January 17, 2021

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Perennial Grasses for Bioenergy and Bioproducts

Perennial Grasses for Bioenergy and Bioproducts
Author : Efthymia Alexopoulou
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-01-10
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :306
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Perennial Grasses for Bioenergy and Bioproducts: Production, Uses, Sustainability and Markets for Giant Reed, Miscanthus, Switchgrass, Reed Canary Grass and Bamboo brings together a team of international authors to explore the current utilization, sustainability and future perspectives of perennial grasses in the bioeconomy. The book begins by examining the role of these crops as feedstock for bioenergy, in particular advanced biofuels and bioproducts. It then offers five chapters, each covering one perennial grass type, namely giant reed, miscanthus, switchgrass, reed canary grass and bamboo. The book covers their breeding, cultivation, harvesting, pre-treatment, economics and characterization. The book goes on to present the thermochemical conversion pathways for different types of feedstock. The last chapter explores issues concerning sustainability of perennial grasses, including their production in marginal lands. This thorough overview is a helpful reference for engineering researchers and professionals in the bioenergy sector, whose understanding of feedstock characterization, sustainability and production is critical in the development of conversion technologies. Those in the industrial crops sector will benefit from discussion of various issues surrounding crop production, which can guide their feedstock cultivation, harvesting and pre-treatment for specific conversion processes or end use. The book is also a useful resource for instructors and students in Masters and PhD programs in the area of biomass and energy crops. Policy makers and government agents involved in regulating the bioenergy and bioproducts sector will find comprehensive information to guide their decision making. Explores the whole value chain of grassy feedstock for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, from cultivation to end use, including biomass characterization (physical properties, chemical composition, etc.) and conversion and sustainability Examines the sustainability and economic factors related to perennial grasses and their conversion into biofuels and bioproducts Includes a complete list of grasses relevant for energy uses, and tables with their current and expected future uses and markets

Phytoremediation Potential of Perennial Grasses

Phytoremediation Potential of Perennial Grasses
Author : Vimal Chandra Pandey,D.P. Singh
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2020-03-27
Category : Science
Total pages :392
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Phytoremediation Potential of Perennial Grasses provides readers with the knowledge to select specific perennial grass species according to site-specific needs. In addition, it demonstrates the potential opportunities for grass-based phytoremediation to yield phytoproducts, especially biomass-based bioenergy and aromatic essential oils as a green economy while in the process of remediating contaminated sites. The book brings together recent and established knowledge on different aspects of grass-based phytoremediation, providing this information in a single source that offers a cutting-edge synthesis of scientific and experiential knowledge on polluted site restoration that is useful for both practitioners and scientists in environmental science and ecology. Provides a holistic approach to grass-based phytoremediation, covering the ecological, economic and social issues related to its management Addresses the key role that grass-based phytoremediation plays in maintaining ecosystem services in polluted sites Includes strategies to mitigate costs related to the phytoremediation of polluted sites

Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2005
Category : Agriculture and energy
Total pages :75
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The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries-- biorefineries--making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R AND D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R AND D, envisioned a 30 percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. Biomass--all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy--has great potential to provide renewable energy for America s future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over 3 percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports--one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the nation's energy demands. Assuming that economic and financial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors?

Genetics and Breeding for Productivity Traits in Forage and Bioenergy Grasses

Genetics and Breeding for Productivity Traits in Forage and Bioenergy Grasses
Author : John W. Forster,Kevin F. Smith
Publisher : MDPI
Release Date : 2018-03-20
Category : Science
Total pages :212
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Genetics and Breeding for Productivity Traits in Forage and Bioenergy Grasses" that was published in Agronomy

Forages, Volume 2

Forages, Volume 2
Author : Kenneth J. Moore,Michael Collins,C. Jerry Nelson,Daren D. Redfearn
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2020-06-03
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :968
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Forages: The Science of Grassland Agriculture, 7th Edition, Volume II will extensively evaluate the current knowledge and information on forage agriculture. Chapters written by leading researchers and authorities in grassland agriculture are aggregated under section themes, each one representing a major topic within grassland science and agriculture. This 7th edition will include two new additional chapters covering all aspects of forage physiology in three separate chapters, instead of one in previous editions. Chapters will be updated throughout to include new information that has developed since the last edition. This new edition of the classic reference serves as a comprehensive supplement to An Introduction to Grassland Agriculture, Volume I.

Industrial Crops

Industrial Crops
Author : Von Mark V. Cruz,David A. Dierig
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-11-17
Category : Science
Total pages :444
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The volume on Industrial Crop Breeding will be part of the series, Handbook of Plant Breeding. This volume will focus on the emerging area of plant breeding for sustainable production of transportation fuels and bio based products using the current advances in the field. The book is scheduled to consist of a total number of 30 chapters divided into four sections. The sections will emphasize crops being considered for different challenge areas including oil crops for biodiesel; sugar, starch and cellulosic crops for biofuel; crops for bio products and issues and future prospects. A chapter introducing the first three sections will also be included. Outstanding scientists for each crop species are proposed as senior authors, who may invite co-authors to contribute part of a chapter to provide additional expertise or perspective. The proposed authors will represent various national and international institutions to get a more diverse view on the topic and somehow get a global view on the common issues that researchers on industrial crops are facing. The book will comprise primarily of specific issues, available germplasm, breeding techniques, and potential geographical areas of production pertaining to individual crops being considered for industrial uses. We hope to encourage the proposed authors of new crops to provide an estimate of the crop readiness for commercial development and discuss the limitations. This book will be will be of interest and envisioned to serve as an updated reference to researchers in both academic and industrial setting, to students and teachers of plant breeding and to policy makers who are looking for alternative solutions to dependency on imported petroleum products.

Plant Sciences Reviews 2012

Plant Sciences Reviews 2012
Author : David Hemming
Publisher : CABI
Release Date : 2013
Category : Science
Total pages :280
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Plant Sciences Reviews 2012 provides scientists and students with analysis on key topics in current research, including plant diseases, genetics, climate impacts, biofuels and postharvest. Experts such as Frances Seymour, Roger Jones, Paul Christou and Errol Hewitt provide incisive reviews of their fields. Originally published online in CAB Reviews, this volume makes available in printed form the reviews in plant science published during 2012.

Renewable Fuel Standard

Renewable Fuel Standard
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increasing Biofuels Production
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2012-01-29
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :416
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In the United States, we have come to depend on plentiful and inexpensive energy to support our economy and lifestyles. In recent years, many questions have been raised regarding the sustainability of our current pattern of high consumption of nonrenewable energy and its environmental consequences. Further, because the United States imports about 55 percent of the nation's consumption of crude oil, there are additional concerns about the security of supply. Hence, efforts are being made to find alternatives to our current pathway, including greater energy efficiency and use of energy sources that could lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as nuclear and renewable sources, including solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. The United States has a long history with biofuels and the nation is on a course charted to achieve a substantial increase in biofuels. Renewable Fuel Standard evaluates the economic and environmental consequences of increasing biofuels production as a result of Renewable Fuels Standard, as amended by EISA (RFS2). The report describes biofuels produced in 2010 and those projected to be produced and consumed by 2022, reviews model projections and other estimates of the relative impact on the prices of land, and discusses the potential environmental harm and benefits of biofuels production and the barriers to achieving the RFS2 consumption mandate. Policy makers, investors, leaders in the transportation sector, and others with concerns for the environment, economy, and energy security can rely on the recommendations provided in this report.

Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource-Constrained World

Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource-Constrained World
Author : Susanne Barth,Donal Murphy-Bokern,Olena Kalinina,Gail Taylor,Michael Jones
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-11-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :313
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This book presents a flavour of activities focussed on the need for sustainably produced biomass to support European strategic objectives for the developing bioeconomy. The chapters cover five broad topic areas relating to the use of perennial biomass crops in Europe. These are: ‘Bioenergy Resources from Perennial Crops in Europe’, ‘European Regional Examples for the Use of Perennial Crops for Bioenergy’, ‘Genotypic Selection of Perennial Biomass Crops for Crop Improvement’, ‘Ecophysiology of Perennial Biomass Crops’ and ‘Examples of End-Use of Perennial Biomass Crops’. Two major issues relating to the future use of biomass energy are the identification of the most suitable second generation biomass crops and the need to utilise land not under intensive agricultural production, broadly referred to as ‘marginal land’. The two main categories of plants that fit these needs are perennial rhizomatous grasses and trees that can be coppiced. The overarching questions that are addressed in the book relate to the suitability of perennial crops for providing feedstocks for a European bioeconomy and the need to exploit environments for biomass crops which do not compete with food crops. Bioenergy is the subject of a wide range of national and European policy measures. New developments covered are, for example, the use of perennial grasses to produce protein for animal feed and concepts to use perennial biomass crops to mitigate carbon emissions through soil carbon sequestration. Several chapters also show how prudent selection of suitable genotypes and breeding are essential to develop high yielding and sustainable second generation biomass crops which are adapted to a wide range of unfavourable conditions like chilling and freezing, drought, flooding and salinity. The final chapters also emphasise the need to be kept an eye out for potential new end-uses of perennial biomass crops that will contribute further to the developing bioeconomy.

Biomass Supply Chains for Bioenergy and Biorefining

Biomass Supply Chains for Bioenergy and Biorefining
Author : Jens Holm-Nielsen,Ehiaze Augustine Ehimen
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2016-02-23
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :410
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Biomass Supply Chains for Bioenergy and Biorefining highlights the emergence of energy generation through the use of biomass and the ways it is becoming more widely used. The supply chains that produce the feedstocks, harvest, transport, store, and prepare them for combustion or refinement into other forms of fuel are long and complex, often differing from feedstock to feedstock. Biomass Supply Chains for Bioenergy and Biorefining considers every aspect of these supply chains, including their design, management, socioeconomic, and environmental impacts. The first part of the book introduces supply chains, biomass feedstocks, and their analysis, while the second part looks at the harvesting, handling, storage, and transportation of biomass. The third part studies the modeling of supply chains and their management, with the final section discussing, in minute detail, the supply chains involved in the production and usage of individual feedstocks, such as wood and sugar starches, oil crops, industrial biomass wastes, and municipal sewage stocks. Focuses on the complex supply chains of the various potential feedstocks for biomass energy generation Studies a wide range of biomass feedstocks, including woody energy crops, sugar and starch crops, lignocellulosic crops, oil crops, grass crops, algae, and biomass waste Reviews the modeling and optimization, standards, quality control and traceability, socioeconomic, and environmental impacts of supply chains

Genetic Improvement of Bioenergy Crops

Genetic Improvement of Bioenergy Crops
Author : Wilfred Vermerris
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-08-02
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :450
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Ethanol as an alternative fuel is receiving a lot of attention because it addresses concerns related to dwindling oil supplies, energy independence, and climate change. The majority of the ethanol in the US is produced from corn starch. With the US Department of Energy’s target that 30% of the fuel in the US is produced from renewable resources by 2030, the anticipated demand for corn starch will quickly exceed the current production of corn. This, plus the concern that less grain will become available for food and feed purposes, necessitates the use of other feedstocks for the production of ethanol. For the very same reasons, there is increasing research activity and growing interest in many other biomass crops. Genetic Improvement of Bio-Energy Crops focuses on the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, which includes corn stover, biomass from dedicated annual and perennial energy crops, and trees as well as a number of important biomass crops. The biomass is typically pretreated through thermochemical processing to make it more amenable to hydrolysis with cellulolytic enzymes. The enzymatic hydrolysis yields monomeric sugars that can be fermented to ethanol by micro-organisms. While much emphasis has been placed on the optimization of thermo-chemical pretreatment processes, production of more efficient hydrolytic enzymes, and the development of robust microbial strains, relatively little effort has been dedicated to the improvement of the biomass itself.

Bioremediation and Bioeconomy

Bioremediation and Bioeconomy
Author : Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2015-10-03
Category : Science
Total pages :730
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Bioremediation and Bioeconomy provides a common platform for scientists from various backgrounds to find sustainable solutions to environmental issues, including the ever-growing lack of water resources which are under immense pressure due to land degradation, pollution, population explosion, urbanization, and global economic development. In addition, large amounts of toxic waste have been dispersed in thousands of contaminated sites and bioremediation is emerging as an invaluable tool for environmental clean-up. The book addresses these challenge by presenting innovative and cost-effective solutions to decontaminate polluted environments, including usage of contaminated land and waste water for bioproducts such as natural fibers, biocomposites, and fuels to boost the economy. Users will find a guide that helps scientists from various backgrounds find sustainable solutions to these environmental issues as they address the topical issues crucial for understanding new and innovative approaches for sustainable development. Provides a compilation of new information on phytoremediation not found in other books in the present market The first book to link phytoremediation and the bioeconomy Includes strategies to utilize contaminated soils for producing bioresources and co-generation of value chain and value additions products

Introduction to Bioenergy

Introduction to Bioenergy
Author : Vaughn C. Nelson,Kenneth L. Starcher
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-12-19
Category : Nature
Total pages :261
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Explore a Major Component of Renewable Energy Introduction to Bioenergy takes a look at energy from biomass (thermal energy, power, liquid fuels, and biogas) and envisions a sustainable future fueled by renewable energy. From production to conversion to heat, power, and biofuel, this book breaks down the science of bioenergy and explains the major processes for its production, conversion, and use. Covers Solar Energy, Bioenergy, and Biomass Resources The book begins with an introduction to solar energy (the source of bioenergy) and then moves on to describe bioenergy, biomass, chemical conversion, and the renewable energy processes involved. The authors cover measurement energy parameters, analysis of data, and the prediction of energy production for different bio products. They also consider the institutional, environmental, and economic concerns surrounding bioenergy. An all-inclusive resource covering a rapidly-advancing field, this book: Explores the impact of climate change and global warming on the production of biomass Describes the positive and negative effects of biomass production on ecosystems and biodiversity Illustrates the use of biomass for the production of electricity Considers the replacement of fossil fuels with biofuels, biofuel production, and emerging technologies Addresses institutional and environmental issues relevant to bioenergy Discusses factors impacting the economic feasibility of renewable energy systems Introduction to Bioenergy defines major processes for the production, conversion, and use of bioenergy. A book suitable for coursework or self-study, this essential work serves students and practicing professionals in the renewable energy, environmental science, agriculture engineering, and biology fields.

Gasoline, Diesel, and Ethanol Biofuels from Grasses and Plants

Gasoline, Diesel, and Ethanol Biofuels from Grasses and Plants
Author : Ram B. Gupta,Ayhan Demirbas
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2010-04-19
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :129
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The world is currently faced with two significant problems: fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, which are continuously being exacerbated due to increasing global energy consumption. As a substitute for petroleum, renewable fuels have been receiving increasing attention due a variety of environmental, economic, and societal benefits. The first-generation biofuels - ethanol from sugar or corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils - are already on the market. The goal of thisbook is to introduce readers to second-generation biofuels obtained from non-food biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switch grass, corn stover, waste wood, municipal solid wastes, and so on. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the upgradation of biofuel. This book strives to serve as a comprehensive document presenting various technological pathways and environmental and economic issues related to biofuels.

Miscanthus

Miscanthus
Author : Michael Jones,Mary Walsh
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2013-11-05
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :204
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Miscanthus is a promising non-food crop yielding high quality lignocellulosic material which can be used in a number of ways, including energy and fibre production, thatching, and industrial use. This book encompasses the results and recommendations arising from extensive trials and experiments carried out by the leading European research organisations and institutions in the field. Much of the research was performed under the auspices of the Miscanthus Productivity Network, established under European Union's Directorate General for Agriculture (DG VI). This book presents expert guidance to growth conditions and breeding of Miscanthus, potential productivity and economics, environmental aspects, and harvesting, storage and utilisation. A guide to this increasingly important subject is long overdue and will be welcomed by all those involved in biomass production and renewable energies, or assessing the potential of Miscanthus as a non-food crop.