January 27, 2021

Download Ebook Free Plastics To Energy

Plastics to Energy

Plastics to Energy
Author : Sultan Al-Salem
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2018-11-05
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :562
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Plastics to Energy: Fuel, Chemicals, and Sustainability Implications covers important trends in the science and technology of polymer recovery, such as the thermo-chemical treatment of plastics, the impact of environmental degradation on mechanical recycling, incineration and thermal unit design, and new options in biodegradable plastics. The book also introduces product development opportunities from waste materials and discusses the main processes and pathways of the conversion of polymeric materials to energy, fuel and chemicals. A particular focus is placed on industrial case studies and academic reviews, providing a practical emphasis that enables plastics practitioners involved in end-of-life aspects to employ these processes. Final sections examine lifecycle and cost analysis of different plastic waste management processes, exploring the potential of various techniques in modelling, optimization and simulation of waste management options. Introduces new pathways for the end-of-life treatment of plastics and polymers, including conversion to energy, fuel and other chemicals Compares different options to assist materials scientists, engineers and waste management practitioners to choose the most effective and sustainable option Covers the latest trends in the science and technology of polymer energy recovery

Energy Management in Plastics Processing

Energy Management in Plastics Processing
Author : Robin Kent
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-07-03
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :420
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Energy Management in Plastics Processing: Strategies, Targets, Techniques, and Tools, Third Edition, addresses energy benchmarking and site surveys, how to understand energy supplies and bills, and how to measure and manage energy usage and carbon footprinting. The book's approach highlights the need to reduce the kWh/kg of materials processed and the resulting permanent reductions in consumption and costs. Every topic is covered in a 2-page spread, providing the reader with clear actions and key tips for success. This revised third edition covers new developments in energy management, power supply considerations, automation, assembly operations, water footprinting, and transport considerations, and more. Users will find a practical workbook that not only shows how to reduce energy consumption in all the major plastics shaping processes (moulding, extrusion, forming), but also provides tactics that will benefit other locations in plants (e.g. in factory services and nonmanufacturing areas). Enables plastics processors in their desire to institute an effective energy management system, both in processing and elsewhere in the plant Provides a holistic perspective, shining a light on areas where energy management methods may have not been previously considered Acts as a roadmap to help companies move towards improved sustainability and cost savings

Gasification of Waste Materials

Gasification of Waste Materials
Author : Simona Ciuta,Demetra Tsiamis,Marco J. Castaldi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2017-10-24
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :162
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Gasification of Waste Materials: Technologies for Generating Energy, Gas and Chemicals from MSW, Biomass, Non-recycled Plastics, Sludges and Wet Solid Wastes explores the most recent gasification technologies developing worldwide to convert waste solids to energy and synthesis gas and chemical products. The authors examine the thermodynamic aspects, accepted reaction mechanisms and kinetic constraints of using municipal solid waste (MSW), biomass, non-recycled plastics (NRP), sludges and wet solid wastes as feedstock. They identify the distinctions between pyrolysis, gasification, plasma, hydrothermal gasification, and supercritical systems. A comprehensive summary of laboratory and demonstration activities is presented, as well as field scale systems that have been in operation using solid waste streams as input, highlighting their areas of disconnect and alignment. The book also provides a summary of information on emissions from the stack, comparing them with other thermal conversion systems using similar feedstock. It then goes on to assess the areas that must be improved to ensure gasification systems become as successful as combustion systems operating on waste streams, ranging from feedstock processing to gasifier output gas clean-up, downstream system requirements and corrosion. The economics and future projections for waste gasification systems are also discussed. For its consolidation of the current technical knowledge, this text is recommended for engineering researchers, graduate students, industry professionals, municipal engineers and decision makers when planning, designing and deploying waste to energy projects, especially those using MSW as feedstock. Provides field demonstrations of large scale systems, their results and the challenges that need to be overcome when developing commercial applications and possible solutions Presents the most recent technologies in lab and demonstration scale Examines the critical development needs and real life challenges for the deployment of waste to energy technologies Provides information on the economics and sustainability of these technologies, as well as their future perspectives

A Practical Guide to Plastics Sustainability

A Practical Guide to Plastics Sustainability
Author : Michel Biron
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2020-04-18
Category : Science
Total pages :690
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A Practical Guide to Plastics Sustainability: Concept, Solutions, and Implementation is a groundbreaking reference work offering a broad, detailed and highly practical vision of the complex concept of sustainability in plastics. The book's aim is to present a range of potential pathways towards more sustainable plastics parts and products, enabling the reader to further integrate the idea of sustainability into their design process. It begins by introducing the context and concept of sustainability, discussing perceptions, drivers of change, key factors, and environmental issues, before presenting a detailed outline of the current situation with types of plastics, processing, and opportunities for improved sustainability. Subsequent chapters focus on the different possibilities for improved sustainability, offering a step-by-step technical approach to areas including design, properties, renewable plastics, and recycling and re-use. Each of these pillars are supported by data, examples, analysis and best practice guidance. Finally, the latest developments and future possibilities are considered. Approaches the idea of sustainability from numerous angles, offering practical solutions to improve sustainability in the development of plastic components and products Explains how sustainability can be applied across plastics design, materials selection, processing, and end of life, all set alongside socioeconomic factors Considers key areas of innovation, such as eco-design, novel opportunities for recycling or re-use, bio-based polymers and new technologies

Plastics and the Environment

Plastics and the Environment
Author : I. Boustead
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release Date : 1994
Category : Plastic scrap
Total pages :110
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Plastics possess some special characteristics but most of the potential environmental problems and their solutions are common to other materials and industries. This review considers their environmental impact in terms of industrial systems (e.g. eco-profile and life-cycle systems), and looks at energy consumption and recovery, as well as recycling. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.

Recycling of Solid Waste for Biofuels and Bio-chemicals

Recycling of Solid Waste for Biofuels and Bio-chemicals
Author : Obulisamy Parthiba Karthikeyan,Kirsten Heimann,Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-08-10
Category : Science
Total pages :422
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This book presents the latest advances in and current research perspectives on the field of urban/industrial solid waste recycling for bio-energy and bio-fuel recovery. It chiefly focuses on five main thematic areas, namely bioreactor landfills coupled with energy and nutrient recovery; microbial insights into anaerobic digestion; greenhouse emission assessment; pyrolysis techniques for special waste treatment; and industrial waste stabilization options. In addition, it compiles the results of case studies and solid waste management perspectives from different countries.

Particulate Plastics in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments

Particulate Plastics in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments
Author : Nanthi S. Bolan,M.B. Kirkham,Claudia Halsband,Dayanthi Nugegoda,Yong Sik Ok
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2020-07-30
Category : Nature
Total pages :442
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The manufacture of plastic as well as its indiscriminate disposal and destruction by incineration pollutes atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems. Synthetic plastics do not break down; they accumulate in the environment as macro-, micro-, and nanoplastics. These particulate plastics are a major source of pollutants in soil and marine ecosystems. Particulate Plastics in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments provides a fundamental understanding of the sources of these plastics and the threats they pose to the environment. The book demonstrates the ecotoxicity of particulate plastics using case studies and offers management practices to mitigate particulate plastic contamination in the environment. Features · Describes physical and chemical properties of particulate plastics in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems · Presents information on characteristics of particulate plastics as impacted by weathering processes · Provides numerous approaches for managing particulate plastic contamination · Identifies sources of particulate plastics in the environment; distribution and characteristics of particulate plastics; and management strategies of particulate plastics Written by a global team of scientists, this book is for researchers in the fields of environmental safety and waste management or individuals interested in the impact of particulate plastics on environmental health.

Dielectric Polymer Materials for High-Density Energy Storage

Dielectric Polymer Materials for High-Density Energy Storage
Author : Zhi-Min Dang
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2018-06-13
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :500
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Dielectric Polymer Materials for High-Density Energy Storage begins by introducing the fundamentals and basic theories on the dielectric behavior of material. It then discusses key issues on the design and preparation of dielectric polymer materials with strong energy storage properties, including their characterization, properties and manipulation. The latest methods, techniques and applications are explained in detail regarding this rapidly developing area. The book will support the work of academic researchers and graduate students, as well as engineers and materials scientists working in industrial research and development. In addition, it will be highly valuable to those directly involved in the fabrication of capacitors in industry, and to researchers across the areas of materials science, polymer science, materials chemistry, and nanomaterials. Focuses on how to design and prepare dielectric polymer materials with strong energy storage properties Includes new techniques for adjusting the properties of dielectric polymer materials Presents a thorough review of the state-of-the-art in the field of dielectric polymer materials, providing valuable insights into potential avenues of development

Cost Management in Plastics Processing

Cost Management in Plastics Processing
Author : Robin Kent
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-09-29
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :362
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Cost Management in Plastics Processing: Strategies, Targets, Techniques, and Tools, Fourth Edition, makes readers think about current practices and how to go forward with effective cost management. This is a practical workbook that provides a structured approach to reducing costs in plastics processing for all the major plastics shaping processes (moulding, extrusion, forming) as well as elsewhere in the company (e.g., in factory services and non-manufacturing areas). Competition in all manufacturing sectors is increasing, and there is continuous pressure to drive costs down and to increase cost management. Good cost management improves profits and margins, improves management control and opens the door to becoming a world-class company. The approach throughout this book looks rigorously at where costs are incurred and proposes projects and targets for cost reduction. This book is designed to provide a well-structured map broken down into simple tasks and achievable goals. This book offers a structured approach to the techniques of cost management, from how costs are calculated by accountants, to the effective use of machines and labor, to the minimization of waste. It begins by looking at traditional methods of accounting and costing and whether these are helpful or accurate for project management. Practical examples of cost management in plastics processing are included, together with many useful flow charts and diagrams to illustrate the points under discussion. Enables plastics processors to institute an effective cost management system, going beyond simply trying to cut costs Provides a holistic perspective on cost management, shining a light on areas on costs which may not have previously been considered or accounted for, and proposing projects and targets for cost reduction Serves as a route map to help companies move toward improved margins and greater profitability

Feedstock Recycling and Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics

Feedstock Recycling and Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics
Author : John Scheirs,Walter Kaminsky
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
Release Date : 2006-05-12
Category : Science
Total pages :785
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Pyrolysis is a recycling technique converting plastic waste into fuels, monomers, or other valuable materials by thermal and catalytic cracking processes. It allows the treatment of mixed, unwashed plastic wastes. For many years research has been carried out on thermally converting waste plastics into useful hydrocarbons liquids such as crude oil and diesel fuel. Recently the technology has matured to the point where commercial plants are now available. Pyrolysis recycling of mixed waste plastics into generator and transportation fuels is seen as the answer for recovering value from unwashed, mixed plastics and achieving their desired diversion from landfill. This book provides an overview of the science and technology of pyrolysis of waste plastics. It describes the types of plastics that are suitable for pyrolysis recycling, the mechanism of pyrolytic degradation of various plastics, characterization of the pyrolysis products and details of commercially mature pyrolysis technologies. This book also covers co-pyrolysis technology, including: waste plastic/waste oil, waste plastics/coal, and waste plastics/rubber.

Energy Conservation-- the Use of Foamed and Expanded Plastics

Energy Conservation-- the Use of Foamed and Expanded Plastics
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1983
Category :
Total pages :129
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Plastics Waste

Plastics Waste
Author : A. Tukker
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release Date : 2002
Category : Science
Total pages :122
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This report examines the issue of converting plastics waste into energy and/or useful chemicals. Much plastic material is discarded as waste, such as packaging and end-of-life vehicle components. This report introduces the different waste management options. It discusses the methods available for treating mixed plastics waste and PVC-rich plastics waste. The emphasis in this report is on technologies which are already being used or assessed for use on a commercial scale. Comparisons are made between the different types of recycling currently available in terms of life cycle assessment and environmental impact. Feedstock recycling is discussed extensively in this review. This report is accompanied by around 400 abstracts from papers in the Rapra Polymer Library database.

Plastics Extrusion Technology Handbook

Plastics Extrusion Technology Handbook
Author : Sidney Levy,James F. Carley
Publisher : Industrial Press Inc.
Release Date : 1989
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :388
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Offering complete and in-depth data and information on plastics extrusion, this practical handbook presents the technology of the subject rather than the theory. Presents an overview of extrusion technology as applied to the operation of extrusion systems and the design of tooling and equipment for use in the process. Provides basic technical information on the behavior of polymer and plastics materials in the extrusion process. Contains tool descriptions that provide a basis for the analysis of existing product lines as examples for the design of new systems. Includes illustrations of and background material on control systems for the extruder and extrusion process.

Biofuels

Biofuels
Author : Krzysztof Biernat
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-07-11
Category : Science
Total pages :300
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This book offers the current state of knowledge in the field of biofuels, presented by selected research centers from around the world. Biogas from waste production process and areas of application of biomethane were characterized. Also, possibilities of applications of wastes from fruit bunch of oil palm tree and high biomass/bagasse from sorghum and Bermuda grass for second-generation bioethanol were presented. Processes and mechanisms of biodiesel production, including the review of catalytic transesterification process, and careful analysis of kinetics, including bioreactor system for algae breeding, were widely analyzed. Problem of emissivity of NOx from engines fueled by B20 fuel was characterized. The closing chapters deal with the assessment of the potential of biofuels in Turkey, the components of refinery systems for production of biodegradable plastics from biomass. Also, a chapter concerning the environmental conditions of synthesis gas production as a universal raw material for the production of alternative fuels was also added.

Improving Markets for Recycled Plastics Trends, Prospects and Policy Responses

Improving Markets for Recycled Plastics Trends, Prospects and Policy Responses
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release Date : 2018-05-24
Category :
Total pages :164
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Plastics have become one of the most prolific materials on the planet: in 2015 we produced about 380 million tonnes of plastics globally, up from 2 million tonnes in the 1950s. Yet today only 15% of this plastic waste is collected and recycled into secondary plastics globally each year. This ...