January 21, 2021

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Physics of Cryogenics

Physics of Cryogenics
Author : Bahman Zohuri
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-11-17
Category : Science
Total pages :726
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Physics of Cryogenics: An Ultralow Temperature Phenomenon discusses the significant number of advances that have been made during the last few years in a variety of cryocoolers, such as Brayton, Joule-Thomson, Stirling, pulse tube, Gifford-McMahon and magnetic refrigerators. The book reviews various approaches taken to improve reliability, a major driving force for new research areas. The advantages and disadvantages of different cycles are compared, and the latest improvements in each of these cryocoolers is discussed. The book starts with the thermodynamic fundamentals, followed by the definition of cryogenic and the associated science behind low temperature phenomena and properties. This book is an ideal resource for scientists, engineers and graduate and senior undergraduate students who need a better understanding of the science of cryogenics and related thermodynamics. Defines the fundamentals of thermodynamics that are associated with cryogenic processes Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology Includes new, low temperature tables written by the author Deals with the application of cryogenics to preserve objects at very low temperature Explains how cryogenic phenomena work for human cell and human body preservations and new medical approaches

Helium Cryogenics

Helium Cryogenics
Author : Steven W. Van Sciver
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-03-14
Category : Science
Total pages :470
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Twenty five years have elapsed since the original publication of Helium Cryogenics. During this time, a considerable amount of research and development involving helium fluids has been carried out culminating in several large-scale projects. Furthermore, the field has matured through these efforts so that there is now a broad engineering base to assist the development of future projects. Helium Cryogenics, 2nd edition brings these advances in helium cryogenics together in an updated form. As in the original edition, the author's approach is to survey the field of cryogenics with emphasis on helium fluids. This approach is more specialized and fundamental than that contained in other cryogenics books, which treat the associated range of cryogenic fluids. As a result, the level of treatment is more advanced and assumes a certain knowledge of fundamental engineering and physics principles, including some quantum mechanics. The goal throughout the work is to bridge the gap between the physics and engineering aspects of helium fluids to provide a source for engineers and scientists to enhance their usefulness in low-temperature systems. Dr. Van Sciver is a Distinguished Research Professor and John H. Gorrie Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Florida State University. He is also a Program Director at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL). Dr. Van Sciver joined the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering and the NHMFL in 1991, initiating and teaching a graduate program in magnet and materials engineering and in cryogenic thermal sciences and heat transfer. He also led the NHMFL development efforts of the cryogenic systems for the NHMFL Hybrid and 900 MHz NMR superconducting magnets. Between 1997 and 2003, he served as Director of Magnet Science and Technology at the NHMFL. Dr. Van Sciver is a Fellow of the ASME and the Cryogenic Society of America and American Editor for the journal Cryogenics. He is the 2010 recipient of the Kurt Mendelssohn Award. Prior to joining Florida State University, Dr. Van Sciver was Research Scientist and then Professor of Nuclear Engineering, Engineering Physics and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison from 1976 to 1991. During that time he also served as the Associate Director of the Applied Superconductivity Center. Dr. Van Sciver received his PhD in Low Temperature Physics from the University of Washington-Seattle in 1976. He received his BS degree in Engineering Physics from Lehigh University in 1970. Dr. Van Sciver is author of over 200 publications and patents in low temperature physics, liquid helium technology, cryogenic engineering and magnet technology. The first edition of Helium Cryogenics was published by Plenum Press (1986). The present work is an update and expansion of that original project.

The Art of Cryogenics

The Art of Cryogenics
Author : Guglielmo Ventura,Lara Risegari
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2010-07-07
Category : Science
Total pages :378
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Cryogenics is the study of low temperature interactions - temperatures well below those existing in the natural universe. The book covers a large spectrum of experimental cases, including basic vacuum techniques, indispensable in cryogenics. Guidance in solving experimental problems and numerous numerical examples are given, as are examples of the applications of cryogenics in such areas as underground detectors and space applications. Updated tables of low-temperature data on materials are also presented, and the book is supplemented with a rich bibliography. Researchers (graduate and above) in the fields of physics, engineering and chemistry with an interest in the technology and applications of low-temperature measurements, will find this book invaluable. Experiments described in technical detail Description of newest cryogenic apparatus Applications in multidisciplinary areas Data on cryogenic properties of new materials Current reference review

Recent Developments in Cryogenics Research

Recent Developments in Cryogenics Research
Author : Sergiy Putselyk
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019-02
Category :
Total pages :334
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Cryogenics, a term commonly used to refer to very low temperatures, had its beginning in the latter half of the 19th century. Traditionally, this field is separated from Cryogenic Engineering and Low Temperature Physics (LTP). Cryogenic engineering is concerned with the design and development of low-temperature systems and components, while low temperature physics is more related to the fundamental research of material or fluid properties. This book discusses some recent findings and developments as well as gives an outlook on the fields of helium cryogenics and LTP. The main focus will be given to the helium cryogenics, though a smaller review is also presented for the fields of cryogenic energy storage facilities. Some future trends and R&D activities are also discussed. To orient the reader, the first four chapters are related to LTP, while the major part of the book is then devoted to helium cryogenics, for example, refrigeration techniques, cryostats, low temperature electronics, safety, etc.It should be particularly suited for advanced students, young researchers or engineers, who are intending to proceed with careers in helium cryogenics or LTP. However, the authors believe that the book will also be of value to experienced scientists, since it describes several very recent advances in experimental low temperature physics and technology, for example, ultra-low temperature technique and thermometry, as well as progress in helium cryogenics, such as heat transfer, cryostat designs for large facilities, and refrigerator developments. Extensive references are provided for the readers interested in the details of the cryogenic engineering advances. And last but not least, the authors hope that this book will widen the horizons of many without a solid state background, but with a general interest in low temperature physics and helium cryogenics.In attempting to cover such a wide field, a large degree of selection has been necessary, as complete volumes have been written on many topics which here have had to be covered in very few pages or less. It is inevitable that not everyone will agree with the present choice, especially if it is their own subject which has been discussed very briefly or not mentioned at all, and the editor accepts full responsibility for the selections made. The book is written at a level which should be followed by a university graduate in science or engineering, although, if their background has not included a course in cryogenic engineering, general or solid-state physics, some groundwork may be lacking.

Cryogenic Technology and Applications

Cryogenic Technology and Applications
Author : A.R. Jha
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-04-01
Category : Science
Total pages :296
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Cryogenic Technology and Applications describes the need for smaller cryo-coolers as a result of the advances in the miniaturization of electrical and optical devices and the need for cooling and conducting efficiency. Cryogenic technology deals with materials at low temperatures and the physics of their behavior at these temps. The book demonstrates the ongoing new applications being discovered for cryo-cooled electrical and optical sensors and devices, with particular emphasis on high-end commercial applications in medical and scientific fields as well as in the aerospace and military industries. This book summarizes the important aspects of cryogenic technology critical to the design and development of refrigerators, cryo-coolers, and micro-coolers needed by various commercial, industrial, space and military systems. Cryogenic cooling plays an important role in unmanned aerial vehicle systems, infrared search and track sensors, missile warning receivers, satellite tracking systems, and a host of other commercial and military systems. * Provides an overview of the history of the development of cryogenic technology * Includes the latest information on micro-coolers for military and space applications * Offers detailed information on high-capacity cryogenic refrigerator systems used in applications such as food storage, high-power microwave and laser sensors, medical diagnostics, and infrared detectors

Cryogenic Particle Detection

Cryogenic Particle Detection
Author : Hans-Christian Stahl
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2005-06-22
Category : Science
Total pages :510
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The development of cryogenic devices for particle detection has reached a stage at which many interesting applications are conceivable and already have been demonstrated. The book provides a comprehensive review of the field of cryogenic particle detection. It introduces the different detection techniques and gives an overview of the important areas in which these detectors are successfully applied.

Cryogenic Engineering and Technologies

Cryogenic Engineering and Technologies
Author : Dr. Zuyu Zhao,Dr. Chao Wang,Brian Pollard
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-10-16
Category : Medical
Total pages :385
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Cryogen-free cryogenics is leading a revolution in research and industry by its significant advantages over traditional liquid helium systems. This is the first overview for the field, covering the key technologies, conceptual design, fabrication, operation, performance, and applications of these systems. The contents cover important topics such as the operating principles of 4K cryocoolers, enabling technologies (including vibration reduction) for cryogen free systems, the cryogen- free superconducting magnet, and cryogen-free systems that reach mK. It highlights the wide range of applications in materials science, quantum physics, astronomy and space science, medical sciences and etc. Key features: Introduce technologies and practical know-how employed for cryogen-free systems of using 4 K cryocoolers to replace liquid helium; Address state of the arts of cryogen-free superconducting magnets, sub-kelvin refrigeration systems of He-3 sorption cooler, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) and dilution refrigerators (DR). Discuss applications of cryogen-free systems in modern instruments and equipment.

Cryogenic Safety

Cryogenic Safety
Author : Thomas J. Peterson,J. G. Weisend II
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2019-04-26
Category : Science
Total pages :213
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This book describes the current state of the art in cryogenic safety best practice, helping the reader to work with cryogenic systems and materials safely. It brings together information from previous texts, industrial and laboratory safety polices, and recent research papers. Case studies, example problems, and an extensive list of references are included to add to the utility of the text. It describes the unique safety hazards posed by cryogenics in all its guises, including issues associated with the extreme cold of cryogenics, the flammability of some cryogenic fluids, the displacement of oxygen by inert gases boiling off from cryogenic fluids, and the high pressures that can be formed during the volume expansion that occurs when a cryogenic fluid becomes a room temperature gas. A further chapter considers the challenges arising from the behavior of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Many materials are inappropriate for use in cryogenics and can fail, resulting in hazardous conditions. Despite these hazards, work at cryogenic temperatures can be performed safely. The book also discusses broader safety issues such as hazard analysis, establishment of a safe work culture and lessons learned from cryogenic safety in accelerator labs. This book is designed to be useful to everyone affected by cryogenic hazards regardless of their expertise in cryogenics.

Experimental Techniques for Low-Temperature Measurements

Experimental Techniques for Low-Temperature Measurements
Author : Jack Ekin
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2006-10-12
Category : Science
Total pages :673
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Aimed at a broad readership across applied science, this illustrated text builds a consistent, self-supporting knowledge base of low-temperature apparatus design. Many recent developments in measurement techniques, superconductors, and scaling theory not previously published are covered.

Thermodynamic Properties of Cryogenic Fluids

Thermodynamic Properties of Cryogenic Fluids
Author : Jacob W. Leachman,Richard T Jacobsen,Eric W. Lemmon,Steven G. Penoncello
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-09-02
Category : Science
Total pages :213
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This update to a classic reference text provides practising engineers and scientists with accurate thermophysical property data for cryogenic fluids. The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties. It begins with a chapter introducing the thermodynamic relations and functional forms for equations of state, and goes on to describe the requirements for thermodynamic property formulations, needed for the complete definition of the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. The core of the book comprises extensive data tables and charts for the most commonly-encountered cryogenic fluids. This new edition sees significant updates to the data presented for air, argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, ethane, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen and xenon. The book supports and complements NIST’s REFPROP - an interactive database and tool for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of cryogenic fluids.

Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures

Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures
Author : Frank Pobell
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-04-17
Category : Science
Total pages :319
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The aim of this book is to provide information about performing experi ments at low temperatures, as well as basic facts concerning the low tem perature properties of liquid and solid matter. To orient the reader, I begin with chapters on these low temperature properties. The major part of the book is then devoted to refrigeration techniques and to the physics on which they are based. Of equal importance, of course, are the definition and measurement of temperature; hence low temperature thermometry is extensively discussed in subsequent chapters. Finally, I describe a variety of design and construction techniques which have turned out to be useful over the years. The content of the book is based on the three-hour-per-week lecture course which I have given several times at the University of Bayreuth between 1983 and 1991. It should be particularly suited for advanced stu dents whose intended masters (diploma) or Ph.D. subject is experimental condensed matter physics at low temperatures. However, I believe that the book will also be of value to experienced scientists, since it describes sev eral very recent advances in experimental low temperature physics and technology, for example, new developments in nuclear refrigeration and thermometry.

Heat Capacity and Thermal Expansion at Low Temperatures

Heat Capacity and Thermal Expansion at Low Temperatures
Author : T.H.K. Barron,G.K. White
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :338
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The birth of this monograph is partly due to the persistent efforts of the General Editor, Dr. Klaus Timmerhaus, to persuade the authors that they encapsulate their forty or fifty years of struggle with the thermal properties of materials into a book before they either expired or became totally senile. We recognize his wisdom in wanting a monograph which includes the closely linked properties of heat capacity and thermal expansion, to which we have added a little 'cement' in the form of elastic moduli. There seems to be a dearth of practitioners in these areas, particularly among physics postgraduate students, sometimes temporarily alleviated when a new generation of exciting materials are found, be they heavy fermion compounds, high temperature superconductors, or fullerenes. And yet the needs of the space industry, telecommunications, energy conservation, astronomy, medical imaging, etc. , place demands for more data and understanding of these properties for all classes of materials - metals, polymers, glasses, ceramics, and mixtures thereof. There have been many useful books, including Specific Heats at Low Tempera tures by E. S. Raja Gopal (1966) in this Plenum Cryogenic Monograph Series, but few if any that covered these related topics in one book in a fashion designed to help the cryogenic engineer and cryophysicist. We hope that the introductory chapter will widen the horizons of many without a solid state background but with a general interest in physics and materials.

Proceedings of the 19th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference

Proceedings of the 19th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference
Author : Guy Gistau Baguer,Peter Seyfert
Publisher : Alpha Science Int'l Ltd.
Release Date : 2003
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :871
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"Organized under the auspices of International Cryogenic Engineering Committee (ICEC) and International Institute of Refrigeration."

Proceedings of the Twentieth International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC20)

Proceedings of the Twentieth International Cryogenic Engineering Conference (ICEC20)
Author : Liang Zhang
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2006-02-20
Category : Science
Total pages :1092
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Proceedings of the 20th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference

Thermal Properties of Solids at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

Thermal Properties of Solids at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures
Author : Guglielmo Ventura,Mauro Perfetti
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-06-23
Category : Science
Total pages :216
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The minimum temperature in the natural universe is 2.7 K. Laboratory refrigerators can reach temperatures in the microkelvin range. Modern industrial refrigerators cool foods at 200 K, whereas space mission payloads must be capable of working at temperatures as low as 20 K. Superconducting magnets used for NMR work at 4.2 K. Hence the properties of materials must be accurately known also at cryogenic temperatures. This book provides a guide for engineers, physicists, chemists, technicians who wish to approach the field of low-temperature material properties. The focus is on the thermal properties and a large spectrum of experimental cases is reported. The book presents updated tables of low-temperature data on materials and a thorough bibliography supplements any further research. Key Features include: ° Detailed technical description of experiments ° Description of the newest cryogenic apparatus ° Offers data on cryogenic properties of the latest new materials ° Current reference review