December 5, 2020

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Rare Earths Industry

Rare Earths Industry
Author : Ismar Borges De Lima,Walter Leal Filho
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2015-09-10
Category : Science
Total pages :434
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Rare Earths elements are composed of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table. Scandium and yttrium have similar properties, with mineral assemblages, and are therefore referred alike in the literature. Although abundant in the planet surface, the Rare Earths are not found in concentrated forms, thus making them economically valued as they are so challenging to obtain. Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic and Environmental Implications provides an interdisciplinary orientation to the topic of Rare Earths with a focus on technical, scientific, academic, economic, and environmental issues. Part I of book deals with the Rare Earths Reserves and Mining, Part II focuses on Rare Earths Processes and High-Tech Product Development, and Part III deals with Rare Earths Recycling Opportunities and Challenges. The chapters provide updated information and priceless analysis of the theme, and they seek to present the latest techniques, approaches, processes and technologies that can reduce the costs of compliance with environmental concerns in a way it is possible to anticipate and mitigate emerging problems. Discusses the influence of policy on Rare Earth Elements to help raise interest in developing strategies for management resource development and exploitation Global contributions will address solutions in countries that are high RE producers, including China, Brazil, Australia, and South China End of chapter critical summaries outline the technological, economic and environmental implications of rare earths reserves, exploration and market Provides a concise, but meaningful, geopolitical analysis of the current worldwide scenario and importance of rare earths exploration for governments, corporate groups, and local stakeholders

Rare Earths

Rare Earths
Author : Jacques Lucas,Pierre Lucas,Thierry Le Mercier,Alain Rollat,William G. Davenport
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-09-09
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :410
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High-technology and environmental applications of the rare-earth elements (REE) have grown dramatically in diversity and importance over the past four decades. This book provides a scientific understanding of rare earth properties and uses, present and future. It also points the way to efficient recycle of the rare earths in end-of-use products and efficient use of rare earths in new products. Scientists and students will appreciate the book's approach to the availability, structure and properties of rare earths and how they have led to myriad critical uses, present and future. Experts should buy this book to get an integrated picture of production and use (present and future) of rare earths and the science behind this picture. This book will prove valuable to.non-scientists as well in order to get an integrated picture of production and use of rare earths in the 21st Century, and the science behind this picture. Defines the chemical, physical and structural properties of rare earths. Gives the reader a basic understanding of what rare earths can do for us. Describes uses of each rare earth with chemical, physics, and structural explanations for the properties that underlie those uses. Allows the reader to understand how rare earths behave and why they are used in present applications and will be used in future applications. Explains to the reader where and how rare earths are found and produced and how they are best recycled to minimize environmental impact and energy and water consumption.

Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths

Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths
Author : Nagaiyar Krishnamurthy,Chiranjib Kumar Gupta
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2015-12-02
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :839
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New Edition Now Covers Recycling, Environmental Issues, and Analytical Determination Employing four decades of experience in the rare metal and rare earths industry, the authors of Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition present the entire subject of rare earth elements with depth and accuracy. This second edition updates the most important developments from the past 10 years. It emphasizes advances made in rare-earth materials processing (converting a rare-earth metal, alloy, or compound to a device-ready material), breakthroughs in the area of rare-earth separation, and now includes a chapter on the recycling of rare earth elements from magnets, batteries, and phosphors among others, covering both manufacturing scrap or materials in end of life devices. Essential to Your Collection This second edition presents comprehensive, detailed, and up-to-date coverage that includes: All aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy A status of rare earth extraction from various world resources Flow sheets that can be used for rare earths separation, metal reduction, alloy making, refining and end product materials preparation Techniques of various rare earths recycling options An outline of environmental issues in rare earths mining and processing Methods of rare earths determination and analyses of components and impurities in rare earth materials Information extensively linked to primary literature with a complete listing of references A narration of the changing scenario of world rare earth resources and possibility of their exploitation An indispensable resource, Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition explains the many aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy clearly and systematically. The text reveals process implementation possibilities and research opportunities, and considers potential solutions to the challenges impacting this rapidly changing industry.

China and the Geopolitics of Rare Earths

China and the Geopolitics of Rare Earths
Author : Sophia Kalantzakos
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2017-12
Category : Political Science
Total pages :240
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Rare earths are elements that are found in the Earth's crust, and are vital ingredients for the production of a wide variety of high tech, defense, and green technologies -- everything from iPhones and medical technologies, to wind turbines, efficiency lighting, smart bombs, and submarines. While they are not particularly "rare" in availability, they are difficult and expensive to mine. Yet, China has managed to gain control over an estimated 97 percent of the rare earth industry since the 1990s through cheap production, high export taxes, and artificial limitations of supply. Rare earths, and China's monopoly over them, became international news after China "unofficially" halted exports to Japan, the United States, and Europe in 2010. This embargo followed a collision between Chinese and Japanese boats in the East China Sea, a locus of geopolitical and economic tension between the two countries. Although the World Trade Organization forced China to scrap its restrictions, it still holds a stranglehold over these elements that are so critical to the economic and security interests of the United States and its allies. Sophia Kalantzakos argues that the 2010 rare earth crisis signaled more than just a trade dispute. Rather, it raises questions about China's use of economic statecraft, and must be regarded as a part of the larger discourse of global power relations. Importantly, this book also argues that the failure of political actors in the United States and Europe to pass policy to address future supply, or the scientific and business communities to devise sustainable rare earth production outside of China, points to future resource competition. Focusing on China's monopoly over the rare earth industry, this book examines the impacts of growing worldwide resource competition and the complexities policymakers face as they develop strategies and responses in an increasingly globalized world.

Rare Earth Frontiers

Rare Earth Frontiers
Author : Julie Michelle Klinger
Publisher : Cornell University Press
Release Date : 2018-01-15
Category : Political Science
Total pages :340
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Owing to their unique magnetic, phosphorescent, and catalytic properties, rare earths are the elements that make possible teverything from the miniaturization of electronics, to the enabling of green energy and medical technologies, to supporting essential telecommunications and defense systems. An iPhone uses eight rare earths for everything from its colored screen, to its speakers, to the miniaturization of the phone?s circuitry. On the periodic table rare earth elements comprise a set of seventeen chemical elements (the fifteen lanthanides plus scandium and yttrium). There would be no Pokmǒn Go without rare earths. Rare Earth Frontiers is a work of human geography. Klinger looks historically and geographically at the ways rare earth elements in three discrete but representative and contested sites are given meaning.

The Political Economy of Rare Earth Elements

The Political Economy of Rare Earth Elements
Author : Ryan David Kiggins
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-07-28
Category : Political Science
Total pages :228
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The contributors argue that rare earths are essential to the information technology revolution on which humans have come to depend for communication, commerce, and, increasingly, engage in conflict. They demonstrate that rare earths are a strategic commodity over which political actors will and do struggle for control.

Lanthanides, Tantalum and Niobium

Lanthanides, Tantalum and Niobium
Author : Peter Möller,Petr Cerny,Francis Saupe
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-11-09
Category : Science
Total pages :380
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Rare Earth Elements (REE) as well as tantalum and niobium are of tremendous importance because of their specific high-technology applications. The contributions gathered in this volume give an up-to-date survey on the mineralogy, primary ore deposits, prospecting, processing and applications of REE, Ta, and Nd, making this volume a useful handbook for practitioners and students. Finally, the comprehensive coverage of the fundamental aspects, especially as regards REE as tracers of geological phenomena, will prove extremely helpful.

Rare Earth Chemistry

Rare Earth Chemistry
Author : Rainer Pöttgen,Thomas Jüstel,Cristian A. Strassert
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release Date : 2020-10-26
Category : Science
Total pages :669
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This work introduces into the chemistry, materials science and technology of Rare Earth Elements. The chapters by experienced lecturers describe comprehensively the recent studies of their characteristics, properties and applications in functional materials. Due to the broad range of covered topics as hydrogen storage materials, LEDs or permanent magnets this work gives an up-to-date presentation of this fascinating research.

China's Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States

China's Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime: Economic and Trade Implications for the United States
Author : Wayne Morrison,Rachel Tang
Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release Date : 2012-04-30
Category :
Total pages :40
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China is a major global producer of many raw materials, and, in some cases, a dominant producer. Particular concern has been raised in the United States and elsewhere over China's near-monopoly in the production of "rare earths"-a group of 17 elements whose unique properties make them critical in a variety of advanced technologies. Due to their special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength, rare earths are widely used in high-technology and clean energy products, as well as in military weapon systems. According to one analyst, rare earth elements "are critical to hundreds of high tech applications, many of which define our modern way of life. Without rare earth elements, much of the world's modern technology would be vastly different, and many applications would not be possible."

Rare Earths

Rare Earths
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1995
Category : Rare earth industry
Total pages :129
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Critical Mineral Resources of the United States

Critical Mineral Resources of the United States
Author : K. J. Schulz,John H. DeYoung,Robert R. Seal,Dwight C. Bradley
Publisher : Geological Survey
Release Date : 2018-07-27
Category : Industrial minerals
Total pages :797
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As the importance and dependence of specific mineral commodities increase, so does concern about their supply. The United States is currently 100 percent reliant on foreign sources for 20 mineral commodities and imports the majority of its supply of more than 50 mineral commodities. Mineral commodities that have important uses and face potential supply disruption are critical to American economic and national security. However, a mineral commodity's importance and the nature of its supply chain can change with time; a mineral commodity that may not have been considered critical 25 years ago may be critical today, and one considered critical today may not be so in the future. The U.S. Geological Survey has produced this volume to describe a select group of mineral commodities currently critical to our economy and security. For each mineral commodity covered, the authors provide a comprehensive look at (1) the commodity's use; (2) the geology and global distribution of the mineral deposit types that account for the present and possible future supply of the commodity; (3) the current status of production, reserves, and resources in the United States and globally; and (4) environmental considerations related to the commodity's production from different types of mineral deposits. The volume describes U.S. critical mineral resources in a global context, for no country can be self-sufficient for all its mineral commodity needs, and the United States will always rely on global mineral commodity supply chains. This volume provides the scientific understanding of critical mineral resources required for informed decisionmaking by those responsible for ensuring that the United States has a secure and sustainable supply of mineral commodities.

Rare Earth Elements

Rare Earth Elements
Author : Marc Humphries
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release Date : 2010-11
Category :
Total pages :14
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Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) What are Rare Earth Elements (REE)?; (3) Major End Uses and Applications: Demand for REE; The Application of REE in National Defense; (4) Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential; Supply Chain Issues; Role of China; (5) Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress: H.R. 4866, and S. 3521, the Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010; H.R. 5136, the FY 2011 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; P.L. 111-84, the FY 2010 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; (6) Possible Policy Options: Authorize and Appropriate Funding for a USGS Assessment; Support and Encourage Greater Exploration for REE; Challenge China on Its Export Policy; Establish a Stockpile. Illustrations.

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths
Author : Karl A. Gschneidner,L. Eyring
Publisher : North Holland
Release Date : 1978
Category : Science
Total pages :530
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The rare earths play a unique role in science. These seventeen related elements afford a panoply of subtle variations deriving from the systematic development of their electronic configurations, allowing a test of theory with excellent resolution. In contrast they find widespread use in even the most mundane processes, such as steel-making, for polishing materials and gasoline cracking catalysts. In between are exotic uses such as TV screen phosphors, lasers, high strength permanent magnets and chemical probes. This handbook covers the entire rare earth field in an integrated manner and each chapter is a comprehensive up-to-date, critical review of a particular segment of the field.

Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths

Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths
Author : Dezhi Qi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-05-15
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :804
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Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths: Extraction and Separation provides the basic knowledge for rare earth extraction and separation, including flow sheet selection criteria and related technology. The book includes the latest research findings on all rare earth separation processes, methods of controlling operation costs, and strategies that help lower wastewater and waste solid discharge. It discusses many real process parameters and actual situations in rare earth separation plants, also examining the basic principles, technologies, process parameters and advances and achievements in the area of rare earth extraction and separation. In addition, the book covers extraction separation theory as developed by Professor Guanxian Xu and Professor Chunhua Yan and the creative use of a computational simulation program to replace the bench scale and pilot plant tests and directly design rare earth extraction separation processes. Outlines the theory of solvent extraction and separation of rare earths (REs) Provides the necessary tools for a REs separation plant design Includes a unique simulation program for the calculation of all process parameters Includes Chinese nomenclature that is useful for identifying the various processes, also comparing it to the global literature

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits and Occurrences

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits and Occurrences
Author : G. J. Orris,Richard I. Grauch
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2002
Category : Rare earth metals
Total pages :167
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