November 26, 2020

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Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2007-03-02
Category : Science
Total pages :306
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The Radioactivity in the Environment Series addresses the key aspects of this socially important and complex interdisciplinary subject. Presented objectively and with the ultimate authority gained from the many contributions by the world's leading experts, the negative and positive consequences of having a radioactive world around us is documented and given perspective. In a world in which nuclear science is not only less popular than in the past, but also less extensively taught in universities and colleges, this book series will fill a significant educational gap. Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment presents an updated and critical review of designing, siting, constructing and demonstrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radioactive wastes. It is structured to provide a broad perspective of this multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary topic providing enough detail for a non-specialist to understand the fundamental principles involved. Contains extensive references to sources of more detailed information Provides a detailed summary of radioactivity in terrestrial ecosystems, providing a substantial and essential reference on the subject Discusses lesser-known sources of radiation exposure that provide useful information for those seeking to place environmental radioactivity into perspective

Transfer of Radioactive Materials from the Terrestrial Environment to Animals and Man

Transfer of Radioactive Materials from the Terrestrial Environment to Animals and Man
Author : Reuben John Garner
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1972
Category : Food chains (Ecology)
Total pages :57
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Modelling Radioactivity in the Environment

Modelling Radioactivity in the Environment
Author : E.M. Scott
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2003-05-22
Category : Science
Total pages :438
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Just as an environmental model typically will be composed of a number of linked sub-models, representing physical, chemical or biological processes understood to varying degrees, this volume includes a series of linked chapters exemplifying the fundamental nature of environmental radioactivity models in all compartments of the environment. Why is a book on modelling environmental radioactivity necessary? There are many reasons why such a boook is necessary, perhaps the most important that: - modelling is an often misunderstood and maligned activity and this book can provide, to a broad audience, a greater understanding of modelling power but also some of the limitations. - modellers and experimentalists often do not understand and mistrust each other's work yet they are mutually dependent, in the sense that good experimental science can direct good modelling work and vice-versa; we hope that this book can dispel mistrust and engender improved understanding. - there is an increasing reliance on model results in environmental management, yet there is also often misuse and misrepresentation of these results. This book can help to bridge the gap between unrealistic expectations of model power and the realisation of what is possible, practicable and feasible in modelling of environmental radioactivity; and finally, - modelling tools, capacity and power have increased many-fold in a relatively short period of time. Much of this is due to the much-heralded computer revolution, but much is also due to better science. It is useful to consider what gap if any still remains between what is possible and what is necessary.

Environmental Radionuclides

Environmental Radionuclides
Author : Klaus Froehlich
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2009-09-23
Category : Science
Total pages :432
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Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

TENR - Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation

TENR - Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation
Author : Anselmo Salles Paschoa,F. Steinhausler
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2009-12-31
Category : Science
Total pages :244
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This book on TENR discusses the basic Physics and Chemistry principles of natural radiation. The current knowledge of the biological effects of natural radiation is summarized. A wide variety of topics, from cosmic radiation to atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic radiation is addressed, including radon, thoron, and depleted uranium. Issues like terrorism and geochronology using natural radiation are also examined. Comprehensive global TENR data assembly Critical assessment of the significant radiological impact of TENR on man and the environment as compared to radiological impact from man-made sources in nuclear technology and nuclear medicine Illustration of the importance of TENR for the future conceptual development of radiation protection

Fukushima Accident

Fukushima Accident
Author : Pavel P. Povinec,Katsumi Hirose,Michio Aoyama
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-07-09
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :400
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Fukushima Accident presents up-to-date information on radioactivity released to the atmosphere and the ocean after the accident on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, on the distribution of radionuclides in the world atmosphere and oceans, and their impact on the total environment (man, fauna, and flora). The book will evaluate and discuss the post-Fukushima situation, emphasizing radionuclide impacts on the terrestrial and marine environments, and compare it with the pre-Fukushima sources of radionuclides in the environment. The authors’ results, as well as knowledge gathered from the literature, will provide up-to-date information on the present status of the topics. Fukushima Accident is based on the environmental and nuclear research; however, the presentation will be suitable for university-level readers. 2013 PROSE Award winner in Environmental Science from the Association of American Publishers Covers atmospheric and marine radioactivity, providing information on the global atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and world oceans Examines radiation doses to the public and biota to understand the health risks to the public and ecosystems Provides information on monitoring radionuclides in the environment – information on sources of radionuclides, their temporal and spatial variations, and radionuclide levels Covers transport of radionuclides from different sources (e.g. nuclear power plants) as well as atmospheric simulations and modeling approaches

Introduction to Radiation Protection

Introduction to Radiation Protection
Author : Claus Grupen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-04-20
Category : Science
Total pages :417
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This account of sources of ionizing radiation and methods of radiation protection describes units of radiation protection, measurement techniques, biological effects, environmental radiation and many applications. Each chapter contains problems with solutions.

Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management

Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management
Author : Deborah Oughton,Sven Ove Hansson
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-09-07
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :408
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Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management provides a comprehensive treatment of the major ethical and social issues resulting from the use of ionizing radiation. It covers topics such as nuclear fuel cycles, radioactive waste treatment, nuclear bomb testing, nuclear safety management, stakeholder engagement, cleanup after nuclear accidents, ecological risks from radiation, environmental justice, health and safety for radiation workers, radiation dose standards, the ethics of clinical radiology, and the principles of radiation protection and their ethical underpinnings. With authors ranging from philosophers to radiation protection officials and practitioners, the book spans from theoretical to practical implications of this important area of radiation risk assessment and management. Covers all the major social and ethical issues in relation to radiation protection Information is easily accessible and non-technical Authors include leading radiation protection officials as well as specialists who are more independent of the radiation protection system, thus presenting both authoritative and more critical views Includes theoretical perspectives as well as practical experience

Radioecology

Radioecology
Author : Etienne Van der Stricht,René Kirchmann
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2001
Category : Ecology
Total pages :603
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Man-Made and Natural Radioactivity in Environmental Pollution and Radiochronology

Man-Made and Natural Radioactivity in Environmental Pollution and Radiochronology
Author : Richard Tykva,Dieter Berg
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-03-14
Category : Science
Total pages :416
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The goal of this book is to examine the complex state of radioactivity in the environment, and to understand the interplay of its two principal sources: man-made and natural. The text examines human contributions to release of radionuclides, with an eye to future reductions, and assesses natural occurrences in an evaluation of baseline radioactivity.

Environmental Contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

Environmental Contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster
Author : Teruyuki Nakajima,Toshimasa Ohara,Mitsuo Uematsu,Yuichi Onda
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2019-08-15
Category : Science
Total pages :129
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The 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station led to serious radioactive contamination of the environment. Due to transportation by seasonal wind and ocean currents, these radioactive materials have now been observed in many places in the Northern Hemisphere. This book provides a unique summary of the environmental impact of the unprecedented accident. It covers how radioactive materials were transported through the atmosphere, oceans and land. The techniques used to investigate the deposition and migration processes are also discussed including atmospheric observation, soil mapping, forest and ecosystem investigations, and numerical simulations. With chapters written by international experts, this is a crucial resource for researchers working on the dispersion and impact of radionuclides in the environment. It also provides essential knowledge for nuclear engineers, social scientists and policymakers to help develop suitable mitigation measures to prepare for similar large-scale natural hazards in the future.

Remediation of Contaminated Environments

Remediation of Contaminated Environments
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2009-05-12
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :496
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Remediation of Contaminated Environments summarises - amongst other things - what happened to the people and environment around Chernobyl (and other nuclear sites) and what measures need to be taken in future in the event of nuclear accidents etc. plus it has a very important and currently topical use in detailing what to do in the event of a terrorist dirty bomb attack on a city. Remediation, including characterization of contaminated sites; safety requirements; remediation planning; effectiveness of individual measures in different environments; social, ethical and economic considerations; application of modern decision aiding technologies Applicable to different categories of contaminated environments and contaminants, comprising areas contaminated by radiation accidents and incidents, nuclear weapon tests, natural radionuclides associated with nuclear fuel cycle, fossil material mining and gas and oil production Associated side effects (environmental and social) and human based remediation measures, comprising perception of this activity by the population; with particular regard to stakeholders and population involvement in making decisions on environmental safety and remediation of contaminated sites

Radionuclides in the Environment

Radionuclides in the Environment
Author : Clemens Walther,Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-10-30
Category : Science
Total pages :273
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This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.

Tropical Radioecology

Tropical Radioecology
Author : John R. Twining
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012
Category : Medical
Total pages :352
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Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrates radioecological information into the most recent radiological consequences modelling and best-practice probabilistic ecological risk analysis methodology, given the need to understand the implications of enhanced socio-economic development in the world's tropical regions.

Radioactive Fallout after Nuclear Explosions and Accidents

Radioactive Fallout after Nuclear Explosions and Accidents
Author : Y.A. Izrael
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2002-06-20
Category : Science
Total pages :298
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To achieve successful solutions to the problems resulting from local, distant and global radioactive fallout after nuclear explosions and accidents and to achieve successful retrospective analyses of the radiation conditions from recent observations, certain information is needed: the distribution of the exposure dose rate in the atmosphere and in a country; the distribution of radionuclides in natural environments and the nuclide composition of the radioactive fallout; the features of formation of the aerosol particle-carriers of the radioactivity and of the nuclide distribution of the particles of different sizes formed under different conditions; the processes involved in the migration of radioactive products in different zones and environments; the external and internal effects of nuclear radiation on human beings. This monograph is devoted to a number of these problems, namely, to studies of the radioactive fallout composition, the formation of the aerosol particles that transport the radioactive products and to the analysis of the external radiation doses resulting from nuclear explosions and/or accidents. Problems of restoration and rehabilitation of contaminated land areas are also touched upon in the monograph. To solve such problems one requires knowledge of the mobility of radionuclides, an understanding of their uptake by plants, their transportation within the food chain and finally their uptake by animal and/or human organisms. The results of many years of study of radioactive fallout from atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions and accidents are summarized in this book. It is intended for various specialists - geophysicists, ecologists, health experts and inspectors, as well as those who are concerned with radioactive contamination of natural environments.