December 5, 2020

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Kinetics of Ice Nucleation from Water and Electrolyte Solutions

Kinetics of Ice Nucleation from Water and Electrolyte Solutions
Author : George R. Wood,Alan G. Walton
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1969
Category : Electrolyte solutions
Total pages :171
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Anomalous Water: Nucleation, Growth and Properties

Anomalous Water: Nucleation, Growth and Properties
Author : George K. Swinzow
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1971
Category : Polywater
Total pages :37
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An anomalous liquid phase forming in an atmosphere of reduced water vapor pressure was investigated. The liquid was grown in capillary tubes. Technical experimental refinements resulted in high nucleation rates not previously observed. An examination of vapor pressures disclosed the relationship of nucleation growth and equilibria of anomalous water. The possibility of nucleation and growth of anomalous water on flat surfaces was confirmed by observation. Anomalous water was nucleated and grown on glass, quartz, Teflon, polyethylene and metal. Growth rates on free flat surfaces were higher, and the total amount of fluid obtained was several orders of magnitude higher, than those obtained from capillary tubes. Refractive indexes and other properties were measured directly. The new method of growing anomalous water outside capillary tubes is an advantage that may lead to large-scale production. Neither investigation of nor conclusion on the nature of the substance was made. Its low freezing temperature, high boiling temperature, low vapor pressure and high viscosity, reported by previous investigators and observed by the author, are of primary importance and justify a search for large-scale preparation methods. (Author).

A Molecular Theory of the Homogeneous Nucleation of Ice from Supercooled Water

A Molecular Theory of the Homogeneous Nucleation of Ice from Supercooled Water
Author : William J. Eadie
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1971
Category : Ice
Total pages :234
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Nucleation of Water

Nucleation of Water
Author : Ari Laaksonen,Jussi Malila
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2021-09-15
Category : Science
Total pages :250
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Nucleation of Water: From Fundamental Science to Atmospheric and Additional Applications provides a comprehensive accounting of the current state-of-the-art regarding the nucleation of water. It covers vapor-liquid, liquid-vapor, liquid-ice and vapor-ice transitions and describes basic kinetic and thermodynamic concepts in a manner understandable to researchers working on specific applications. The main focus of the book lies in atmospheric phenomena, but it also describes engineering and biological applications. Bubble nucleation, although not of major atmospheric relevance, is included for completeness. This book presents a single, go-to resource that will help readers understand the breadth and depth of nucleation, both in theory and in real-world examples. Offers a single, comprehensive work on water nucleation, including cutting- edge research on ice, cloud and bubble nucleation Written primarily for atmospheric scientists, but it also presents the theories in such a way that researchers in other disciplines will find it useful Written by one of the world's foremost experts on ice nucleation

Water

Water
Author : Felix Franks
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2000
Category : Nature
Total pages :225
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This book will provide an understanding of the behavioural properties of water which is fundamental to gaining an appreciation of many scientific processes and principles.

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols
Author : Colin D. O'Dowd,Paul E. Wagner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-11-15
Category : Science
Total pages :1256
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Atmospheric particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere: they form the seeds for cloud droplets and they form haze layers, blocking out incoming radiation and contributing to a partial cooling of our climate. They also contribute to poor air quality and health impacts. A large fraction of aerosols are formed from nucleation processes – that is a phase transition from vapour to liquid or solid particles. Examples are the formation of stable clusters about 1 nm in size from molecular collisions and these in turn can grow into larger (100 nm or more) haze particles via condensation to the formation of ice crystals in mixed phase or cold clouds. This book brings together the leading experts from the nucleation and atmospheric aerosols research communities to present the current state-of-the-art knowledge in these related fields. Topics covered are: Nucleation Experiment & Theory, Binary, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation, Ion & Cluster Properties During Nucleation, Aerosol Characterisation & Properties, Aerosol Formation, Dynamics and Growth, Marine Aerosol Production, Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, Chemical Composition & Cloud Drop Activation, Remote Sensing of aerosol & clouds and Air Quality-Climate Interactions

Activation, Growth, and Detachment of Boiling Bubbles in Water from Artificial Nucleation Sites of Known Geometry and Size

Activation, Growth, and Detachment of Boiling Bubbles in Water from Artificial Nucleation Sites of Known Geometry and Size
Author : John R. Howell
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1967
Category : Ebullition
Total pages :42
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Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems

Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems
Author : Hanna Vehkamäki
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2006-03-22
Category : Science
Total pages :188
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Nucleation is the initial step of every first-order phase transition, and most phase transitions encountered both in everyday life and industrial processes are of the first-order. Using an elegant classical theory based on thermodynamics and kinetics, this book provides a fully detailed picture of multi-component nucleation. As many of the issues concerning multi-component nucleation theory have been solved during the last 10-15 years, it also thoroughly integrates both fundamental theory with recent advances presented in the literature. Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems serves as a textbook for advanced thermodynamics courses, as well as an important reference for researchers in the field. The main topics covered are: the basic relevant thermodynamics and statistical physics; modelling a molecular cluster as a spherical liquid droplet; predicting the size and composition of the nucleating critical clusters; kinetic models for cluster growth and decay; calculating nucleation rates; and a full derivation and application of nucleation theorems that can be used to extract microscopic cluster properties from nucleation rate measurements. The assumptions and approximations needed to build the classical theory are described in detail, and the reasons why the theory fails in certain cases are explained. Relevant problems are presented at the end of each chapter.

Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation

Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation
Author : H.R. Pruppacher,J.D. Klett
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-06-25
Category : Science
Total pages :954
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Cloud physics has achieved such a voluminous literature over the past few decades that a significant quantitative study of the entire field would prove unwieldy. This book concentrates on one major aspect: cloud microphysics, which involves the processes that lead to the formation of individual cloud and precipitation particles. Common practice has shown that one may distinguish among the following addi tional major aspects: cloud dynamics, which is concerned with the physics respon sible for the macroscopic features of clouds; cloud electricity, which deals with the electrical structure of clouds and the electrification processes of cloud and precipi tation particles; and cloud optics and radar meteorology, which describe the effects of electromagnetic waves interacting with clouds and precipitation. Another field intimately related to cloud physics is atmospheric chemistry, which involves the chemical composition ofthe atmosphere and the life cycle and characteristics of its gaseous and particulate constituents. In view of the natural interdependence of the various aspects of cloud physics, the subject of microphysics cannot be discussed very meaningfully out of context. Therefore, we have found it necessary to touch briefly upon a few simple and basic concepts of cloud dynamics and thermodynamics, and to provide an account of the major characteristics of atmospheric aerosol particles. We have also included a separate chapter on some of the effects of electric fields and charges on the precipitation-forming processes.

Nucleation of Supersaturated Water Vapor by Very Small Numbers of Sulfuric Acid Molecules

Nucleation of Supersaturated Water Vapor by Very Small Numbers of Sulfuric Acid Molecules
Author : Benilde de Jesus Vieira Saramago de Almeida
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1978
Category : Nucleation
Total pages :44
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Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Microphysics of Clouds

Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Microphysics of Clouds
Author : Vitaly I. Khvorostyanov,Judith A. Curry
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2014-08-25
Category : Science
Total pages :800
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This book advances understanding of cloud microphysics and provides a unified theoretical foundation for modeling cloud processes, for researchers and advanced students.

Advances in Quantum Chemistry

Advances in Quantum Chemistry
Author : John R. Sabin,Erkki J. Brandas
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2011-09-06
Category : Science
Total pages :500
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Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current developments in this rapidly developing field that falls between the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. With invited reviews written by leading international researchers, each presenting new results, it provides a single vehicle for following progress in this interdisciplinary area. Theoretical methods have dramatically extended the reach and grasp of atmospheric scientists. This edition of Advances in Quantum Chemistry collects a broad range of articles that provide reports from the leading edge of this interaction. The chemical systems span the range from atoms to clusters to droplets. Electronic structure calculations are used to uncover the details of the breakdown and removal of emissions from the atmosphere and the simultaneous development of air pollution including ozone and particles. The anomalous enrichment of heavy isotopes in atmospheric ozone is discussed using RRKM theory, and a number of techniques are presented for calculating the effect of isotopic substitution on the absorption spectra of atmospheric molecules. * Publishes articles, invited reviews and proceedings of major international conferences and workshops * Written by leading international researchers in quantum and theoretical chemistry * Highlights important interdisciplinary developments

Water and Aqueous Solutions at Subzero Temperatures

Water and Aqueous Solutions at Subzero Temperatures
Author : Felix Franks
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-11-11
Category : Science
Total pages :484
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This Volume, the last of the series, is devoted to water in its metastable forms, especially at sub-zero temperatures. The past few years have wit nessed an increasing interest in supercooled water and amorphous ice. If the properties of liquid water in the normal temperature range are already eccentric, then they become exceedingly so below the normal freezing point, in the metastable temperature range. Water can be supercooled to -39°C without too much effort, and most of its physical properties show a re markable temperature dependence under these conditions. Although ade quate explanations are still lacking, the time has come to review available knowledge. The study of amorphous ice, that is, the solid formed when water vapor is condensed on a very cold surface, is of longer standing. It has achieved renewed interest because it may serve as a model for the liquid state. There is currently a debate whether or not a close structural relation ship exists between amorphous ice and supercooled water. The nucleation and growth of ice in supercooled water and aqueous solutions is also still one of those grey areas of research, although these topics have received considerable attention from chemists and physicists over the past two decades. Even now, the relationships between degree of supercooling, nucleation kinetics, crystal growth kinetics, cooling rate and solute concentration are somewhat obscure. Nevertheless, at the empirical level much progress has been made, because these topics are of considerable importance to biologists, technologists, atmospheric physicists and gla ciologists.

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 1996

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 1996
Author : M. Kulmala,P.E. Wagner
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1996-08-13
Category : Science
Total pages :967
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This volume is a collection of papers presented at the 14th International Conference on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, Helsinki, 26 - 30 August 1996. The first conference of this series took place in Dublin (1955); second, Basel and Locarno (1956); third, Cambridge (1958); fourth, Frankfurt am Main and Heidelberg (1961); fifth, Clermont-Ferrand and Tolouse (1963); sixth, Albany and University Park (1966); seventh, Prague and Vienna (1969); eighth, Leningrad (1973); ninth, Galway (1977); tenth, Hamburg (1981); eleventh Budapest (1984); twelfth, Vienna (1988); thirteenth, Salt Lake City (1992). The Atmospheric Aerosol conference has been held jointly with the Nucleation Symposium since 1988 in Vienna in order to stimulate contacts between researchers in these closely related fields. The broad nature of the meeting and the scientific program resulted in 32 countries submitting papers for presentation. Covering both experimental and theoretical studies these papers are divided amongst the chapters on Nucleation, Stratospheric Aerosols and Ice Nucleation, Tropospheric Aerosols and Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interaction. In addition to these contributed papers invitations to present a plenary lecture on topics of particular current interest were accepted by P.J. Crutzen, J. Gras, J.L. Katz, A.A. Lushnikov, D. Oxtoby, J.E. Penner, Th. Peter, F. Raes, S.E. Schwartz, R. Strey and G. Vali. These plenary papers together with the contributed papers provide a well-balanced perspective of the current research over the entire field and highlight some important issues.

Physics of Precipitation

Physics of Precipitation
Author : Helmut Weickmann
Publisher : American Geophysical Union
Release Date : 1960
Category : Cloud physics
Total pages :435
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