May 11, 2021

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NK Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Francisco Borrego,Susana Larrucea,Rafael Solana,Raquel Tarazona
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2016-09-08
Category :
Total pages :129
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Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that have a significant role in regulating the defenses against cancer development and certain viral infections. They are equipped with an array of activating and inhibitory receptors that stimulate or diminish NK cell activity, respectively. Inhibitory receptors include, among others, the MHC class I ligands killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in humans, and members of the Ly49 family of receptors in mice, and CD94/NKG2A. Activating receptors include cytokine and chemokine receptors, and those that interact with ligands expressed on target cells, such as the natural cytotoxicity receptors or NCRs (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46), NKG2D, CD244 and DNAM-1. In addition, NK cells express Fc?RIIIA or CD16, the receptor that exerts antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). NK cells also express the death ligands FasL and TRAIL. The killing or sparing of target cells depends on the integration of distinct signals that originate from NK cell receptors. NK cells spare healthy cells that express normal levels of MHC class I molecules and low amounts of stress-induced self-molecules, whereas they kill target cells that down-regulate MHC class I molecules and/or up-regulate stress-induced self-molecules. The latter are common signatures of virus-infected cells and tumors. All the accumulated knowledge on NK cell biology, along with many clinical observations, is driving multiple efforts to improve the arsenal of NK cell-based therapeutic tools in the fight against malignant diseases. Indeed, NK cell-based immunotherapy is becoming a promising approach for the treatment of many cancers. It is well known that NK cells have a significant role in the anti-tumor effect of therapeutic antibodies that use ADCC as a mechanism of action. In addition to this, administration of autologous and allogeneic NK cells after activation and expansion ex vivo is used in the treatment of cancer. Moreover, adoptive transfer of NK cell lines has been tested in humans, and genetically modified NK cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors are being studied in preclinical models for potential use in the clinic.

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges
Author : Anahid Jewett
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-03-15
Category : Science
Total pages :350
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NK cells in cancer immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges explains the latest immunotherapeutic strategies focusing on NK cells to allow the best and precise combination treatment to be offered to cancer patients. It provides existing background knowledge in the field of immunotherapy and discusses the future areas of research required to carry out cutting edge validated therapies for patients. Immunotherapy is fast becoming the method of choice for cancer therapy. Although remarkable advances have been made in the field of immunotherapy, there are significant challenges and difficulties ahead since many of the current immunotherapeutic strategies do not provide long-lasting treatment strategies, and therefore are not very effective. This book provides recent advances in the immunotherapeutic strategies, in particular the use of NK cells with and without T cell therapy in the treatment of cancer and discusses the problems and challenges that are facing the field and the practitioners. The book is a valuable resource for cancer researchers, oncologists, graduate students and several members of biomedical field who are interested in learning more about novel strategies to treat cancer patients. Covers CAR/T and CAR/NK and adoptive NK cell therapy with and without T cell therapies Discusses basic biology of NK cells and mouse models of human cancers, and the role of NK cells in metastatic cancer and in cancer stem cells Encompasses information on combination therapies using check point inhibition, adoptive transfer of cytotoxic effector cells, chemotherapeutic drugs and activating and inhibitory antibodies

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Lynda Addou-Klouche
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category : Medicine
Total pages :129
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Natural killer (NK) cells are crucial components of the innate immune system and play critical roles in host immunity against viral infections and cancer. NK cells' activity is controlled by the interaction of a wide range of receptors expressed on their surfaces with cell surface ligands. Opposite signals delivered by inhibitory and activating receptors tightly regulate NK cells' cytotoxicity. Natural killer cells can discriminate between normal and cancer cells. NK cells are known to directly recognize and kill malignant cells or induce apoptosis. However, tumor cells have the ability to evade those attacks. The main mechanisms involve the lack of expression or downregulation of the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and secretion of soluble NKG2D ligands by tumor cells. Furthermore, tumors harbor a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can drive tumor progression and therapeutical resistance. This chapter highlights the roles of NK cells in tumor immunosurveillance and their applications for cancer immunotherapy. NK cell biology and function as well as the role of their receptor interactions will be described. We will discuss the therapeutic applications of NK cells in cancer and NK cells targeting CSCs as a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

The Memory Activation of NK Cells: New Methods in Cancer Immunotherapy

The Memory Activation of NK Cells: New Methods in Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : Gheorghita Isvoranu
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category : Medicine
Total pages :129
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Cancer remains a main cause of mortality, despite the research efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms and for developing personalized targeted therapies with acceptable side effects. In cancer, both players, the aggressor (tumor cells) and the endogenous defenders (immune cells), are key therapeutic targets. Immunotherapy is nowadays considered the fourth therapeutical approach in cancer, complementing and sometimes replacing surgery and chemo- and radiotherapy. Natural killer (NK) cells, generally considered part of the innate immune system, play a critical role in defense against pathogens and tumors. Immunological memory is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. However, NK cells have been shown to mediate Ag-specific recall responses and acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. This chapter summarizes evidence for NK cell immunotherapy, evidence and characteristics of NK cell memory and mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these cells. There is no doubt that NK cells have major role in cancer treatments and viral infections, and in the future, NK cell immunotherapy from "a new hope" may become "a reality" for malignant diseases.

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy
Author : Robert C. Rees
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date : 2014-05-20
Category : Medical
Total pages :442
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Patients are beginning to benefit from antibody based, cellular and vaccine approaches that are effective against genetically diverse and therapy-resistance cancers. BCG immunotherapy is now being used as a first line treatment for human bladder cancer and the introduction of prophylactic vaccination against Hepatitis B and HPV cancers is starting to show positive results. Following recent FDA approval for a vaccination against prostate cancer, and optimistic results in clinical trials for a vaccine targeting cancer antigens in lung cancer, cancer immunotherapy is now significantly impacting patient clinical management. Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy provides an up-to-date and comprehensive account of cancer immunity and immunotherapy. It discusses our adaptive and innate immunity to cancer, the mechanisms underpinning our immune response, current approaches to cancer immunotherapy, and how tumour and host responses can circumvent effective anti-cancer immunity. The book examines recent results, publications and current areas of interest including 'immune editing' and the specific issues that are affecting the research and development of vaccines, providing insight into how these problems may be overcome, as viewed by world leaders in the field. Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy will appeal to clinicians working in oncology and cancer immunotherapy, and research scientists including PhD and masters students, post-doctoral researchers and senior investigators.

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells
Author : Jacques Zimmer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-01-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :428
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Natural killer (NK) cells have been at the forefront of immunology for two decades. During that time, a great amount of information about these cells has been obtained. They are important in antiinfectious and antitumoral defense and shape the adaptive immune response. In addition, they can act as immunoregulatory cells. In recent years, the therapeutic potential of NK cells in cancer immunotherapy has become increasingly evident. This book describes in detail current knowledge about NK cells and covers a broad range of NK cell-related topics, including those that are not frequently reviewed, e.g. NK cells and allergy or NK cells and skin diseases.

The Natural Killer Cell Interactome in the Tumor Microenvironment: Basic Concepts and Clinical Application

The Natural Killer Cell Interactome in the Tumor Microenvironment: Basic Concepts and Clinical Application
Author : Martin Villalba,Régis Thierry Costello,Julian Pardo,Alberto Anel
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2020-07-02
Category :
Total pages :129
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Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy
Author : Benjamin Bonavida,Anahid Jewett
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-06-01
Category : Science
Total pages :300
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Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy: Increasing Anti-tumor Efficacy describes the unique therapeutic applications of NK cells to fight cancers and eliminate the bulk and subset of cancer stem cells responsible for metastasis, relapse and recurrences. The book provides information on the development, engineering, mechanisms of action, response to various preclinical models, and applications in various clinical trials. Sections cover the development of highly engineered cytotoxic NK cells, their mechanisms of action, preclinical and clinical applications, the development and application of CAR-NK cells, and new NK-drug conjugates, also emphasizing that activated NK cells can target and kill highly resistant cancer stem cells. Written by the leading experts on NK immunotherapy worldwide, this is a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians and members of the biomedical field who are interested in understanding novel and efficient therapies to fight cancers. Discusses the unique developmental applications of NK immunotherapy against cancers, which differs greatly from other types of immunotherapies Provides up-to-date and highly relevant information through chapters written by the leading researchers in the field Presents a significant number of schematic diagrams for easy understanding and reproducibility

Cancer Immunology

Cancer Immunology
Author : Nima Rezaei
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-12-29
Category : Medical
Total pages :485
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This translational book describes in detail the clinical application of novel approaches in cancer immunotherapy with the aim of educating clinicians in the implications of the most recent research and new developments in the field. The scope is broad, encompassing, for example, prognostic biomarkers for personalized cancer treatment, strategies for targeting tumor immunosuppression, gene therapy, virus-based vaccines, targeting of cancer stem cells, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the role of T lymphocytes in cancer immunotherapy, use of monoclonal antibodies, and many more innovative approaches. Clinical immunologists, hematologists, and oncologists in particular will find the book to be of value in expanding their knowledge. The book is the second in a three-volume series, Cancer Immunology, which offers an up-to-date review of cancer immunology and immunotherapy. The remaining volumes focus on the immunopathology of cancers and cancer immunotherapy for organ-specific tumors. In total the series, designed for both clinicians and researchers, includes contributions from more than 250 scientists working at leading universities and institutes from across the world.

Natural Killer T cells

Natural Killer T cells
Author : Masaki Terabe,Jay A. Berzofsky
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-09-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :208
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This book will cover primary roles of NKT cells in immunity to cancer, in both mouse tumor models and cancer patients. There are several chapters describing general aspects of NKT cells.

Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1991
Category :
Total pages :129
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Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy
Author : George C. Prendergast,Elizabeth M. Jaffee
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-04-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :428
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There has been major growth in understanding immune suppression mechanisms and its relationship to cancer progression and therapy. This book highlights emerging new principles of immune suppression that drive cancer and it offers radically new ideas about how therapy can be improved by attacking these principles. Following work that firmly establishes immune escape as an essential trait of cancer, recent studies have now defined specific mechanisms of tumoral immune suppression. It also demonstrates how attacking tumors with molecular targeted therapeutics or traditional chemotherapeutic drugs can produce potent anti-tumor effects in preclinical models. This book provides basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers an indispensable overview of immune escape as a critical trait in cancer and how applying specific combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to attack this trait may radically improve the treatment of advanced disease. * Offers a synthesis of concepts that are useful to cancer immunologists and pharmacologists, who tend to work in disparate fields with little cross-communication * Drs Prendergast and Jaffee are internationally recognized leaders in cancer biology and immunology who have created a unique synthesis of fundamental and applied concepts in this important new area of cancer research * Summarizes the latest insights into how immune escape defines an essential trait of cancer * Includes numerous illustrations including: how molecular-targeted therapeutic drugs or traditional chemotherapy can be combined with immunotherapy to improve anti-tumor efficacy; and how reversing immune suppression by the tumor can cause tumor regression

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
Author : Glenn Dranoff
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-04-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :306
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The interplay between tumors and their immunologic microenvironment is complex, difficult to decipher, but its understanding is of seminal importance for the development of novel prognostic markers and therapeutic strategies. The present review discusses tumor-immune interactions in several human cancers that illustrate various aspects of this complexity and proposes an integrated scheme of the impact of local immune reactions on clinical outcome. Current active immunotherapy trials have shown durable tumor regressions in a fraction of patients. However, clinical efficacy of current vaccines is limited, possibly because tumors skew the immune system by means of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation of effector cells. To improve the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines in patients with metastatic disease, we need to design novel and improved strategies that can boost adaptive immunity to cancer, help overcome Tregs and allow the breakdown of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

Cancer Immunotherapy and Biological Cancer Treatments

Cancer Immunotherapy and Biological Cancer Treatments
Author : Hilal Arnouk
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2019-11-13
Category : Medical
Total pages :112
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In recent years, biological cancer therapies, including immunotherapy, have moved from the bench to mainstream medical treatments of several types of cancer. The success of these treatments relies on innovative approaches to specifically interfere with molecular targets that are involved in the growth, progression, and spread of malignant cells, or to bypass the tumor evasion of the immune system utilizing the latest advances in cancer vaccine development, formulation, and delivery. This book presents an up-to-date overview of novel cancer biological and immunotherapeutic approaches, including cancer vaccines, mimetic vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, adoptive T-cell transfer, chimeric antigen receptor T- cells, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, immune checkpoint inhibitors, laser ablation, and immune stimulating interstitial laser thermotherapy.

Cancer Research

Cancer Research
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2009-05
Category : Cancer
Total pages :129
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