June 17, 2021

Download Ebook Free Non-Exhaust Emissions

Non-Exhaust Emissions

Non-Exhaust Emissions
Author : Fulvio Amato
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-01-04
Category : Air
Total pages :342
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Non-Exhaust Emissions: An Urban Air Quality Problem for Public Health comprehensively summarizes the most recent research in the field, also giving guidance on research gaps and future needs to evaluate the health impact and possible remediation of non-exhaust particle emissions. With contributions from some of the major experts and stakeholders in air quality, this book comprehensively defines the state-of-the-art of current knowledge, gaps and future needs for a better understanding of particulate matter (PM) emissions, from non-exhaust sources of road traffic to improve public health. PM is a heterogeneous mix of chemical elements and sources, with road traffic being the major source in large cities. A significant part of these emissions come from non-exhaust processes, such as brake, tire, road wear, and road dust resuspension. While motor exhaust emissions have been successfully reduced by means of regulation, non-exhaust emissions are currently uncontrolled and their importance is destined to increase and become the dominant urban source of particle matter by 2020. Nevertheless, current knowledge on the non-exhaust emissions is still limited. This is an essential book to researchers and advanced students from a broad range of disciplines, such as public health, toxicology, atmospheric sciences, environmental sciences, atmospheric chemistry and physics, geochemistry, epidemiology, built environment, road and vehicle engineering, and city planning. In addition, European and local authorities responsible for air quality and those in the industrial sectors related to vehicle and brake manufacturing and technological remediation measures will also find the book valuable. Acts as the first book to explore the health impacts of non-exhaust emissions Authored by experts from several sectors, including academia, industry and policy Gathers the relevant body of literature and information, defining the current knowledge, gaps and future needs

Non-exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge

Non-exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release Date : 2020-12-07
Category :
Total pages :140
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Non-exhaust emissions of particulate matter constitute a little-known but rising share of emissions from road traffic and have significant negative impacts on public health. This report synthesizes the current state of knowledge about the nature, causes, and consequences of non-exhaust particulate emissions. It also projects how particulate matter emissions from non-exhaust sources may evolve in future years and reflects on policy instrument mixes that can address this largely ignored environmental issue.

Non-exhaust Traffic Related Emissions - Brake and Tyre Wear PM

Non-exhaust Traffic Related Emissions - Brake and Tyre Wear PM
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2014
Category :
Total pages :129
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Traffic related sources are a significant contributor of particulate matter, particularly in urban environments and major cities. Traffic related particles can be distinguished into: exhaust traffic related particles, which are emitted as a result of incomplete fuel combustion and lubricant volatilization during the combustion procedure, and non-exhaust traffic related particles, which are either generated from non-exhaust traffic related sources such as brake, tyre, clutch and road surface wear or already exist in the environment as deposited material and become resuspended due to traffic induced turbulence. It is estimated that exhaust and non-exhaust sources contribute almost equally to total traffic-related PM10 emissions. However, as exhaust emissions control become stricter, relative contributions of non-exhaust sources to traffic related emissions will increasingly become more significant. The aim of the present literature review study is to present the state-of-the-art of the different aspects regarding particulate emissions resulting from non-exhaust sources and particularly from brake and tyre wear. For this reason several different literature sources such as peer reviewed papers, research project reports, technical publications, as well as licentiate and doctoral theses were examined and the most significant findings in terms of importance, physicochemical characteristics, EFs and possible adverse health effects are discussed.

Non-Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport an Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge

Non-Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport an Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge
Author : Oecd
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020-12-21
Category :
Total pages :144
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Non-exhaust emissions of particulate matter constitute a little-known but rising share of emissions from road traffic and have significant negative impacts on public health. This report synthesizes the current state of knowledge about the nature, causes, and consequences of non-exhaust particulate emissions. It also projects how particulate matter emissions from non-exhaust sources may evolve in future years and reflects on policy instrument mixes that can address this largely ignored environmental issue.

Non-exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport

Non-exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Road dust and PM10 in the Nordic countries

Road dust and PM10 in the Nordic countries
Author : Kupiainen, K ,Denby, B.R ,Gustafsson, M ,Johansson, C
Publisher : Nordic Council of Ministers
Release Date : 2017-01-27
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :30
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Nordic countries suffer from periodic worsening of the air quality during spring with high peak PM10 concentrations (airborne particulate matter with diameter less than 10 µm or 0.01 mm). Characteristic for the high springtime PM10 concentrations are high shares of coarse particles (with diameters between 2.5 and 10µm), a signature of non-exhaust traffic dust formed via abrasion and wear of pavement, traction control materials, vehicle brakes and tyres. This Policy Brief summarizes the current understanding of the road dust system and presents the mitigation measures and policies currently in place in the Nordic countries. It has been compiled as part of the NORTRIP project funded by the Climate and air pollution working group of the Nordic Council of Ministers by researchers from 11 Nordic institutes studying different aspects of traffic non-exhaust emissions and road dust.

Non-exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Road Traffic

Non-exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Road Traffic
Author : Tim J. Barlow,TRL Limited,Great Britain. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2007
Category : Air
Total pages :11
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Non-Exhaust Emissions

Non-Exhaust Emissions
Author : Fulvio Amato
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-01-02
Category : Medical
Total pages :342
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Non-Exhaust Emissions: An Urban Air Quality Problem for Public Health comprehensively summarizes the most recent research in the field, also giving guidance on research gaps and future needs to evaluate the health impact and possible remediation of non-exhaust particle emissions. With contributions from some of the major experts and stakeholders in air quality, this book comprehensively defines the state-of-the-art of current knowledge, gaps and future needs for a better understanding of particulate matter (PM) emissions, from non-exhaust sources of road traffic to improve public health. PM is a heterogeneous mix of chemical elements and sources, with road traffic being the major source in large cities. A significant part of these emissions come from non-exhaust processes, such as brake, tire, road wear, and road dust resuspension. While motor exhaust emissions have been successfully reduced by means of regulation, non-exhaust emissions are currently uncontrolled and their importance is destined to increase and become the dominant urban source of particle matter by 2020. Nevertheless, current knowledge on the non-exhaust emissions is still limited. This is an essential book to researchers and advanced students from a broad range of disciplines, such as public health, toxicology, atmospheric sciences, environmental sciences, atmospheric chemistry and physics, geochemistry, epidemiology, built environment, road and vehicle engineering, and city planning. In addition, European and local authorities responsible for air quality and those in the industrial sectors related to vehicle and brake manufacturing and technological remediation measures will also find the book valuable. Acts as the first book to explore the health impacts of non-exhaust emissions Authored by experts from several sectors, including academia, industry and policy Gathers the relevant body of literature and information, defining the current knowledge, gaps and future needs

Energy Efficient Non-Road Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Energy Efficient Non-Road Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Author : Johannes Unger,Marcus Quasthoff,Stefan Jakubek
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-02-10
Category : Science
Total pages :116
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This book analyzes the main problems in the real-time control of parallel hybrid electric powertrains in non-road applications that work in continuous high dynamic operation. It also provides practical insights into maximizing the energy efficiency and drivability of such powertrains. It introduces an energy-management control structure, which considers all the physical powertrain constraints and uses novel methodologies to predict the future load requirements to optimize the controller output in terms of the entire work cycle of a non-road vehicle. The load prediction includes a methodology for short-term loads as well as cycle detection methodology for an entire load cycle. In this way, the energy efficiency can be maximized, and fuel consumption and exhaust emissions simultaneously reduced. Readers gain deep insights into the topics that need to be considered in designing an energy and battery management system for non-road vehicles. It also becomes clear that only a combination of management systems can significantly increase the performance of a controller.

Measurement of Vehicle Related Non-exhaust Particle Emissions Under Real Driving Conditions

Measurement of Vehicle Related Non-exhaust Particle Emissions Under Real Driving Conditions
Author : Toni Feißel,David Hesse,Klaus Augsburg,Sebastian Gramstat
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Boreal Environment Research

Boreal Environment Research
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category : Ecology
Total pages :129
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Development of Experimental Methods to Investigate Non-exhaust Particle Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle

Development of Experimental Methods to Investigate Non-exhaust Particle Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle
Author : Marcel Mathissen
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2012
Category :
Total pages :129
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NORTRIP

NORTRIP
Author : Bruce Rolstad Denby
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2012
Category :
Total pages :67
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Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends
Author : W. E. Mitchell,P. M. Merritt,R. L. McCormick,K. J. Baumgard,V. Ulmet
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2005
Category :
Total pages :12
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Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

Real-time Exhaust Gas Emission Analysis on Public Transport Buses Equipped with Different Exhaust Control Systems

Real-time Exhaust Gas Emission Analysis on Public Transport Buses Equipped with Different Exhaust Control Systems
Author : Ravi Shankar Viyyuri
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category : Buses
Total pages :165
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The main objective of this experimental thesis was to present a comprehensive analysis of exhaust emissions from transit buses during daily routine operations. The pollutants monitored in this study are Particulate Matter (PM), NOx, CO2, and HC released from three different buses with different exhaust control systems such as NON-EGR bus, EGR- bus with EGR+DPF+DOC and hybrid bus with EGR+DPF+DOC+SCR. All these buses were tested on the same route each day. To further categorize and elaborate our findings, the runtime was divided into both idle and running conditions. With a specific end goal to accomplish extensive outcomes, the idle condition was additionally divided into two distinct cases, i.e., cold idle and hot idle conditions. The running conditions were also divided into acceleration, deceleration, variable speed, and intersections. The NOx, CO2 and HC emission were gathered and analyzed for every one of the conditions and modes depicted above. The particulate emission was collected and analyzed in idle conditions. In idle condition NOx, CO2 and HC decrease with time and stay constant after they reach 15 minutes of idle time. The cold idle emissions are observed to be very high when compared to the hot idle condition, this is because the hot idle emissions are collected after the bus gets back to the garage from its daily route with a hot engine and this delivers the appropriate amount of fuel into the engine for complete combustion. Whereas cold idle mode does not run at its optimum temperature that leads to incomplete combustion and increases in emission formation. The NOx and HC emissions decreased from NON-EGR to EGR to the hybrid bus because of the emission control systems: SCR, DOC, and EGR, Whereas CO2 emissions, increase by using the same emissions control systems from NONEGR to EGR to the hybrid bus. The study shows that hybrid bus emits less amount of NOx when compared to EGR and NON- EGR buses, this is because of the exhaust control system SCR. SCR was used to minimize NOx emissions in the exhaust gas by using ammonia (NH3) as the reductant. This exhaust/ammonia mixture passes through the SCR catalyst, where the oxides of nitrogen are turned into nitrogen and water. Moreover, CO2 emissions were high in the hybrid bus then compared to EGR and NON-EGR buses. This was because of chemical reaction that takes place in SCR and DOC releasing CO2 as a product. Whereas, the amount of HC emitted from EGR and hybrid buses were almost in the same range, but very low when compared to the NON-EGR bus. This study also shows that NOx, CO2, and HC are directly proportional to speed (RPM) of the bus. The collected NOx, CO2, and HC are analyzed to develop a statistical regression model using Lasso and Extra Tree Regression techniques that can predict the pollutant concentrations of the exhaust emissions, with respect to different running modes and idle modes for transit buses equipped with EGR+DPF+DOC, EGR+SCR+UREA systems, and a NON-EGR bus. This regression analysis identified the relation and impact of engine variables on pollutant levels. In this study, Extra Tree Regression and Lasso Regression techniques were used to testify the data. The parameters used for prediction of CO2, HC, and NOx emissions in the idle mode were engine temperature and time. Whereas, in running mode rpm was used to predict exhaust emissions. Therefore, Extra Tree Regression was proved as the best regression technique because of its accuracy and low RMSE values when compared to Lasso. Particulate Matter analysis was conducted on all three buses using a catch can instrument and quartz filter papers. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was performed on the particulate matter. In EDS analysis, it was observed that the NON-EGR bus samples seem to have a high carbon content detected when compared to EGR bus and Hybrid bus. This was expected because of lack of EGR and DPF systems on NON-EGR bus. Moreover, EGR and Hybrid buses recorded literally the same amount of carbon content, this could be because of having the same exhaust control systems: EGR and DPF. This study and analysis of exhaust emissions for different exhaust control system equipped buses, will assist the manufacturers and regulators of air pollution in selecting the appropriate exhaust control system equipped bus for emission control strategies in their area.