by a team of noted experts from MD Anderson Cancer Center, the world’s foremost cancer research and care center and: Offers a comprehensive presentation of state-of-the-art cancer immunotherapy research that accelerates the pace of clinical cancer care Filled with the concepts, examples, and approaches for developing individualized therapy Explores the breath of treatments that reflect the complexity of the immune system itself Includes contributions from a panel international experts in the field of immunotherapy Designed for physicians, medical students, scientists, pharmaceutical executives, public health and public policy government leaders and community oncologists, this essential resource offers a guide to the bidirectional interaction between laboratory and clinic immunotherapy cancer research.

Immunotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Immunotherapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Author : Tim F. Greten
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-10-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :167
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In this book we provide insights into liver – cancer and immunology. Experts in the field provide an overview over fundamental immunological questions in liver cancer and tumorimmunology, which form the base for immune based approaches in HCC, which gain increasing interest in the community due to first promising results obtained in early clinical trials. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer related death in the United States. Treatment options are limited. Viral hepatitis is one of the major risk factors for HCC, which represents a typical “inflammation-induced” cancer. Immune-based treatment approaches have revolutionized oncology in recent years. Various treatment strategies have received FDA approval including dendritic cell vaccination, for prostate cancer as well as immune checkpoint inhibition targeting the CTLA4 or the PD1/PDL1 axis in melanoma, lung, and kidney cancer. Additionally, cell based therapies (adoptive T cell therapy, CAR T cells and TCR transduced T cells) have demonstrated significant efficacy in patients with B cell malignancies and melanoma. Immune checkpoint inhibitors in particular have generated enormous excitement across the entire field of oncology, providing a significant benefit to a minority of patients.