December 5, 2020

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Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid
Author : Lee Tin Sin,Abdul Razak Rahmat,Wan A. W. A. Rahman
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2012
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :341
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Annotation An essential reference for engineers, scientists and product designers that already work with polymers and plastics who wish to convert to a sustainable plastic. It covers the properties, synthesis and polymerisation of PLA and processing techniques involved in fabricating parts from this polymer.

Polylactic Acid Production from Raw Sugar - Cost Analysis - PLA E31B

Polylactic Acid Production from Raw Sugar - Cost Analysis - PLA E31B
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec Solutions
Release Date : 2019-09-17
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :104
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This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production starting from raw sugar. The first section of the examined processis similar to Cargill process for lactic acid production, while the second section is similar to the NatureWorks process for polymerization of lactic acid. In this process, raw sugar (sucrose) is diluted and sucrose is hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose (invert sugars). The invert sugars are then fermented to produce lactic acid. Lactic Acid recovery from the fermentation broth is done by trialkylamine solvent extraction in the presence of carbon dioxide. An 88 wt% Lactic Acid solution in water is generated and further polymerized to form Polylactic Acid. This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 6472559, issued to Cargill in 2002 (2) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (3) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Dextrose, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Anaerobic Fermentation, Trialkyl Amine, Sodium Carbonate, Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Poly(lactic acid)

Poly(lactic acid)
Author : Rafael A. Auras,Loong-Tak Lim,Susan E. M. Selke,Hideto Tsuji
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-03-08
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :528
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This book describes the synthesis, properties, and processing methods of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), an important family of degradable plastics. As the need for environmentally-friendly packaging materials increases, consumers and companies are in search for new materials that are largely produced from renewable resources, and are recyclable. To that end, an overall theme of the book is the biodegradability, recycling, and sustainability benefits of PLA. The chapters, from a base of international expert contributors, describe specific processing methods, spectroscopy techniques for PLA analysis, and and applications in medical items, packaging, and environmental use.

Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid
Author : Lee Tin Sin,Bee Soo Tueen
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2019-06-15
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :422
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Polylactic Acid: A Practical Guide for the Processing, Manufacturing, and Applications of PLA, Second Edition, provides a practical guide for engineers and scientists working in PLA and on the development of emerging new products. The current market situation for PLA and biodegradable polymers is described, along with applications across a range of market sectors. In addition, the mechanical, chemical, thermal, rheology and degradation properties are included. Updates include new chapters covering various processing methods, as well as recycling methods, and additives and processing aids. New applications cover a range of products (including 3D Printing), and an environmental assessment, including regulatory aspects. The book is not only a useful introduction to this topic, but also a practical, readily applicable reference book that will support decision-making in the plastics industry. Presents an essential reference for engineers, scientists and product designers considering switching to a sustainable plastic Covers the properties, synthesis and polymerization of PLA, along with processing techniques involved in fabricating parts from this polymer Includes critical new chapters on processing, additives, recycling and environmental considerations relating to PLA

Polylactic Acid Production - Cost Analysis - PLA E11A

Polylactic Acid Production - Cost Analysis - PLA E11A
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec
Release Date : 2019-09-17
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :97
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This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production from lactic acid using a melt-phase polymerization process. The process examined is similar to a process developed by Natureworks, in which poly(lactic acid) is produced from a 88 wt% lactic acid solution in water via the ring opening polymerization chemical pathway. In this process lactic acid is first oligomerized and then depolymerized into lactide, a cyclic dimer of lactic acid, which is then polymerized to yield Poly(lactic acid). This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (2) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Plasticized Polylactic Acid/cellulose Nanocomposites Prepared Using Melt-extrusion and Liquid Feeding: Mechanical, Thermal and Optical Properties

Plasticized Polylactic Acid/cellulose Nanocomposites Prepared Using Melt-extrusion and Liquid Feeding: Mechanical, Thermal and Optical Properties
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2015
Category :
Total pages :129
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Abstract: Plasticized polylactic acid (PLA) and its nanocomposite based on cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and glycerol triacetate (GTA) were prepared using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. GTA was used as a plasticizer, a processing aid to facilitate nanofiber dispersion and as a liquid medium for their feeding. The optical, thermal and mechanical properties were characterized and the toughening mechanism was studied. The addition of GTA (20%) and CNF (1%) resulted in increased degree of crystallinity and decreased optical transparency. Furthermore, these additives showed a positive effect on the elongation at break and toughness, which increased from 2% to 31% and from 1 to 8 MJ/m 3, respectively. The combination of slippage of the nanofiber–matrix interface and a massive crazing effect as a result of the presence of CNF is suggested for PLA toughening. CNF were expected to restrict the spherulite growth and therefore enhance the craze nucleation.

Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid
Author : Vincenzo Piemonte
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release Date : 2014-01-19
Category : Science
Total pages :354
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This book describes the synthesis, properties and applications of PLA through fourteen original chapters that will guide the reader through a fascinating journey into the world of PLA, providing interesting insights for those who intend to use this polymer for innovative applications, or simply those who want to learn more about this very important biodegradable and bio-based plastic. PLA biodegradability introduces this polymer in a world of eco-friendly and human-friendly applications in several technological fields. In short, this book will appeal to all the readers who not only want to have a reference book of consolidated notions on PLA, but also, and especially, to those who want to discover new potentials and new application fields of this unique biodegradable polymer.

Development of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications

Development of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications
Author : Mariappan Chidambarakumar
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2005
Category : Biodegradable plastics
Total pages :198
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Polylactic Acid for Surgical Implants

Polylactic Acid for Surgical Implants
Author : R. K. Kulkarni
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1960
Category : Plastics in medicine
Total pages :7
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Boron Nitride Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composites Film for Packaging: Preparation and Properties

Boron Nitride Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composites Film for Packaging: Preparation and Properties
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :129
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Abstract: Biopolymer composites obtained from renewable resources based polymers and inorganic materials are of potential interest owing to bioactivity, biodegradability and other superior properties. In the present study polylactic acid (PLA) samples containing 0-4wt% of ultrasonically exfoliated Boron Nitride (BN) were prepared by solvent casting method. To have an insight into the structure of the PLA/BN composites, phase morphologies were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM images showed aggregation of BN at 4wt% of loading in the composite. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and tensile testing were carried out to characterize the thermal and mechanical properties of the prepared composites. The optimum tensile strength of 28.5MPa was obtained for 2wt% of PLA/BN composite. This corresponds to an increase of about 132% as compared to PLA. Highlights: PLA/BN composite films were prepared by solvent casting method. Composites with 2wt % BN exhibited 132% increase in tensile strength. Enhanced Plasticity is obtained for the prepared composites. The prepared composite films are suitable for packaging applications.

Poly(lactic acid)

Poly(lactic acid)
Author : Rafael A. Auras,Loong-Tak Lim,Susan E. M. Selke,Hideto Tsuji
Publisher : Wiley
Release Date : 2010-10-19
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :528
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This book describes the synthesis, properties, and processing methods of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), an important family of degradable plastics. As the need for environmentally-friendly packaging materials increases, consumers and companies are in search for new materials that are largely produced from renewable resources, and are recyclable. To that end, an overall theme of the book is the biodegradability, recycling, and sustainability benefits of PLA. The chapters, from a base of international expert contributors, describe specific processing methods, spectroscopy techniques for PLA analysis, and and applications in medical items, packaging, and environmental use.

I. The Configurational Statistics of Polylactic Acid

I. The Configurational Statistics of Polylactic Acid
Author : Alan E. Tonelli
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1968
Category : Polymers
Total pages :390
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Green Composites of Polylactic Acid Filled with Natural Fiber for Biodegradation Application

Green Composites of Polylactic Acid Filled with Natural Fiber for Biodegradation Application
Author : Chamaiporn Yamoum
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category : Biodegradation
Total pages :458
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This research focuses on how to use natural fibers available from agricultural residues to produce biodegradable materials such as mulch films. Green composites were prepared from natural fibers (peanut shell and bagasse fiber) and polylactic acid (PLA) together with plasticizers. The presence of plasticizers improved PLA molecular mobility as seen by the reduction of glass transition, cold crystallization, and melting temperatures. The addition of natural fibers into PLA brought down decomposition temperature when compared to PLA. The morphological study of the composites showed poor interfacial adhesion between natural fibers and PLA matrix. Moreover, the loading of plasticizers improved distribution of natural fibers in PLA matrix. The composites revealed that tensile strength decreased while Young’s modulus increased with increasing natural fibers content. The added plasticizers into the composites showed increase elongation at break and impact strength. Thermo−mechanical properties revealed improvement of PLA performance at high temperature use by the addition of natural fibers together with plasticizers due to cold crystallization at a high temperature, which developed high storage modulus. The composites showed low water vapor permeability which reduced moisture loss by evaporation and increased the efficiency of water use. The enhancements in degradation of the composites were due to the presence of natural fibers. Furthermore, the study of chemical crosslinking PLA in the presence of crosslinking agent showed that the optimum of thermal, thermo–mechanical, and rheological properties were at 5 phr crosslinking agent content.

Poly(lactic acid) Science and Technology

Poly(lactic acid) Science and Technology
Author : Alfonso Jiménez,Mercedes Peltzer,Roxana Ruseckaite
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2014-11-13
Category : Science
Total pages :353
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Biodegradable polymers from renewable resources are sought after for many purposes, from packaging materials in food to biomedical applications. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a well-known biopolymer derived from corn starch or sugar cane used in different food packaging and artificial bones and scaffolds. Poly(lactic acid) Science and Technology first introduces the basic concepts of PLA and then covers PLA synthesis and polymerization, processing, characterization and physical properties of PLA, PLA-based nano-biocomposites, the main applications in active packaging and as biomaterials for tissue engineering, degradation and biodegradation of PLA and finally industrial and legislative issues. This interdisciplinary approach provides readers with a general overview of all relevant aspects related to PLA including fundamental issues, innovative applications, new types of processing and emerging applications, modification of PLA, life cycle assessment, bio-additives, bio/degradation and sustainability and international regulations. Experts provide a complete resource and whole perspective on PLA covering scientific, ecological, social and economic issues. The book will appeal to chemists, food technologists and materials engineers as well as researchers interested in bio-based and biodegradable polymers and composites.

Biodegradation and Photodegradation of Polylactic and Polylactic/acid/polyhydroxyalkanoate Blends Nonwoven Agrcultural Mulches in Ambient Soil Conditions

Biodegradation and Photodegradation of Polylactic and Polylactic/acid/polyhydroxyalkanoate Blends Nonwoven Agrcultural Mulches in Ambient Soil Conditions
Author : Sathiskumar Dharmalingam
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2014
Category : Biodegradable plastics
Total pages :198
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Agricultural mulch films, typically made of petroleum-based polyethylene, improve crop productivity by controlling weeds and providing microclimate. Extreme fragmentation of films imposes labor and disposal costs, not to mention environmental problems during and after service life. Although mulches made of biodegradable polymers such as cellulose, (nonbiobased) poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) and polybutylene succinate are employed in the field, the fate of biodegradation of additives in mulches is still questionable in addition to service life until the harvesting. Nonwovens, made of biobased polymers such as poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and PLA-polyhydroxy alkanoate (PHA) blends, have been developed using nonwovens textile technology to address the poor mechanical properties and/or biodegradability of traditional mulch films. This dissertation focuses upon biodegradation of nonwovens mulches—spunbonds (SB) and meltblowns (MB)—retrieved from soil after 30 week and after exposure to simulated weathering. Soil amendments, color of mulches, presence of PHA in PLA-based mulches, soil temperature, and kinetics of biodegradation were evaluated in soil burial studies. The biodegradation of nonwovens mulches were characterized by the loss of tensile strength, depolymerization, disappearance of ester bond and decrease of glass transition temperature, melting temperature and enthalpy of fusion. At high moisture conditions, SB mulches of white and black color were recalcitrant to all the soil amendments determined from marginal depolymerization and insignificant loss of tensile strength. MB mulches, particularly PLA-PHA blends, underwent the greatest (~90%) loss of tensile strength among other physico-chemical losses. Although weathered SB mulches did not undergo physico-chemical changes during simulated weathering, the biodegradability test under composting condition (ASTM D5338) met the compostability standard (ASTM D6400) criteria ( > 60% biodegradation after 90 days). MB mulches, with the greatest biodegradation ( > 90% after 90 days) in ASTM D5338, is recommended for “Class II” material in ASTM WK 29802, the standard specification for biodegradability of agricultural plastics in soil.