November 30, 2020

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Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)
Author : Alastair Buckley
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-08-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :666
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Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are opening up exciting new applications in the area of lighting and displays. OLEDs are self emissive and by careful materials and device design can generate colours across the visible spectrum. Together with simple monolithic fabrication on a range of different substrates, these diverse material properties give OLEDs key advantages over existing display and lighting technology. This important book summarises key research on materials, engineering and the range of applications of these versatile materials. Part one covers materials for OLEDs. Chapters review conjugated polymers, transparent conducting thin films, iridium complexes and phosphorescent materials. Part two discusses the operation and engineering of OLED devices. Chapters discuss topics such as highly efficient pin-type OLEDs, amorphous organic semiconductors, nanostructuring techniques, light extraction, colour tuning, printing techniques, fluorenone defects and disruptive characteristics as well as durability issues. Part three explores the applications of OLEDs in displays and solid-state lighting. Applications discussed include displays, microdisplays and transparent OLEDs, sensors and large-area OLED lighting panels. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is a standard reference for engineers working in lighting, display technology and the consumer electronics sectors, as well as those researching OLEDs. Summarises key research on the materials, engineering and applications of OLEDs Reviews conjugated polymers, transparent conducting thin films Considers nanostructuring OLEDS for increasing levels of efficiency

Principles and Applications of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

Principles and Applications of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)
Author : N. Thejo Kalyani,Hendrik Swart,S. J. Dhoble
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2017-05-15
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :332
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Principles and Applications of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)explores the ways in which the development of organic semiconductor materials is opening up new applications in electronic and optoelectronic luminescent devices. The book begins by covering the principles of luminescence and the luminescent properties of organic semiconductors. It then covers the development of luminescent materials for OLEDs, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of organic versus inorganic luminescent materials. The fabrication and characterization of OLEDs is also covered in detail, including information on, and comparisons of, vacuum deposition and solution techniques. Finally, applications of OLEDs are explored, including OLEDs in solid-state lighting, colored lighting, displays and potential future applications, such as ultra-thin and flexible technologies. This book is an excellent resource both for experts and newcomers to the field of organic optoelectronics and OLEDs. It is ideal for scientists working on optical devices, lighting, display and imaging technologies, and for all those engaged in research in photonics, luminescence and optical materials. Provides a one-stop guide to OLED technology for the benefit of newcomers to the field of organic optoelectronics Comprehensively covers the luminescent properties of organic semiconductors and their development into OLED materials Offers practical information on OLED fabrication and their applications in solid-state lighting and displays, making this essential reading for optoelectronics engineers and materials scientists

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Author : Jan Kalinowski
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-10-03
Category : Science
Total pages :480
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Organic Light Emitting Diodes: Principles, Characteristics, and Processes presents recent developments in organic electroluminescence and their application to light emitting diodes. In six chapters and complete with an extensive set of references, it describes and illustrates the physical principles of organic LEDs and their electrical and optical characteristics with a wide range of examples and practical studies. The author presents a unified approach to the description and functioning of organic LEDs, based on a comprehensive background of relevant physical processes and provides a clear foundation for the prediction and design of new improved electroluminescent devices.

Efficient Organic Light Emitting-Diodes (OLEDs)

Efficient Organic Light Emitting-Diodes (OLEDs)
Author : Yi-Lu Chang
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2015-08-03
Category : Science
Total pages :126
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Following two decades of intense research globally, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has steadily emerged as the ultimate display technology of choice for the coming decades. Portable active matrix OLED displays have already become prevalent, and even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being mass-produced. More exotic applications such as wearable displays have been commercialized recently. With the burgeoning success in displays, researchers are actively bringing the technology forward into the exciting solid-state lighting market. This book presents the knowledge needed for students and researchers from diverse disciplines to understand the underlying principles in OLED technology. It begins with a brief history and fundamental working principles of OLEDs. After introducing the fundamentals, it discusses more efficient OLED designs, as well as advanced strategies to enhance the performance. The text covers in detail important areas such as top-emission, p- and n-type doping, device stability, light extraction, and stacked white OLEDs. It also throws light on the current industry practice and major areas of focus in the near future.

OLED Fundamentals

OLED Fundamentals
Author : Daniel J. Gaspar,Evgueni Polikarpov
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2015-05-15
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :494
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A Comprehensive Source for Taking on the Next Stage of OLED R&D OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes brings together key topics across the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), from fundamental chemistry and physics to practical materials science and engineering aspects to design and manufacturing factors. Experts from top academic institutions, industry, and national laboratories provide thorough, up-to-date coverage on the most useful materials, devices, and design and fabrication methods for high-efficiency lighting. The first part of the book covers all the construction materials of OLED devices, from substrate to encapsulation. For the first time in book form, the second part addresses challenges in devices and processing, including architectures and methods for new OLED lighting and display technologies. The book is suitable for a broad audience, including materials scientists, device physicists, synthetic chemists, and electrical engineers. It can also serve as an introduction for graduate students interested in applied aspects of photophysics and electrochemistry in organic thin films.

Organic Light Emitting Diodes

Organic Light Emitting Diodes
Author : Luiz F. R. Pereira
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2012-05-29
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :350
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This book addresses the development of OLEDs based on rare-earth and transition metal complexes, especially focusing on europium, terbium, ruthenium, and rhenium. The idea is to explain how these organic materials can be used to build OLEDs. Taking into account the actual state of the art and the expected pathways, the book proposes further developments in the field. It presents intensive experimental results for a better explanation. This book is meant for scientists and engineers who work in this new OLED framework. It also has didactic utility for graduation students and teachers working on optoelectronics.

Organic Light-emitting Diodes

Organic Light-emitting Diodes
Author : Douglas Rivera
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2015-12-01
Category :
Total pages :155
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Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are considered as the most promising technology for next generation display and solid-state lighting for their advantages such as surface emitting, ease for large area manufacturing, viability for flexible and transparent applications, low energy consumption and potential to be low-cost. Chapter one of this book discusses tandem OLEDs, which are technologically interesting because not only can the luminance and current efficiency be improved linearly with the number of electroluminescent (EL) units in the tandem OLED, but also leakage current and breakdown of the electric field can be avoided due to the higher luminance at a low current density and the thicker organic films, resulting in a long lifetime. Chapter two mainly deals with the low cost synthesis and characterisation of amino, amino-chloro, dichloro and trichloro substituted derivatives of diphenyl quinoline (DPQ). Chapter three aims at reporting the last strategies that have been developed to address the issue of roll-off.

Porphyrin Materials for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

Porphyrin Materials for Organic Light Emitting Diodes
Author : Brian Tuffy
Publisher : Brian Tuffy
Release Date : 2011-10
Category :
Total pages :104
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Organic light emitting diode technology is evolving rapidly with commercial applications in recent years. OLED materials and design are moving into an advanced stage with optimising techniques becoming more important. This work presents the use of porphyrin materials for organic electronics, specifically for organic light emitting diodes using phosphorescent emission. The porphyrins show interesting photophysical properties which allow for an exploitation of the normally forbidden triplet energy states to achieve a significant enhancement in the device efficiency. This research presents a simple host-guest system where this concept is demonstrated. Various porphyrin structures are synthesised and tuned for OLED performance, from this, we can learn how chemical structure relates to the exciton dynamics and their resulting light emission. It is hoped that this work outlines a possible route to phosphorescent OLED technologies.

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Author : Mingsheng Xu
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release Date : 2010-06
Category : Light emitting diodes
Total pages :148
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Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology is used in a variety of display applications, ranging from cell phones and MP3 to prototype TVs, and holds great promise for the production of highly efficient large-area light sources and flat panel displays. It has the potential to become a multibillion-dollar industry within a few years. The biggest technical challenge for OLEDs is the limited lifetime associated with elevated temperatures and exposure to moisture. The guaranteed hours of operation (15,000 hr) is currently inadequate for most TVs and replacement of LCDs with the 60,000 hr half-life. This book, therefore, investigated the thermal-activated and moisture-induced degradation pathways of small molecule - based prototype OLEDs as well as interfacial electronic properties at the nanoscale level through real-time visualization. The results should help shed some lights on improving luminescence efficiency and lifetime of OLEDs, and should be especially useful to professionals in research and development of not only OLED technology but other organic electronics, or anyone else who may be interested in plastic electronics.

Organic Light Emitting Devices

Organic Light Emitting Devices
Author : Klaus Müllen,Ullrich Scherf
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2006-05-12
Category : Science
Total pages :426
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This high-class book reflects a decade of intense research, culminating in excellent successes over the last few years. The contributions from both academia as well as the industry leaders combine the fundamentals and latest research results with application know-how and examples of functioning displays. As a result, all the four important aspects of OLEDs are covered: - syntheses of the organic materials - physical theory of electroluminescence and device efficiency - device conception and construction - characterization of both materials and devices. The whole is naturally rounded off with a look at what the future holds in store. The editor, Klaus Muellen, is director of the highly prestigious MPI for polymer research in Mainz, Germany, while the authors include Nobel Laureate Alan Heeger, one of the most notable founders of the field, Richard Friend, as well as Ching Tang, Eastman Kodak's number-one OLED researcher, known throughout the entire community for his key publications.

Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Its Application in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

Organic Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Its Application in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Author : Dongge Ma,Yonghua Chen
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-09-21
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :153
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This book systematically introduces the most important aspects of organic semiconductor heterojunctions, including the basic concepts and electrical properties. It comprehensively discusses the application of organic semiconductor heterojunctions as charge injectors and charge generation layers in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Semiconductor heterojunctions are the basis for constructing high-performance optoelectronic devices. In recent decades, organic semiconductors have been increasingly used to fabricate heterojunction devices, especially in OLEDs, and the subject has attracted a great deal of attention and evoked many new phenomena and interpretations in the field. This important application is based on the low dielectric constant of organic semiconductors and the weak non-covalent electronic interactions between them, which means that they easily form accumulation heterojunctions. As we know, the accumulation-type space charge region is highly conductive, which is an important property for highly efficient charge generation in their application as charge injector and charge generation layer in OLEDs. This book serves as a valuable reference for researchers and as a textbook for graduate students focusing on the study and development of OLED for display and lighting.

Air-Stable Inverted Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

Air-Stable Inverted Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Author : Katsuyuki Morii,Hirohiko Fukagawa
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2020-04-03
Category : Science
Total pages :48
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This concise volume provides an introduction to the working principles, design, and construction of air-stable inverted organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which lead to the realization of practical flexible electronics. The first part of the book reviews the history of the three generations of inverted OLEDs: hybrid organic inorganic light-emitting diodes (HOILEDs), metal oxides and organic electron injection layer, describing the materials, fabrication techniques, device structure, applications, and technological challenges involved in each case. The second part of the book focuses on the carrier injection mechanism in OLEDs. The book will be of interest to students and researchers working on organic optoelectronics.

Organic Light Emitting Diode

Organic Light Emitting Diode
Author : Marco Mazzeo
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2010-08-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :234
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Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted enormous attention in the recent years because of their potential for flat panel displays and solid state lighting. This potential lies in the amazing flexibility offered by the synthesis of new organic compounds and by low-cost fabrication techniques, making these devices very promising for the market. The idea that flexible devices will replace standard objects such as television screens and lighting sources opens, indeed, a new scenario, where the research is very exciting and multidisciplinary. The aim of the present book is to give a comprehensive and up-to-date collection of contributions from leading experts in OLEDs. The subjects cover fields ranging from molecular and nanomaterials, used to increase the efficiency of the devices, to new technological perspectives in the realization of structures for high contrast organic displays and low-cost organic white light sources. The volume therefore presents a wide survey on the status and relevant trends in OLEDs research, thus being of interest to anyone active in this field. In addition, the present volume could also be used as a state-of-the-art introduction for young scientists.

High-performance Organic Light Emitting Diodes

High-performance Organic Light Emitting Diodes
Author : Kody George Klimes
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category : Electroluminescent devices
Total pages :151
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Organic electronics have remained a research topic of great interest over the past few decades, with organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) emerging as a disruptive technology for lighting and display applications. While OLED performance has improved significantly over the past decade, key issues remain unsolved such as the development of stable and efficient blue devices. In order to further the development of OLEDs and increase their commercial potential, innovative device architectures, novel emissive materials and high-energy hosts are designed and reported. OLEDs employing step-wide graded-doped emissive layers were designed to improve charge balance and center the exciton formation zone leading to improved device performance. A red OLED with a peak efficiency of 16.9% and an estimated LT97 over 2,000 hours at 1,000 cd/m2 was achieved. Employing a similar structure, a sky-blue OLED was demonstrated with a peak efficiency of 17.4% and estimated LT70 over 1,300 hours at 1,000 cd/m2. Furthermore, the sky-blue OLEDs color was improved to CIE coordinates of (0.15, 0.25) while maintaining an efficiency of 16.9% and estimated LT70 over 600 hours by incorporating a fluorescent sensitizer. These devices represent literature records at the time of publication for efficient and stable platinum phosphorescent OLEDs. A newly developed class of emitters, metal-assisted delayed-fluorescence (MADF), are demonstrated to achieve higher-energy emission from a relatively low triplet energy. A green MADF device reaches a peak efficiency of 22% with an estimated LT95 over 350 hours at 1,000 cd/m2. Additionally, a blue charge confined OLED of PtON1a-tBu demonstrated a peak efficiency above 20%, CIE coordinated of (0.16, 0.27), and emission onset at 425 nm. High triplet energy hosts are required for the realization of stable and efficient deep blue emission. A rigid "M"-type carbazole/fluorene hybrid called mDCzPF and a carbazole/9-silafluorene hybrid called mDCzPSiF are demonstrated to have high triplet energies ET=2.88 eV and 3.03 eV respectively. Both hosts are demonstrated to have reasonable stability and can serve as a template for future material design. The techniques presented here demonstrate alternative approaches for improving the performance of OLED devices and help to bring this technology closer to widespread commercialization.

White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters

White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters
Author : Dongxiang Luo
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category : Technology
Total pages :129
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Recently, thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted both academic and industrial interest due to their extraordinary characteristics, such as high efficiency, low driving voltage, bright luminance, lower power consumption, and potentially long lifetime. In this chapter, various approaches to realize white OLEDs (WOLEDs) with TADF emitters have been introduced. The recent development of WOLEDs based on all TADF emitters, WOLEDs based on TADF and conventional fluorescence emitters, and WOLEDs based on TADF and phosphorescence emitters is highlighted. Particularly, the device structures, design strategies, working mechanisms, and electroluminescent processes of the representative high-performance WOLEDs with TADF emitters are reviewed. Moreover, challenges and opportunities for further enhancement of the performance of WOLEDs with TADF emitters are presented.