November 26, 2020

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Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author : Gitu Jain
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-02-27
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :648
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Unlike general-purpose computing systems, multicore embedded systems are designed with a specific application in mind. The memory access patterns for the application can be used to customize the memory architecture of the device. This chapter presents a synopsis of memory types and architecture commonly used in multicore embedded systems. It examines the many trade-offs that can be considered when designing the memory architecture. It considers factors such as whether the memory should be shared or distributed among the multiple cores; will the cores benefit from memory cache and what should the cache configuration be; is there a cache coherency protocol used; should there be other memory types on the device such as scratch pad SRAMs and eDRAMs; does the device use a DMA for memory transfers, and other factors. It provides guidance to the embedded system designers to tailor the memory architecture to their needs.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author : Bryon Moyer
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-02-27
Category : Computers
Total pages :648
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This Expert Guide gives you the techniques and technologies in embedded multicore to optimally design and implement your embedded system. Written by experts with a solutions focus, this encyclopedic reference gives you an indispensable aid to tackling the day-to-day problems when building and managing multicore embedded systems. Following an embedded system design path from start to finish, our team of experts takes you from architecture, through hardware implementation to software programming and debug. With this book you will learn: • What motivates multicore • The architectural options and tradeoffs; when to use what • How to deal with the unique hardware challenges that multicore presents • How to manage the software infrastructure in a multicore environment • How to write effective multicore programs • How to port legacy code into a multicore system and partition legacy software • How to optimize both the system and software • The particular challenges of debugging multicore hardware and software Examples demonstrating timeless implementation details Proven and practical techniques reflecting the authors’ expertise built from years of experience and key advice on tackling critical issues

Multi-Core Embedded Systems

Multi-Core Embedded Systems
Author : Georgios Kornaros
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-10-08
Category : Computers
Total pages :502
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Details a real-world product that applies a cutting-edge multi-core architecture Increasingly demanding modern applications—such as those used in telecommunications networking and real-time processing of audio, video, and multimedia streams—require multiple processors to achieve computational performance at the rate of a few giga-operations per second. This necessity for speed and manageable power consumption makes it likely that the next generation of embedded processing systems will include hundreds of cores, while being increasingly programmable, blending processors and configurable hardware in a power-efficient manner. Multi-Core Embedded Systems presents a variety of perspectives that elucidate the technical challenges associated with such increased integration of homogeneous (processors) and heterogeneous multiple cores. It offers an analysis that industry engineers and professionals will need to understand the physical details of both software and hardware in embedded architectures, as well as their limitations and potential for future growth. Discusses the available programming models spread across different abstraction levels The book begins with an overview of the evolution of multiprocessor architectures for embedded applications and discusses techniques for autonomous power management of system-level parameters. It addresses the use of existing open-source (and free) tools originating from several application domains—such as traffic modeling, graph theory, parallel computing and network simulation. In addition, the authors cover other important topics associated with multi-core embedded systems, such as: Architectures and interconnects Embedded design methodologies Mapping of applications

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author : David Kleidermacher
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-02-27
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :648
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This chapter discusses the potential of and role of system virtualization in meeting the flexibility, scalability, portability, and robustness demands of next-generation multicore embedded systems. Common architectural approaches to hypervisors are compared, including a strong focus on effective sharing and management of I/O peripherals across virtual machines. The chapter also describes and contrasts the virtualization hardware assistance features available in common multicore processors. Finally, emerging applications and use cases enabled by system virtualization are provided.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author : Jim Holt
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-02-27
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :648
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Synchronization hardware is a fundamental requirement for concurrent software. Ultimately, software depends upon strong guarantees for atomicity, which can only be provided by hardware. Fortunately, hardware can provide a simple but powerful programming interface to higher-level software using only a few synchronization primitives. These few primitives can support a surprisingly broad range of capabilities in software. Yet, even with hardware support to ensure functional correctness, there is an unavoidable performance overhead to pay for synchronization. In recent years, hardware designed to replace precise locking with speculative lock avoidance (e.g., lock-free programming) has begun to emerge. This chapter provides an in-depth look at the lowest level hardware/software interface for synchronization, along with explanations of how the underlying hardware ensures atomicity, and considerations related to weakly consistent memory models. This is complemented with a discussion of various lock avoidance techniques.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author : Gitu Jain
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-02-27
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :648
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This chapter presents several different programming languages suitable for developing applications for multicore embedded systems. Writing programs for embedded systems can be very different from writing programs for general-purpose computers. Embedded systems may have resource limitations such as processing and battery power, memory, input/output capabilities and limited operating system functionality. They may have real-time and safety considerations that need to be met. In addition, developing for multicore embedded systems requires the programming language to provide concurrency support. In this chapter, special emphasis is placed on demonstrating features of each language that support efficient development on multicore embedded systems.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems
Author : Neal Stollon
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-02-27
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :648
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As in any complex architecture, debug and instrumentation resources are critical for multicore design. Debug instrumentation provides information for post-silicon debug analysis, software optimization, and performance monitoring. In this chapter, we introduce debug concepts useful for multicore; we deconstruct and discuss different debug instrumentation blocks and interfaces, including typical operations and system integration; and we discuss differences, considerations, and approaches more appropriate to multicore debug. This is followed by multicore debug examples, some of which are based on open standards and some on commercially-available blocks from processor IP providers.

Software Development for Embedded Multi-core Systems

Software Development for Embedded Multi-core Systems
Author : Max Domeika
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2011-04-08
Category : Computers
Total pages :440
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The multicore revolution has reached the deployment stage in embedded systems ranging from small ultramobile devices to large telecommunication servers. The transition from single to multicore processors, motivated by the need to increase performance while conserving power, has placed great responsibility on the shoulders of software engineers. In this new embedded multicore era, the toughest task is the development of code to support more sophisticated systems. This book provides embedded engineers with solid grounding in the skills required to develop software targeting multicore processors. Within the text, the author undertakes an in-depth exploration of performance analysis, and a close-up look at the tools of the trade. Both general multicore design principles and processor-specific optimization techniques are revealed. Detailed coverage of critical issues for multicore employment within embedded systems is provided, including the Threading Development Cycle, with discussions of analysis, design, development, debugging, and performance tuning of threaded applications. Software development techniques engendering optimal mobility and energy efficiency are highlighted through multiple case studies, which provide practical “how-to advice on implementing the latest multicore processors. Finally, future trends are discussed, including terascale, speculative multithreading, transactional memory, interconnects, and the software-specific implications of these looming architectural developments. Table of Contents Chapter 1 - Introduction Chapter 2 – Basic System and Processor Architecture Chapter 3 – Multi-core Processors & Embedded Chapter 4 –Moving To Multi-core Intel Architecture Chapter 5 – Scalar Optimization & Usability Chapter 6 – Parallel Optimization Using Threads Chapter 7 - Case Study: Data Decomposition Chapter 8 - Case Study: Functional Decomposition Chapter 9 – Virtualization & Partitioning Chapter 10 – Getting Ready For Low Power Intel Architecture Chapter 11 - Summary, Trends, and Conclusions Appendix I Glossary References *This is the only book to explain software optimization for embedded multi-core systems *Helpful tips, tricks and design secrets from an Intel programming expert, with detailed examples using the popular X86 architecture *Covers hot topics, including ultramobile devices, low-power designs, Pthreads vs. OpenMP, and heterogeneous cores

Embedded Linux Primer

Embedded Linux Primer
Author : Christopher Hallinan
Publisher : Pearson Education
Release Date : 2010-10-26
Category : Computers
Total pages :576
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Up-to-the-Minute, Complete Guidance for Developing Embedded Solutions with Linux Linux has emerged as today’s #1 operating system for embedded products. Christopher Hallinan’s Embedded Linux Primer has proven itself as the definitive real-world guide to building efficient, high-value, embedded systems with Linux. Now, Hallinan has thoroughly updated this highly praised book for the newest Linux kernels, capabilities, tools, and hardware support, including advanced multicore processors. Drawing on more than a decade of embedded Linux experience, Hallinan helps you rapidly climb the learning curve, whether you’re moving from legacy environments or you’re new to embedded programming. Hallinan addresses today’s most important development challenges and demonstrates how to solve the problems you’re most likely to encounter. You’ll learn how to build a modern, efficient embedded Linux development environment, and then utilize it as productively as possible. Hallinan offers up-to-date guidance on everything from kernel configuration and initialization to bootloaders, device drivers to file systems, and BusyBox utilities to real-time configuration and system analysis. This edition adds entirely new chapters on UDEV, USB, and open source build systems. Tour the typical embedded system and development environment and understand its concepts and components. Understand the Linux kernel and userspace initialization processes. Preview bootloaders, with specific emphasis on U-Boot. Configure the Memory Technology Devices (MTD) subsystem to interface with flash (and other) memory devices. Make the most of BusyBox and latest open source development tools. Learn from expanded and updated coverage of kernel debugging. Build and analyze real-time systems with Linux. Learn to configure device files and driver loading with UDEV. Walk through detailed coverage of the USB subsystem. Introduces the latest open source embedded Linux build systems. Reference appendices include U-Boot and BusyBox commands.

Embedded Software

Embedded Software
Author : Colin Walls
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :436
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1. What Makes an Embedded Application Tick? -- 2. Memory in Embedded Systems -- 3. Memory Architectures -- 4. How Software Influences Hardware Design -- 5. Migrating your Software to a New Processor Architecture -- 6. Embedded Software for Transportation Applications -- 7. How to Choose a CPU for Your SoC Design -- 8. An Introduction to USB Software -- 9. Towards USB 3.0.

Software Engineering for Embedded Systems

Software Engineering for Embedded Systems
Author : Robert Oshana
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-04-01
Category : Computers
Total pages :1200
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This Expert Guide gives you the techniques and technologies in software engineering to optimally design and implement your embedded system. Written by experts with a solutions focus, this encyclopedic reference gives you an indispensable aid to tackling the day-to-day problems when using software engineering methods to develop your embedded systems. With this book you will learn: The principles of good architecture for an embedded system Design practices to help make your embedded project successful Details on principles that are often a part of embedded systems, including digital signal processing, safety-critical principles, and development processes Techniques for setting up a performance engineering strategy for your embedded system software How to develop user interfaces for embedded systems Strategies for testing and deploying your embedded system, and ensuring quality development processes Practical techniques for optimizing embedded software for performance, memory, and power Advanced guidelines for developing multicore software for embedded systems How to develop embedded software for networking, storage, and automotive segments How to manage the embedded development process Includes contributions from: Frank Schirrmeister, Shelly Gretlein, Bruce Douglass, Erich Styger, Gary Stringham, Jean Labrosse, Jim Trudeau, Mike Brogioli, Mark Pitchford, Catalin Dan Udma, Markus Levy, Pete Wilson, Whit Waldo, Inga Harris, Xinxin Yang, Srinivasa Addepalli, Andrew McKay, Mark Kraeling and Robert Oshana. Road map of key problems/issues and references to their solution in the text Review of core methods in the context of how to apply them Examples demonstrating timeless implementation details Short and to- the- point case studies show how key ideas can be implemented, the rationale for choices made, and design guidelines and trade-offs

Real-Time Embedded Systems

Real-Time Embedded Systems
Author : Xiaocong Fan
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2015-02-25
Category : Computers
Total pages :686
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This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you learn the key concept of embedded systems; Part one introduces the development process, and includes two chapters on microprocessors and interrupts---fundamental topics for software engineers; Part two is dedicated to modeling techniques for real-time systems; Part three looks at the design of software architectures and Part four covers software implementations, with a focus on POSIX-compliant operating systems. With this book you will learn: The pros and cons of different architectures for embedded systems POSIX real-time extensions, and how to develop POSIX-compliant real time applications How to use real-time UML to document system designs with timing constraints The challenges and concepts related to cross-development Multitasking design and inter-task communication techniques (shared memory objects, message queues, pipes, signals) How to use kernel objects (e.g. Semaphores, Mutex, Condition variables) to address resource sharing issues in RTOS applications The philosophy underpinning the notion of "resource manager" and how to implement a virtual file system using a resource manager The key principles of real-time scheduling and several key algorithms Coverage of the latest UML standard (UML 2.4) Over 20 design patterns which represent the best practices for reuse in a wide range of real-time embedded systems Example codes which have been tested in QNX---a real-time operating system widely adopted in industry

Programming Embedded Systems

Programming Embedded Systems
Author : Michael Barr,Anthony Massa
Publisher : "O'Reilly Media, Inc."
Release Date : 2006
Category : Computers
Total pages :301
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Authored by two of the leading authorities in the field, this guide offers readers the knowledge and skills needed to achieve proficiency with embedded software.

Advanced Multicore Systems-On-Chip

Advanced Multicore Systems-On-Chip
Author : Abderazek Ben Abdallah
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2017-09-10
Category : Computers
Total pages :273
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From basic architecture, interconnection, and parallelization to power optimization, this book provides a comprehensive description of emerging multicore systems-on-chip (MCSoCs) hardware and software design. Highlighting both fundamentals and advanced software and hardware design, it can serve as a primary textbook for advanced courses in MCSoCs design and embedded systems. The first three chapters introduce MCSoCs architectures, present design challenges and conventional design methods, and describe in detail the main building blocks of MCSoCs. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 discuss fundamental and advanced on-chip interconnection network technologies for multi and many core SoCs, enabling readers to understand the microarchitectures for on-chip routers and network interfaces that are essential in the context of latency, area, and power constraints. With the rise of multicore and many-core systems, concurrency is becoming a major issue in the daily life of a programmer. Thus, compiler and software development tools are critical in helping programmers create high-performance software. Programmers should make sure that their parallelized program codes will not cause race condition, memory-access deadlocks, or other faults that may crash their entire systems. As such, Chapter 7 describes a novel parallelizing compiler design for high-performance computing. Chapter 8 provides a detailed investigation of power reduction techniques for MCSoCs at component and network levels. It discusses energy conservation in general hardware design, and also in embedded multicore system components, such as CPUs, disks, displays and memories. Lastly, Chapter 9 presents a real embedded MCSoCs system design targeted for health monitoring in the elderly.

Embedded Systems

Embedded Systems
Author : Krzysztof Iniewski
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-10-26
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :392
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Covers the significant embedded computingtechnologies—highlighting their applications in wirelesscommunication and computing power An embedded system is a computer system designed for specificcontrol functions within a larger system—often with real-timecomputing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete deviceoften including hardware and mechanical parts. Presented in threeparts, Embedded Systems: Hardware, Design, andImplementation provides readers with an immersive introductionto this rapidly growing segment of the computer industry. Acknowledging the fact that embedded systems control many oftoday's most common devices such as smart phones, PC tablets, aswell as hardware embedded in cars, TVs, and even refrigerators andheating systems, the book starts with a basic introduction toembedded computing systems. It hones in on system-on-a-chip (SoC),multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC), and network-on-chip (NoC).It then covers on-chip integration of software and custom hardwareaccelerators, as well as fabric flexibility, custom architectures,and the multiple I/O standards that facilitate PCB integration. Next, it focuses on the technologies associated with embeddedcomputing systems, going over the basics of field-programmable gatearray (FPGA), digital signal processing (DSP) andapplication-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technology,architectural support for on-chip integration of customaccelerators with processors, and O/S support for thesesystems. Finally, it offers full details on architecture, testability,and computer-aided design (CAD) support for embedded systems, softprocessors, heterogeneous resources, and on-chip storage beforeconcluding with coverage of software support—in particular,O/S Linux. Embedded Systems: Hardware, Design, and Implementation isan ideal book for design engineers looking to optimize and reducethe size and cost of embedded system products and increase theirreliability and performance.