April 13, 2021

Download Ebook Free Origin And Evolution Of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses
Author : Esteban Domingo,Colin R. Parrish,John J. Holland
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2008-06-23
Category : Science
Total pages :560
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New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth

The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth
Author : David W. Hollar
Publisher : Magill Bibliographies
Release Date : 1992
Category : Evolution (Biology)
Total pages :235
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Covers the major works from the late 1800s to the present. Aimed at anyone interested in the subject, regardless of whether the reader is a layperson, a high school or college student, or a research scientist.

Viruses

Viruses
Author : Joseph Panno
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2011
Category : Juvenile Nonfiction
Total pages :232
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Learn all about viruses in this New Biology book.

Quasispecies and RNA Virus Evolution

Quasispecies and RNA Virus Evolution
Author : Esteban Domingo
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2001
Category : Medical
Total pages :173
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This book focuses on a new aspect of RNA virology: the highly dynamic, heterogeneous and plastic nature of RNA viruses which comprise more than 75% of the viruses that have been recognized as disease agents. It is the first attempt to bridge the gap from the basic, theoretical formulations underlying error-prone replications and generation of quasispecies, to their impact on how RNA viruses adapt and cause disease.

The Logic of Chance

The Logic of Chance
Author : Eugene V. Koonin
Publisher : FT Press
Release Date : 2011-06-23
Category : Science
Total pages :528
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The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.

Evolution of Viruses

Evolution of Viruses
Author : Stephen Rego
Publisher : Delve Publishing
Release Date : 2017-11
Category :
Total pages :253
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Evolution of virus is a subfield of virology and evolutionary biology, specifically relate to viral evolution. Most viruses, specifically RNA viruses, have comparatively high mutation rates and short generation time. Rate of mutation at this elevated level permits rapid adaptation to alterations in the host environments, when joined with natural selection. Evolution of virus is an important part of epidemiology of viral infections, for example, HCV, AIDS, and influenza, etc. Rapid viral mutations cause difficulties in the progress of effective antiviral drugs and vaccines, such as resistant mutations usually seem from weeks to months after treatment begins. Major theoretical models, including the quasi-species model, are discussed in detail in this book, as viral quasi-species. Viruses do not have fossils, as they are very small even smaller than colloidal fragment that forms the sedimentary rocks that fossilize animals and plants. However, many organisms have genomes and genes of ancient virus that in past invaded in germ line of host. For example, most of the vertebrates have genomes comprising of hundreds to thousands sequences that are resultant from past retrovirus. These sequences of are appreciate source of proof retrospective regarding the viral evolutionary history and have originated the paleovirology science.In addition to these, the book describes, modern viral genomic analysis and provide evolutionary history of viruses to some level. Many viral mutation rates dignified and dates of divergence inferred with the help of application of molecular clock. The process of evolution in viruses is by changing in sequence of their hereditary materials (DNA and RNA). Mutants that are best adapted reproduce and divide more quickly than the other ones. Most of the viruses have ability to interchange their hereditary material during the process when these two different viral strains infect the similar cell. This mechanism is genetic shift, and is usually the source of more virulent and new appearing strains. While other viruses develops more slowly due with time accumulation of mutations in their genes through a process of genetic drift. Due to these processes, the viruses are going to be powerful day by day and presenting as challenge in efforts of controlling disease. Just like as natural selection has molded evolution of all living things, humans and plants on the world, this process produce developments in viruses. Viruses are not living things technically; however, they require a host organism to reproduce. Its job is to attack the immune system, to create its copies and spread in its host. If virus killed the host before affecting other one, it will lose its mutation. This book discusses viral cycles in a host and host immune responses to viruses including the development of antibodies. These antibodies lock on the proteins present on outer surface of viruses. These antibodies protect the host from viral entrance. The virus that is different from other types of viruses has an advantage, as the host body has no immunity against that new virus in antibody form. Evolutionary history of viruses is not understood completely. Few might have evolved from bacteria and others from pieces of DNA or plasmids that can transfer among the cells. For example, retrovirus has ability to move among cells. During the cycle of retrovirus, the viral genes could transcribed or translated. RNA polymerase has the capacity to make new copies of single stranded RNA genome of virus. Movement of retrosposons closely mirrors this process. These movable genetic materials make about 45 % of human genome and can move within it with the help of RNA intermediates. It is included in the progressive hypotheses. The book also includes evolution of quasi-species; Quasi-species of viruses related through alike mutations or by mutations that are competing in highly mutagenic surroundings. The hypothesis predicts that a viral quasi-species at a low yet developmentally impartial and profoundly associated (that is, level) area in the wellness scene will outcompete a quasi-species situated at a higher yet smaller wellness top in which the encompassing mutants are unfit. This marvel is known as ''the quasi-species impact'' or, currently, the ''survival of the flattest''. The centrality of the quasi-species demonstrate for virology is that, if the transformation rate is adequately high, choice follows up on mutants instead of individual sequences. Therefore, the developmental direction of the infections related to a virus cannot anticipated exclusively from the qualities of the fittest succession. Information about evolution of plant viruses is also discussedViruses cause major threats to all living life forms including plants, including catastrophic damage to production of crops. Viruses of plants use various processes to make the huge quantity of hereditary diversity present in both among and inside the species. Plant viruses may have processes of highly prone replication, which cause several mutations. By nature, it is quasi-species. The evolution of plant viruses usually use the process of re-assortment and recombination. Different species of plant viruses have different quantity of differences; however, there is no proof of changes in mutation rate. Plant and animal viruses have common origin. It is recommended reading for individuals who seek further information regarding viral evolution.

The Origin and Evolution of Sex

The Origin and Evolution of Sex
Author : Harlyn O. Halvorson,Alberto Monroy
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1985
Category : Evolution
Total pages :345
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Origins and Evolution of Eukaryotic Intracellular Organelles

Origins and Evolution of Eukaryotic Intracellular Organelles
Author : Jerome F. Fredrick
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1981
Category : Cell organelles
Total pages :512
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Cumulated Index Medicus

Cumulated Index Medicus
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1998
Category : Medicine
Total pages :129
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New Scientist

New Scientist
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1974
Category : Science
Total pages :129
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Carcinogenesis Abstracts

Carcinogenesis Abstracts
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1975
Category : Carcinogenesis
Total pages :129
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Viruses, Evolution and Cancer Basic Considerations

Viruses, Evolution and Cancer Basic Considerations
Author : Edouard Kurstak
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012-12-02
Category : Health & Fitness
Total pages :836
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Viruses, Evolution and Cancer: Basic Considerations focuses on comparative biology and evolutionary aspects of DNA and RNA oncogenic viruses. Organized into seven parts, this book begins with a discussion on the host-cell-virus relationships. Some chapters follow that discuss the comparative aspects of DNA and RNA oncogenic viruses. This work also elucidates the effects of oncogenic viruses on cell surface metabolism. Other chapters explore the comparative viral oncology, comparative immunology of oncogenic viruses, and evolution of viruses. This book will be an invaluable material both to those concerned in the scientific and medical problems of cancer and will benefit all who are interested in virology and oncology.

Viruses

Viruses
Author : David Millard Locke
Publisher : Random House Value Pub
Release Date : 1974
Category : Science
Total pages :502
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Genetics Abstracts

Genetics Abstracts
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2001
Category : Genetics
Total pages :129
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Viruses and Invertebrates

Viruses and Invertebrates
Author : A. J. Gibbs
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1973
Category : Arboviruses
Total pages :673
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Dramatis personae; Dramatis impersonae; Diorama; Chiaroscura: the ecology of viruses and particular invertebrates; Triptych: the control of viruses and invertebrates.