December 1, 2020

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Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
Author : Gerold Siedler,John A. Church,John Gould
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2001-04-25
Category : Science
Total pages :715
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This book presents the views of leading scientists on the knowledge of the global ocean circulation following the completion of the observational phase of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. WOCE's in situ physical and chemical measurements together with satellite altimetry have produced a data set which provides for development of ocean and coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models used for understanding ocean and climate variability and projecting climate change. This book guides the reader through the analysis, interpretation, modelling and synthesis of this data.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :904
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The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
Author : Stefan Rahmstorf,Georg Feulner
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :904
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The oceans play a crucial role in the Earth’s climate system due largely to their ability to store and transport heat. The instrumental record, spanning an order of magnitude of 100 years, is short compared with some of the important timescales of climate variability. To understand the oceans’ role in these long-term changes, proxy data from sediments, ice cores, and corals must be used. Using these proxy data, we examine the evidence for past ocean circulation and sea-level changes before instrumental oceanographic measurements began. We discuss what paleoclimatic data can tell us about past ocean states and what can be learned from ocean and climate models. Particular foci of the chapter are the ocean circulation and sea-level changes during the Quaternary and the Cretaceous, two particularly interesting periods in Earth’s history. The Quaternary covers the past 2.5 million years and is characterized by periodic glaciations, while the Cretaceous, reaching back around 100 million years, had a warm greenhouse climate with a weak temperature gradient between the tropics and the poles.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
Author : Paul J. Durack,Susan E. Wijffels,Tim P. Boyer
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :904
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Long-term global ocean salinity variation provides an insight into water cycle change. This connection reflects changes to the evaporation and precipitation (E–P) fields along with terrestrial runoff, which comprises the global water cycle and sets the spatial pattern of salinity on the ocean surface. The dynamic nature of the global ocean ensures that along with E–P, temperature and circulation changes also play a role in driving patterns of salinity change. This chapter provides an introduction to the global water cycle, briefly outlines the history of ocean salinity observation, and introduces results that relate resolved salinity change to water cycle change. Because of sparse observational coverage, the use of climate models are necessary to investigate these relationships. Long-term changes to global ocean salinity suggest that an unambiguous and coherent water cycle change has occurred over the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Climate model simulations project that such changes will intensify in the twenty-first century in response to continued greenhouse gas emissions.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
Author : Andreas Schiller,Tong Lee,Shuhei Masuda
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :904
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The past 20 years have provided us with an unprecedented ability to observe, monitor, and forecast the oceans. In situ and remotely sensed ocean observations in combination with ocean general circulation models using data assimilation and state estimation methods underpin climate applications. State estimation aims to provide a dynamically consistent estimation of ocean fields, of errors of these fields, and of certain model parameters such as mixing coefficients. Conversely, data assimilation tools have been developed predominantly for ocean prediction applications and ocean reanalyses. This chapter describes approaches used by state estimation and data assimilation systems in synthesizing observations and model dynamics. We highlight some applications, including their limitations for climate research, and address the challenges ahead in relation to the ocean observing system.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
Author : Sybren S. Drijfhout,David P. Marshall,Henk A. Dijkstra
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :904
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Conceptual models are a vital tool for understanding the processes that maintain the global ocean circulation, both in nature and in complex numerical ocean models. In this chapter we provide a broad overview of our conceptual understanding of the wind-driven circulation, the thermohaline circulation, and their transient behavior. While our conceptual understanding of the time-mean wind-driven circulation is now fairly mature, basic questions remain regarding the thermohaline circulation, for example, surrounding its overall strength and stability. Similarly, basic questions remain regarding the transient adjustment and internal variability of the ocean circulation.

Ocean Circulation

Ocean Circulation
Author : Rui Xin Huang
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2010
Category : Science
Total pages :791
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The modeling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science.

Ocean Circulation

Ocean Circulation
Author : Andreas Schmittner,John C. H. Chiang,Sidney R. Hemming
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2013-05-02
Category : Science
Total pages :392
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 173. The ocean's meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a key factor in climate change. The Atlantic MOC, in particular, is believed to play an active role in the regional and global climate variability. It is associated with the recent debate on rapid climate change, the Atlantic Multi-Decadal Oscillation (AMO), global warming, and Atlantic hurricanes. This is the first book to deal with all aspects of the ocean's large-scale meridional overturning circulation, and is a coherent presentation, from a mechanistic point of view, of our current understanding of paleo, present-day, and future variability and change. It presents the current state of the science by bringing together the world's leading experts in physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, marine geology, geochemistry, paleoceanography, and climate modeling. A mix of overview and research papers makes this volume suitable not only for experts in the field, but also for students and anyone interested in climate change and the oceans.

Marine Geochemistry

Marine Geochemistry
Author : Matthieu Roy-Barman,Catherine Jeandel
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2016-11-03
Category : Science
Total pages :384
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Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works in terms of ocean circulation, chemical composition, biological activity and atmospheric CO2 regulation. This rapidly growing field is at a crossroad for many disciplines (physical, chemical and biological oceanography, geology, climatology, ecology, etc.). It provides important quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to anthropogenic pressure? This text gives a simple introduction to the concepts, the methods and the applications of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Overall introducing a very large number of topics (physical oceanography, ocean chemistry, isotopes, gas exchange, modelling, biogeochemical cycles), with a balance of didactic and indepth information, it provides an outline and a complete course in marine geochemistry. Throughout, the book uses a hands-on approach with worked out exercises and problems (with answers provided at the end of the book), to help the students work through the concepts presented. A broad scale approach is take including ocean physics, marine biology, ocean-climate relations, remote sensing, pollutions and ecology, so that the reader acquires a global perspective of the ocean. It also includes new topics arising from ongoing research programs. This textbook is essential reading for students, scholars, researchers and other professionals.

Ocean Circulation in Three Dimensions

Ocean Circulation in Three Dimensions
Author : Barry A. Klinger,Thomas W. N. Haine
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2019-03-31
Category : Science
Total pages :494
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An innovative survey of large-scale ocean circulation that links observations, conceptual models, numerical models, and theories.

The Great Ocean Conveyor

The Great Ocean Conveyor
Author : Wally Broecker
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release Date : 2010-01-11
Category : Science
Total pages :176
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Exploring the link between the ocean's currents and rapid climate change Wally Broecker is one of the world's leading authorities on abrupt global climate change. More than two decades ago, he discovered the link between ocean circulation and climate change, in particular how shutdowns of the Great Ocean Conveyor—the vast network of currents that circulate water, heat, and nutrients around the globe—triggered past ice ages. Today, he is among the researchers exploring how our planet's climate system can abruptly "flip-flop" from one state to another, and who are weighing the implications for the future. In The Great Ocean Conveyor, Broecker introduces readers to the science of abrupt climate change while providing a vivid, firsthand account of the field's history and development. Could global warming cause the conveyor to shut down again, prompting another flip-flop in climate? What were the repercussions of past climate shifts? How do we know such shifts occurred? Broecker shows how Earth scientists study ancient ice cores and marine sediments to probe Earth's distant past, and how they blend scientific detective work with the latest technological advances to try to predict the future. He traces how the science has evolved over the years, from the blind alleys and wrong turns to the controversies and breathtaking discoveries. Broecker describes the men and women behind the science, and reveals how his own thinking about abrupt climate change has itself flip-flopped as new evidence has emerged. Rich with personal stories and insights, The Great Ocean Conveyor opens a tantalizing window onto how Earth science is practiced.

Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change

Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change
Author : Jens Bischof,Springer-verlag
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2000-11
Category : Nature
Total pages :215
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The issue of global warming and climate change is of continuous concern. Since the 1970s, it bas been shown that the pack-ice around the Arctic Ocean is thinning, the margin of permafrost is moving north and the vegetation in the high northern parts of the world is changing (the 'greening' of the Arctic). But are these changes the result of human activity or simply regular variations of the Earth's climate system? Over thousands of years, a continuous archive of iceberg and sea ice drift bas formed in the deep-sea sediments, revealing the place of the ice's origin and allowing a reconstruction of the surface currents and the climate of the past. However, the drift of floating ice from one place to another is not just a passive record of past ocean circulation. It actively influences and changes the surface ocean circulation, thus having a profound effect on climate change. Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change is the first book to focus on the interactions between ice, the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how these three components of the climate system influence each other. It makes clear the positive contribution of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography and should be read by anyone concerned with global warming and climate change.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
Author : Christoph Heinze,Marion Gehlen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :904
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Biogeochemical ocean general circulation models are important tools for quantifying the marine carbon cycle and its feedback to the climate system. These models simulate the inorganic carbon cycle and also the organic carbon cycle through a series of simplified process parameterizations. This chapter presents an overview of the major concepts and methods in marine biogeochemical modeling including the combination of models with observations. Because of the climatic relevance of the carbon cycle, major emphasis is placed on it, but some other related matter cycles are also touched upon. New developments in ocean biogeochemistry during the last decade are described including the marine anthropogenic carbon uptake and ocean acidification. The chapter tries to acquaint scientists from other disciplines with marine biogeochemical modeling and provides key literature resources for further in-depth studies.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate
Author : Peter R. Gent
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Science
Total pages :904
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Coupled climate models consist of atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice components. Most climate models now do not need to use flux adjustments to maintain the present-day climate in a control run, when the forcings have a repeating annual cycle or are constant in time. A control run must simulate well-known important large-scale phenomena, such as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic overturning circulation. Climate models are used to simulate the climate of the twentieth century, and to make projections of the future climate. The uses and limitations of climate models are then described, and several cutting edge issues are discussed.