November 24, 2020

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Remote Sensing of Aerosols, Clouds, and Precipitation

Remote Sensing of Aerosols, Clouds, and Precipitation
Author : Tanvir Islam,Yongxiang Hu,Alexander A. Kokhanovsky,Jun Wang
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-10-31
Category : Science
Total pages :364
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Remote Sensing of Aerosols, Clouds, and Precipitation compiles recent advances in aerosol, cloud, and precipitation remote sensing from new satellite observations. The book examines a wide range of measurements from microwave (both active and passive), visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. Contributors are experts conducting state-of-the-art research in atmospheric remote sensing using space, airborne, and ground-based datasets, focusing on supporting earth observation satellite missions for aerosol, cloud, and precipitation studies. A handy reference for scientists working in remote sensing, earth science, electromagnetics, climate physics, and space engineering. Valuable for operational forecasters, meteorologists, geospatial experts, modelers, and policymakers alike. Presents new approaches in the field, along with further research opportunities, based on the latest satellite data Focuses on how remote sensing systems can be designed/developed to solve outstanding problems in earth and atmospheric sciences Edited by a dynamic team of editors with a mixture of highly skilled and qualified authors offering world-leading expertise in the field

Remote Sensing of Clouds and Precipitation

Remote Sensing of Clouds and Precipitation
Author : Constantin Andronache
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-02-21
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :282
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This book presents current applications of remote sensing techniques for clouds and precipitation for the benefit of students, educators, and scientists. It covers ground-based systems such as weather radars and spaceborne instruments on satellites. Measurements and modeling of precipitation are at the core of weather forecasting, and long-term observations of the cloud system are vital to improving atmospheric models and climate projections. The first section of the book focuses on the use of ground-based weather radars to observe and measure precipitation and to detect and forecast storms, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. It also discusses the observation of clouds using ground-based millimeter radar. The second part of the book concentrates on spaceborne remote sensing of clouds and precipitation. It includes cases from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, using satellite radars to observe precipitation systems. Then, the focus is on global cloud observations from the ClaudSat, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), including a perspective on the Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) satellite. It also addresses global atmospheric water vapor profiling for clear and cloudy conditions using microwave observations. The final part of this volume provides a perspective into advances in cloud modeling using remote sensing observations.

Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation

Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation
Author : Zev Levin,William R. Cotton
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2008-09-30
Category : Science
Total pages :386
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Life on Earth is critically dependent upon the continuous cycling of water between oceans, continents and the atmosphere. Precipitation (including rain, snow, and hail) is the primary mechanism for transporting water from the atmosphere back to the Earth’s surface. It is also the key physical process that links aspects of climate, weather, and the global hydrological cycle. Changes in precipitation regimes and the frequency of extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, severe ice/snow storms, monsoon fluctuations and hurricanes are of great potential importance to life on the planet. One of the factors that could contribute to precipitation modification is aerosol pollution from various sources such as urban air pollution and biomass burning. Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric aerosols might have important implications for precipitation by influencing the hydrological cycle, which in turn could feed back to climate changes. From an Earth Science perspective, a key question is how changes expected in climate will translate into changes in the hydrological cycle, and what trends may be expected in the future. We require a much better understanding and hence predictive capability of the moisture and energy storages and exchanges among the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, continents and biological systems. This book is a review of our knowledge of the relationship between aerosols and precipitation reaching the Earth's surface and it includes a list of recommendations that could help to advance our knowledge in this area.

Mixed-Phase Clouds

Mixed-Phase Clouds
Author : Constantin Andronache
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-09-28
Category : Science
Total pages :300
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Mixed-Phase Clouds: Observations and Modeling presents advanced research topics on mixed-phase clouds. As the societal impacts of extreme weather and its forecasting grow, there is a continuous need to refine atmospheric observations, techniques and numerical models. Understanding the role of clouds in the atmosphere is increasingly vital for current applications, such as prediction and prevention of aircraft icing, weather modification, and the assessment of the effects of cloud phase partition in climate models. This book provides the essential information needed to address these problems with a focus on current observations, simulations and applications. Provides in-depth knowledge and simulation of mixed-phase clouds over many regions of Earth, explaining their role in weather and climate Features current research examples and case studies, including those on advanced research methods from authors with experience in both academia and the industry Discusses the latest advances in this subject area, providing the reader with access to best practices for remote sensing and numerical modeling

Aerosol Remote Sensing

Aerosol Remote Sensing
Author : Jacqueline Lenoble,Lorraine Remer,Didier Tanre
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-02-11
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :390
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This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radiative transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. The editors provide, for the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing, and providing the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical retrieval methods.

Aerosol-cloud-precipitation Interaction in Ultraclean Layers and Optically Thin Veil Cloud System in the Stratocumulus to Cumulus Transition

Aerosol-cloud-precipitation Interaction in Ultraclean Layers and Optically Thin Veil Cloud System in the Stratocumulus to Cumulus Transition
Author : Kuan-Ting O
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category :
Total pages :114
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Recent observational studies have shown that ultraclean layers (UCLs) and optically thin veil clouds associated with precipitating deep cumulus are common features of the marine boundary layer in the stratocumulus to cumulus transition. The very low number concentration of cloud droplet and cloud condensation nuclei in UCLs, strong precipitation in the associated cumulus, together with the low optical thickness of optically thin veil clouds, make such a system particularly appealing for the study of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. More importantly, low cloud radiative properties biases (i.e., too few, too bright low cloud bias) in the current generation of global climate models (GCMs) seems strongly associated with the uncertainty in representing optically thin veil clouds, and these clouds may serve as an important constraint on the too few, too bright problem. However, systematic investigation of (1) global contribution and seasonal variability of optically thin veil clouds and (2) aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in UCLs and optically thin veil clouds is still lacking. We aim to investigate these problems with aircraft remote sensing, satellite measurements and a cloud resolving model. The dissertation is organized into the following three sections: • Using high resolution aircraft remote sensing measurement to characterize optically thin veil clouds in the stratocumulus to cumulus transition (SCT): Aircraft remote sensing measurements (i.e., lidar and radar) taken abroad NSF/NCAR GV-HIAPER research flights flown during the Cloud System Evolution in the Trades field campaign (CSET) sampled marine air masses between Sacramento, California (38.68N, 121.58W), and Kona (19.68N, 156.08W) are used in our study. Optically thin veil clouds, defined as the subset of low clouds with cloud bases > 1 km that do not fully attenuate high-spectral-resolution lidar signal (HSRL) (i.e., indicating optical depths 3), comprise considerable cover of low clouds (~ 40 %) over the SCT. It is found that optically thin veil clouds are also geometrically thin with cloud thickness ~ 200 m, and commonly reside in the upper boundary layer with average cloud base 1.5 km. • Investigating deeper, precipitating PBLs associated with optically thin veil clouds in the Sc-Cu Transition using spaceborne satellite measurements: Variability and vertical structure of optically thin veil clouds over SCT regions around the globe are investigated using both passive and active satellite observations. These observations reveal pronounced relationships between optically thin veil clouds, strong precipitation, deep planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and low cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC). The results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the low optical thickness of veil clouds over the SCT is contingent on the low CDNC caused by strong precipitation scavenging occurring in active cumuli, a process whose efficiency is strongly dependent on maximum condensate amount in updrafts and thus is highly constrained by PBL height. • Exploring aerosol-cloud-precipitation processes in UCLs and optically thin veil clouds system using a cloud resolving model: Characteristics of UCLs and optically thin veil clouds are investigated in the cloud resolving model (CRM). The domain mean cloud and aerosol properties in UCLs and optically thin veil clouds from CRM simulations agree with recent observational studies in general. The simulation results show that the detrainment from active precipitating cumulus produces the stratiform veil clouds, which are strongly depleted in particle concentration due to very efficient coalescence-scavenging process in ascending parcels passing through cumulus towers. The simulation shows a median CDNC in thin veil clouds of 5.8 cm−3, implying that majority of thin veil clouds are UCLs as well and confirming the strong connection between veil clouds and UCLs. In addition, there is a strong correlation between surface precipitation and the fraction of low clouds that are UCLs, and such correlation implies the importance of precipitation scavenging for the formation of UCLs. A cloud resolving model coupled with a prognostic aerosol scheme is used in our study, enabling characterization of the spatiotemporal variability of aerosol in the boundary layer. The results show that depletion of aerosol concentration starts first in the upper boundary layer that is associated with in-cloud coalescence scavenging process. The evaporation of veil clouds leaves very low CCN number concentration (Na

Satellite Meteorology

Satellite Meteorology
Author : Stanley Q. Kidder,Thomas H. Vonder Haar
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1995-09-12
Category : Science
Total pages :466
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At last, a book that has what every atmospheric science and meteorology student should know about satellite meteorology: the orbits of satellites, the instruments they carry, the radiation they detect, and, most importantly, the fundamental atmospheric data that can be retrieved from their observations. Key Features * Of special interest are sections on: * Remote sensing of atmospheric temperature, trace gases, winds, cloud and aerosol data, precipitation, and radiation budget * Satellite image interpretation * Satellite orbits and navigation * Radiative transfer fundamentals

Aerosols

Aerosols
Author : Konstantin Volkov
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2016-12-28
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :206
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Aerosols have a significant impact on technological processes and human activities. In many cases, aerosols are at the core of human health, environmental and technological problems (climate change and air quality). However, aerosols can be successfully used in industry and technology (new materials, fire suppression and fuel delivery). The current scientific status of aerosol modelling and simulation and measurements and some advances in computational techniques, particle measurement technologies and practical applications of aerosols are reviewed and considered in this book. This book also includes a number of case studies focused on analysis of optical thickness and air quality in various regions.

Physics and Dynamics of Clouds and Precipitation

Physics and Dynamics of Clouds and Precipitation
Author : Pao K. Wang
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2013-03-14
Category : Science
Total pages :129
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This key new textbook provides a state-of-the-art view of the physics of cloud and precipitation formation, covering the most important topics in the field: the microphysics, thermodynamics and cloud-scale dynamics. Highlights include: the condensation process explained with new insights from chemical physics studies; the impact of the particle curvature (the Kelvin equation) and solute effect (the Köhler equation); homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation from recent molecular dynamic simulations; and the hydrodynamics of falling hydrometeors and their impact on collision growth. 3D cloud-model simulations demonstrate the dynamics and microphysics of deep convective clouds and cirrus formation, and each chapter contains problems enabling students to review and implement their new learning. Packed with detailed mathematical derivations and cutting-edge stereographic illustrations, this is an ideal text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and also serves as a reference for academic researchers and professionals working in atmospheric science, meteorology, climatology, remote sensing and environmental science.

Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation

Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation
Author : H.R. Pruppacher,J.D. Klett
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2010-06-25
Category : Science
Total pages :954
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Cloud physics has achieved such a voluminous literature over the past few decades that a significant quantitative study of the entire field would prove unwieldy. This book concentrates on one major aspect: cloud microphysics, which involves the processes that lead to the formation of individual cloud and precipitation particles. Common practice has shown that one may distinguish among the following addi tional major aspects: cloud dynamics, which is concerned with the physics respon sible for the macroscopic features of clouds; cloud electricity, which deals with the electrical structure of clouds and the electrification processes of cloud and precipi tation particles; and cloud optics and radar meteorology, which describe the effects of electromagnetic waves interacting with clouds and precipitation. Another field intimately related to cloud physics is atmospheric chemistry, which involves the chemical composition ofthe atmosphere and the life cycle and characteristics of its gaseous and particulate constituents. In view of the natural interdependence of the various aspects of cloud physics, the subject of microphysics cannot be discussed very meaningfully out of context. Therefore, we have found it necessary to touch briefly upon a few simple and basic concepts of cloud dynamics and thermodynamics, and to provide an account of the major characteristics of atmospheric aerosol particles. We have also included a separate chapter on some of the effects of electric fields and charges on the precipitation-forming processes.

An Airborne Remote Sensing Perspective on Cloud and Precipitation Properties from Southeast Atlantic Stratocumulus Clouds

An Airborne Remote Sensing Perspective on Cloud and Precipitation Properties from Southeast Atlantic Stratocumulus Clouds
Author : Andrew Michael Dzambo
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :169
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Stratocumulus (StCu) clouds cover a majority of the Earth's subtropical oceanic basins, and play an important role in the global energy balance. Cloud and precipitation processes in StCu are complex, and aerosol effects add further complexity to the cloud-precipitation-climate paradigm, where these interactions are among the most widely uncertain processes in present-day climate models. The NASA ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign between 2016-18 observed cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean. One of the 20+ instruments deployed during ORACLES was the Airborne Precipitation Radar - 3rd Generation (APR-3). The APR-3 collected over 18 million profiles during the three deployments. A precipitation retrieval algorithm (called 2C-RAIN) was adapted from the CloudSat 2C-RAIN-PROFILE precipitation retrieval algorithm to meet ORACLES science objectives. The majority of 2C-RAIN precipitation rates were under 0.01 mm/hr (0.25 mm/day). The sampling environments were considerably different in 2016 compared to 2017 and 2018, necessitating further investigation accounting for environmental controls. Cloud water path (CWP) retrievals were added to the 2C-RAIN algorithm. This retrieval expanded the utility of APR-3 measurements by collocating cloud and precipitation properties (namely CWP and RWP) for the investigation of aerosol indirect effects. This work find typical CWP to RWP ratios on the order of 50:1 to 200:1, implying CWP dominates the total liquid water path (LWP) signal. When partitioning rain rates with CWP and RWP for aerosol contact and non-contact cases, statistically significant differences are found in stable environments for CWP/RWP but not for retrieved rain rates, likely owing to the 100% and larger uncertainties associated with precipitation rate retrievals. Finally, evaporation processes are investigated between drizzling virga and surface precipitation. Evaporation rates/fluxes and corresponding latent cooling rates, between surface precipitation and virga, are on the order of 2:1 implying that surface precipitation contributes the most latent cooling to the local environment. Evaporating virga, regardless, cannot be ignored when studying latent heating and cooling. The development of the 2C-RAIN database for ORACLES, and analyses presented here, pave the way for additional observation-based studies in an area where satellite measurements have limited viability.

Aerosol Science

Aerosol Science
Author : Ian Colbeck,Mihalis Lazaridis
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-01-30
Category : Science
Total pages :496
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Aerosols influence many areas of our daily life. They are at the core of environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and poor air quality. They can also have diverse effects on human health, where exposure occurs in both outdoor and indoor environments. However, aerosols can have beneficial effects too; the delivery of drugs to the lungs, the delivery of fuels for combustion and the production of nanomaterials all rely on aerosols. Advances in particle measurement technologies have made it possible to take advantage of rapid changes in both particle size and concentration. Likewise, aerosols can now be produced in a controlled fashion. Reviewing many technological applications together with the current scientific status of aerosol modelling and measurements, this book includes: • Satellite aerosol remote sensing • The effects of aerosols on climate change • Air pollution and health • Pharmaceutical aerosols and pulmonary drug delivery • Bioaerosols and hospital infections • Particle emissions from vehicles • The safety of emerging nanomaterials • Radioactive aerosols: tracers of atmospheric processes With the importance of this topic brought to the public’s attention after the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, this book provides a timely, concise and accessible overview of the many facets of aerosol science.

Remote Sensing of Atmosphere and Ocean from Space: Models, Instruments and Techniques

Remote Sensing of Atmosphere and Ocean from Space: Models, Instruments and Techniques
Author : Frank S. Marzano,Guido Visconti
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2006-04-11
Category : Science
Total pages :248
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This book is a collection of the lectures, held at the International Summer School ISSAOS-2000 in L'Aquila (Italy), given by invited lecturers coming from both Europe and the USA. The goal of the book is to provide a broad panorama of spaceborne remote sensing techniques, at both microwave and visible-infrared bands and by both active and passive sensors, for the retrieval of atmospheric and oceanic parameters. A significant emphasis is given to the physical modeling background, instrument potential and limitations, inversion methods and applications. Topics on international remote sensing programs and assimilation techniques into numerical weather forecast models are also touched. The main purpose of the book is to offer to young scientists, Ph.D. or equivalent students, and to all who would like to have a broad-spectrum understanding of spaceborne remote sensing capabilities, introductory material to each remote sensing topic written by the most qualified experts in the field.

Aerosol Remote Sensing

Aerosol Remote Sensing
Author : Jacqueline Lenoble,Lorraine Remer,Didier Tanre
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-02-11
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :390
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This book gives a much needed explanation of the basic physical principles of radiative transfer and remote sensing, and presents all the instruments and retrieval algorithms in a homogenous manner. The editors provide, for the first time, an easy path from theory to practical algorithms in one easily accessible volume, making the connection between theoretical radiative transfer and individual practical solutions to retrieve aerosol information from remote sensing, and providing the specifics and intercomparison of all current and historical retrieval methods.

3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres

3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres
Author : Alexander Marshak,Anthony Davis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2006-03-30
Category : Science
Total pages :686
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Developments in three-dimensional cloud radiation over the past few decades are assessed and distilled into this contributed volume. Chapters are authored by subject-matter experts who address a broad audience of graduate students, researchers, and anyone interested in cloud-radiation processes in the solar and infrared spectral regions. After two introductory chapters and a section on the fundamental physics and computational techniques, the volume extensively treats two main application areas: the impact of clouds on the Earth's radiation budget, which is an essential aspect of climate modeling; and remote observation of clouds, especially with the advanced sensors on current and future satellite missions.