December 3, 2020

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Placebo and Pain

Placebo and Pain
Author : Luana Colloca,Magne Arve Flaten,Karin Meissner
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-08-28
Category : Science
Total pages :312
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The placebo effect continues to fascinate scientists, scholars, and clinicians, resulting in an impressive amount of research, mainly in the field of pain. While recent experimental and clinical studies have unraveled salient aspects of the neurobiological substrates and clinical relevance of pain and placebo analgesia, an authoritative source remained lacking until now. By presenting and integrating a broad range of research, Placebo and Pain enhances readers’ knowledge about placebo and nocebo effects, reexamines the methodology of clinical trials, and improves the therapeutic approaches for patients suffering from pain. Review for Placebo and Pain: “This ambitious book is the first comprehensive and unified presentation of the placebo and nocebo phenomena in the area of pain. Written by the international leading experts in the field, the book provides an accurate up-to-date [work] on placebo and pain dealing with current perspectives and future challenging issues. --Ted Kaptchuk, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Contains historical aspects of the placebo effect Discusses biological and psychological mechanisms of placebo analgesic responses Reviews implications of the placebo effect for clinical research and pain management Includes methodological and ethical aspects of the placebo effect

Placebo and Pain

Placebo and Pain
Author : Magne Arve Flaten,Karin Meissner,Luana Colloca
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-08-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :312
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Studies of placebo analgesia necessarily involve the induction and reporting of pain. The pain report is the basic dependent variable in many studies of placebo analgesia, and reported pain should ideally reflect the pain experience. However, the pain report is subject to a number of different influences that threaten the internal validity of research on pain and, consequently, placebo analgesia. The study of placebo analgesia introduces several other issues, in terms of the design of studies that researchers must deal with. Many methodologic issues have been solved, but some important issues are still unresolved. The concept of expectation is central to studies of placebo effects, and poses special challenges in terms of its conceptual status and its measurement.

Placebo and Pain

Placebo and Pain
Author : Jian Kong,Randy L. Gollub
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-08-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :312
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For thousands of years, both acupuncture and placebo (as a therapeutic ritual) have been used in healing. It is only recently that scientists have begun rigorously investigating the efficacy of acupuncture treatment. Recent meta analysis suggests that acupuncture treatment is only moderately more effective than sham treatment on some pain disorders such as osteoarthritis, headache, musculoskeletal and shoulder pain, which suggests that non-specific components are important contributors to the therapeutic benefits of acupuncture treatment. This chapter discusses the challenges involved in acupuncture research, specifically with regard to defining inert (sham) acupuncture treatment in a way that is consistent with ancient traditional acupuncture theory. It then introduces several studies that have been performed in an attempt to investigate the dissociation and interaction between sham and verum (real) acupuncture treatments, and concludes with questions that are essential for acupuncture researchers to address in the future to advance this field.

Placebo and Pain

Placebo and Pain
Author : Bettina K. Doering,Winfried Rief
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-08-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :312
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Nocebo effects are extremely common in clinical practice, and they are induced by a patient’s negative expectancies about a treatment outcome. They may occur after an inert treatment, or after the administration of a pharmacologically active substance, and modulate the treatment outcome. Nocebo effects in clinical practice manifest themselves in the deterioration of a pre-existing symptomatology or in the development of new symptoms that are often considered as nonspecific side effects and are ascribed to the medical regimen. Nocebo responses can be induced by components of the therapeutic encounter, e.g. the communication of the diagnosis, information about the treatment, the disclosure of risks and benefits of the treatment, or the verbal interaction during the treatment. This chapter reviews empirical evidence from clinical populations that documents nocebo effects in the different stages of the therapeutic process. Based on this review, it suggests strategies for the minimization of nocebo effects in clinical practice.

Placebo and Pain

Placebo and Pain
Author : Lene Vase,Gitte Laue Petersen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-08-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :312
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The magnitude of placebo analgesia effects has been shown to vary across meta-analyses. The conceptualization of placebo effects, and the way in which they are induced, influence the magnitude of placebo analgesia effects. This has been indicated by meta-analyses and further confirmed by experimental studies. In general, small placebo analgesia effects are found in clinical trials in which placebo is used as a control condition, whereas large effects are found in placebo mechanism studies investigating how expectations and emotional feelings contribute to placebo analgesia effects. At present, meta-analyses are used to investigate the seemingly increasing analgesic effects following placebo administration in clinical trials. Current knowledge about placebo mechanisms could contribute to the investigation of these analgesic effects and thereby help to develop new ways of testing pain medication, which ultimately may be of benefit for pain patients.

Placebo and Pain

Placebo and Pain
Author : Fabrizio Benedetti,Elisa Frisaldi
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-08-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :312
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Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the neurochemistry of placebo effects and there is now compelling experimental evidence that different neuronal networks are responsible for different types of expectation-induced placebo effects. These include both opioid and nonopioid systems such as endocannabinoids and cholecystokinin (CCK). In general, what has emerged over the past few years is that the endogenous opioids and endocannabinoids are involved in placebo analgesia in different circumstances whereas CCK plays a key role in the opposite effect, namely, nocebo hyperalgesia. Therefore, the placebo–nocebo phenomenon can be envisioned as a continuum whereby different neurotransmitters are activated by different expectations, ranging from positive to negative.

Placebo and Pain

Placebo and Pain
Author : Wayne B. Jonas,Cindy Crawford,Karin Meissner,Luana Colloca
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-08-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :312
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Management of pain is an essential responsibility in medicine. With the advance of surgical technologies, the use of interventional and other invasive methods to treat pain has become prominent and growing in use. Yet, rarely are these techniques evaluated in a way that can separate their specific impact on pain from expectation and context effects that these rituals share with many other less invasive approaches to pain. In this chapter we examine invasive studies for pain that are compared to sham procedures that mimic the procedure without delivering actual surgery. We describe studies for angina, low back pain, osteoarthritis, and headache, examining quality and outcomes. Remarkably, when compared to a sham group, most invasive procedures do not produce a significant effect on pain. We explore clinical and ethical implications of these data and recommend that more rigorous research be done on invasive procedures before they are adopted for widespread use.

Neuroscience of Pain, Stress, and Emotion

Neuroscience of Pain, Stress, and Emotion
Author : Magne Arve Flaten,Mustafa al'Absi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-12-28
Category : Psychology
Total pages :312
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Neuroscience of Pain, Stress, and Emotion: Psychological and Clinical Implications presents updated research on stress, pain, and emotion, all key research areas within both basic and clinical neuroscience. Improved research understanding of their interaction is ultimately necessary if clinicians and those working in the field of psychosomatic medicine are to alleviate patient suffering. This volume offers broad coverage of that interaction, with chapters written by major researchers in the field. After reviewing the neuroscience of pain and stress, the contents go on to address the interaction between stress and chronic/acute pain, the role of different emotions in pain, neurobiological mechanisms mediating these various interactions, individual differences in both stress and pain, the role of patient expectations during treatment (placebo and nocebo responses), and how those relate to stress modulation. While there are books on the market which discuss pain, stress, and emotion separately, this volume is the first to tackle their nexus, thus appealing to both researchers and clinicians. Represents the only comprehensive reference detailing the link between pain, stress and emotion, covering the neuroscientific underpinnings, related psychological processes, and clinical implications Compiles, in one place, research which promises to improve the methodology of clinical trials and the use of knowledge of pain-stress-emotion effects in order to reduce patients’ suffering Provides comprehensive chapters authored by global leaders in the field, the broadest, most expert coverage available

The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics

The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics
Author : Ezekiel J. Emanuel,Christine C. Grady,Robert A. Crouch,Reidar K. Lie,Franklin G. Miller,David D. Wendler
Publisher : OUP USA
Release Date : 2011-02
Category : Medical
Total pages :848
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The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics is the first comprehensive and systematic reference on clinical research ethics. Under the editorship of experts from the U.S. National Institutes of Health of the United States, the book's 73 chapters offer a wide-ranging and systematic examination of all aspects of research with human beings. Considering the historical triumphs of research as well as its tragedies, the textbook provides a framework for analyzing the ethical aspects of research studies with human beings. Through both conceptual analysis and systematic reviews of empirical data, the contributors examine issues ranging from scientific validity, fair subject selection, risk benefit ratio, independent review, and informed consent to focused consideration of international research ethics, conflicts of interests, and other aspects of responsible conduct of research. The editors of The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics offer a work that critically assesses and advances scholarship in the field of human subjects research. Comprehensive in scope and depth, this book will be a crucial resource for researchers in the medical sciences, as well as teachers and students.

01 - CAN OXYTOCIN INFLUENCE PLACEBO AND NOCEBO EFFECTS IN PAIN?

01 - CAN OXYTOCIN INFLUENCE PLACEBO AND NOCEBO EFFECTS IN PAIN?
Author : Henriu00ebt van Middendorp
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category :
Total pages :129
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Placebo effects relieve pain but it is yet unclear how they can be enhanced to maximize positive treatment outcomes. Oxytocin may potentially be a mediator of the placebo effect due to its trust enhancing and stress relieving actions. In two studies, we investigated the influence of oxytocin on placebo analgesia and hyperalgesia. In the first study, 108 female participants were allocated to one of four groups: oxytocin with positive verbal suggestions, placebo with positive verbal suggestions, oxytocin without suggestions, and placebo without suggestions. The administration of 24 IU oxytocin or a placebo spray was preceded by positive verbal suggestions regarding the pain-relieving properties of the spray or no suggestions. Pain was assessed with a cold pressor test. In the second study, 80 male participants were allocated to an oxytocin or a control group. After the administration of 40 IU of oxytocin, they received verbal suggestions regarding a sham electrode that was said to increase or decrease their pain sensitivity depending on the mode indicated by a visual cue. To induce and test placebo analgesia and hyperalgesia, a conditioning task was used in which visual cues indicated low, medium or high heat pain. Positive verbal suggestions and a combination of suggestions and conditioning induced significant placebo analgesia and hyperalgesia. No evidence was found that oxytocin influences placebo effect, using female and male samples and also different dosages of oxytocin. Future research should focus on other possible mediators of the placebo effect such as, for example, vasopressin or other pharmacological agents.

Placebo

Placebo
Author : Fabrizio Benedetti,Paul Enck,Elisa Frisaldi,Manfred Schedlowski
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2014-10-10
Category : Medical
Total pages :311
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Due to the recent explosion of placebo research at many levels the Editors believe that a volume on Placebo would be a good addition to the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology series. In particular, this volume will be built up on a meeting on Placebo which will be held in Tuebingen (Germany) in January 2013, and where the most prominent researchers in this field will present and exchange their ideas. The authors who will be invited to write chapters for this volume will be the very same speakers at this meeting, thus guaranteeing high standard and excellence in the topic that will be treated. The approach of the book is mainly pharmacological, including basic research and clinical trials, and the contents range from different medical conditions and systems, such as pain and the immune system, to different experimental approaches, like in vivo receptor binding and pharmacological/behavioral conditioning. Overall, the volume will give an idea of modern placebo research, of timely concepts in both experimental and clinical pharmacology, as well as of modern methods and tools in neuroscience.

Cure

Cure
Author : Jo Marchant
Publisher : Crown
Release Date : 2016-01-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :320
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A rigorous, skeptical, deeply reported look at the new science behind the mind's surprising ability to heal the body. Have you ever felt a surge of adrenaline after narrowly avoiding an accident? Salivated at the sight (or thought) of a sour lemon? Felt turned on just from hearing your partner's voice? If so, then you've experienced how dramatically the workings of your mind can affect your body. Yet while we accept that stress or anxiety can damage our health, the idea of "healing thoughts" was long ago hijacked by New Age gurus and spiritual healers. Recently, however, serious scientists from a range of fields have been uncovering evidence that our thoughts, emotions and beliefs can ease pain, heal wounds, fend off infection and heart disease and even slow the progression of AIDS and some cancers. In Cure, award-winning science writer Jo Marchant travels the world to meet the physicians, patients and researchers on the cutting edge of this new world of medicine. We learn how meditation protects against depression and dementia, how social connections increase life expectancy and how patients who feel cared for recover from surgery faster. We meet Iraq war veterans who are using a virtual arctic world to treat their burns and children whose ADHD is kept under control with half the normal dose of medication. We watch as a transplant patient uses the smell of lavender to calm his hostile immune system and an Olympic runner shaves vital seconds off his time through mind-power alone. Drawing on the very latest research, Marchant explores the vast potential of the mind's ability to heal, lays out its limitations and explains how we can make use of the findings in our own lives. With clarity and compassion, Cure points the way towards a system of medicine that treats us not simply as bodies but as human beings. A New York Times Bestseller Finalist for the Royal Society Insight Investment Science Book Prize Longlisted for the Wellcome Book Prize

Placebo Effect for Low Back Pain

Placebo Effect for Low Back Pain
Author : Matthew Aaron Lanham
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2010
Category : Backache
Total pages :148
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This study investigates the placebo effect in randomized controlled trials of low back pain. This effect has not been analyzed over time or in respect to low back pain. A meta-analysis was performed using the Pubmed/Medline database for low back pain RCTs with a placebo group. It was shown that in studies using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the numeric rating scale (NRS-11) that there is a positive placebo effect. While the VAS mean change appears consistent up to 6 months, the limited number of studies available (30, n=1150), did not allow certain time periods to be investigated. For NRS-11 (11, n=477), a general change was calculated based on the first measurement taken. It was established that the expected VAS difference in means was -15.6 (-20.9, -10.2) with a p-value 0.001 and the NRS-11 difference in means to be -1.5 (-2.3, -0.8) with a p-value of 0.001.

Neurobiology of the Placebo Effect

Neurobiology of the Placebo Effect
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-04-20
Category : Science
Total pages :379
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Neurobiology of the Placebo Effect, Part I, Volume 138 in the International Review of Neurobiology series, is the first of two volumes that provide the latest placebo studies in clinically relevant models. Placebo responses effects are not merely a psychological, but a complex psycho-neuro-biological process that requires activation of distinct brain areas. This book discusses current research and projects on the involved brain circuitry and neurotransmitter systems. Specific chapters cover such topics as pharmacological conditioning of the endocrine and immune system, expectancy modulation of opioid neurotransmission, nocebo effects in visceral pain, and conditioning as a higher-order cognitive phenomenon, amongst other topics. Latest placebo studies in clinically relevant models Current research and projects on the involved brain circuitry and neurotransmitter systems Specific chapters on applications

The Placebo Effect

The Placebo Effect
Author : Anne Harrington
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release Date : 1999
Category : Medical
Total pages :260
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Beginning with a review of the role of placebos in the history of medicine, this book investigates the current surge of interest in placebos, and probes the methodological difficulties of saying scientifically just what placebos can and cannot do.