December 5, 2020

Download Ebook Free Río-Hortega’s Third Contribution To The Morphological Knowledge And Functional Interpretation Of The Oligodendroglia

Rio-Hortega's Third Contribution to the Morphological Knowledge and Functional Interpretation of the Oligodendroglia

Rio-Hortega's Third Contribution to the Morphological Knowledge and Functional Interpretation of the Oligodendroglia
Author : Jose R. Iglesias-Rozas,Manuel Garrosa
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-06-05
Category : Science
Total pages :124
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Pío del Rio-Hortega, one of the pioneering neuroscientists and discoverer of microglia, has been recognized as one of the most important Spanish neurohistogists of the past century. His landmark research on oligodendroglia, originally published in Spanish in 1928, has been translated into English for the first time by Dr. José R. Iglesias-Rozas and Prof. Manuel Garrosa. The book establishes definitively the concept of oligodendroglia and describes in great detail its structure, varieties, function, origin and pathology, providing a thorough review. The entire 1928 writing is presented, including the 79 excellent drawings and photographs from the original publication. To complement the original book and provide historical context, the translators have also included an introduction to the research and a biography of Pío del Rio-Hortega. This book constitutes a milestone in the history of neuroscience, biology and medicine, and it will be valuable reading for researchers and practitioners in these fields. First English translation of seminal 1928 research Contains the broad descriptions and interpretations of the normal and pathological oligodendroglia Full original text and new introductory sections

The Major Discoveries of Cajal and His Disciples: Consolidated Milestones for the Neuroscience of the XXIst Century

The Major Discoveries of Cajal and His Disciples: Consolidated Milestones for the Neuroscience of the XXIst Century
Author : Fernando de Castro,Miguel A. Merchán
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2017-04-25
Category :
Total pages :129
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When Santiago Ramón y Cajal started to unravel the fine structure of the nervous system in the last decades of the XIXth century maybe only his unbeatable soul of brave Spaniard imagined that most of the descriptions were scientific truths that lasted to date. Simple histological stainings, curiosity to ameliorate these, monocular microscopes, patience for drawing his observations and a rich imaginative open mind: this is the recipy for Cajal success. His descriptions of connectivity in the nervous system, compiled in Cajal's opus magna published in 1904 ("Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y los vertebrados") and 1911 ("Histologie du systeme nerveux"), have been corroborated by modern techniques decade after decade. Even more, the main hypothesis that Cajal raised are universally recognised as biological laws, today: the neuron theory, the law on the dynamic polarization of the neuron and the chemotropic hypothesis. That is: the nervous system is not a sincitial network but is formed by individual cells; the transmission of the nerve impulses follow a main direction within a given neuron; the axons are guided by chemical substances in a chemotropic way, till form synapses with their targets. Attracted by Cajal's strong personality and scientific success, a number of medical students and doctors join him in the crusade to explore the nervous system. And the seed planted by the universal savant was really successful: Francisco Tello described interesting aspects of the regeneration of peripheral nerves which are very useful for neuroscientist currently working in this topic; Nicolás Achúcarro significantly contributed to study neuroglia and future microglia; Pío del Río-Hortega identified two out of the four main nervous cell types, the oligodendrocytes and microglia, and proposed an almost still valid classification for the CNS tumours; Fernando de Castro made was the first description of arterial chemoreceptors in the carotid body; Rafael Lorente de Nó was a dominant figure of Neuroscience for decades after the IInd World War, first describing the columnar organization of the cerebral cortex well before Mountcastle, Hubbel and Wiesel. Even less recognised co-workers and disciples of Cajal (his brother Pedro Ramón y Cajal, Domingo Sánchez, the neurologist Rodríguez-Lafora... protagonised discoveries that are consolidated scientific truths today). Altogether, it is difficult (if not impossible) to find a school in biology contributing in such a fundamental and variated way to the common acervo like the collectively known as Cajal School or Spanish Neurological School. Although the particular way to work of the Maestro, selecting a pleiade of brilliant collaborators with whom accomplish such a titanic feat, giving them freedom for their studies, has been recognised and confronted to antagonic systems followed by other relevant scientists and scientific schools, the general recognition of such a significant major milestones for Neuroscience and their vigency in the well-marched XXIst century is not: this is the purpose of this Ebook, to remind all these examples of how successful can be the scientific work when it is minutious, constant and performed by brilliant, imaginative and skilled scientists with a minimal conditions supporting their efforts.

Never-resting microglia: physiological roles in the healthy brain and pathological implications

Never-resting microglia: physiological roles in the healthy brain and pathological implications
Author : Amanda Sierra,Marie-Eve Tremblay,Hiroaki Wake
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release Date : 2015-02-11
Category : Microglia
Total pages :172
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Microglia are largely known as the major orchestrators of the brain inflammatory response. As such, they have been traditionally studied in various contexts of disease, where their activation has been assumed to induce a wide range of detrimental effects. In the last few years, a series of discoveries have challenged the current view of microglia, showing their active and positive contribution to normal brain function. This Research Topic reviewed the novel physiological roles of microglia in the developing, mature and aging brain, under non-pathological conditions. In particular, this Research Topic discussed the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which microglia contribute to the formation, pruning and plasticity of synapses; the regulation of adult neurogenesis as well as hippocampal learning and memory; among other important roles. Because these novel findings defy our understanding of microglial function in health as much as in disease, this Research Topic also summarized the current view of microglial nomenclature, phenotypes, origin and differentiation, and contribution to various brain pathologies. Additionally, novel imaging approaches and molecular tools to study microglia in their non-activated state have been discussed. In conclusion, this Research Topic seeked to emphasize how the current research in neuroscience is challenged by never-resting microglia.

Neuroglia

Neuroglia
Author : Helmut Kettenmann,Bruce R. Ransom
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2004-09-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :624
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Neuroglia is the only comprehensive reference book on the basic biology and function of glial cells. This long-awaited second edition has been completely reorganized and rewritten to include the dramatic advances in this field since the first edition was published ten years ago. The impact of the second edition will be greater than that of the first because the majority of neuroscientists now acknowledge that neuroglia are elemental to most, if not all, brain functions. The second edition covers the entire field of glial research from the basic molecular and cellular principles of these cells to their involvement in neurological diseases including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. It includes new chapters on transmitter release from exocytosis from glia, glia derived stem cells, glia and synaptic transmission, glia and axon guidance, an entirely new section on mechanisms of glial injury, and several new chapters on the roles of glia in different diseases. The new edition was written with both students and experts in mind. It provides a basic introduction to the entire range of glial topics and detailed information with critical assessment of the research literature. Neuroscience textbooks focus on the properties of neurons, whereas this book fills the information void about the brain's other cells. Neuroglia, Second Edition, is an essential reference source for newcomers, including graduate students, to neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and molecular neurobiology. It is also a vital companion for established researchers in these fields as well as clinicians in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neuropathology, and neuro-oncology.

Encephalitis Lethargica

Encephalitis Lethargica
Author : Paul Bernard Foley
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-02-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :1083
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Encephalitis lethargica (‘sleeping sickness’) was a mysterious disorder that swept the world in the decade following the First World War, before disappearing without its cause having been identified. Around 85% of its victims, predominantly children, adolescents and younger adults, survived the acute disorder, but most developed severe neurological syndromes, particularly severe post-encephalitic parkinsonism and other severe motor abnormalities, that incapacitated them for the remainder of their lives. Despite its brief history, encephalitis lethargica played a major role in a variety medical discussions between the two World Wars, as this epitome of neuropsychiatric disease – attacking both motor and mental functions – appeared just as the separation of neurology and psychiatry had reached a critical point. Encephalitis lethargica sufferers presented an unprecedented combination of neurologic and psychiatric symptoms – including previously puzzling phenomena primarily associated with schizophrenia and hysteria, as well as behavioral changes and attention deficit disorders in children – that not only underscored the unity of mind and movement in the CNS, but also illuminated the critical role played by subcortical structures in consciousness and other higher mental functions that had formerly been associated with the soul and more recently presumed to be localized to the human cerebral cortex. Encephalitis lethargica exerted a greater influence on clinical and theoretic neuroscientific thought between the two World Wars than any other single disorder and had an enduring impact upon neurology and psychiatry. This book will be of interest to an educated audience active or interested in clinical (neurology, psychiatry, psychology) or laboratory neuroscience, particularly those interested in neuropsychiatry, as well as to those interested in the history of the biomedical sciences.

Microglia in Health and Disease: A Unique Immune Cell Population

Microglia in Health and Disease: A Unique Immune Cell Population
Author : Alessandro Michelucci,Michel Mittelbronn,Diego Gomez-Nicola
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2018-10-05
Category :
Total pages :129
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Microglia are essential for the development and function of the adult brain. Their ontogeny, together with the absence of turnover from the periphery and the singular environment of the central nervous system (CNS), make microglia a unique cell population compared to other tissue-macrophages. The unique properties and functions of microglial cells, such as their role in synaptic pruning or the exceptional capacity to scan the brain parenchyma and rapidly react to its perturbations, have emerged in recent years. In the coming years, understanding how microglia acquire and maintain their unique profiles in order to fulfil distinct tasks in the healthy CNS and how these are altered in disease, will be essential to develop strategies to diagnose or treat CNS disorders with an immunological component. This Research Topic covers several aspects of microglial biology, ranging from their origin and the functional role of microglia during development and lifespan, their molecular properties compared with other brain and peripheral immune cells to microglial phenotypes and functional states in neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumours. In conclusion, the present Research Topic provides a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of several cellular and molecular mechanisms that make microglia a unique immune cell population within the healthy CNS as well as under inflammatory, neurodegenerative and tumorigenic processes.

Abstracts

Abstracts
Author : Society for Neuroscience. Annual Meeting
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1998
Category : Neurobiology
Total pages :129
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Glial Neurobiology

Glial Neurobiology
Author : Alexei Verkhratsky,Arthur Butt
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2007-08-20
Category : Medical
Total pages :230
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"This volume is a very valuable and much needed contribution." –Quarterly Review of Biology AT LAST - A comprehensive, accessible textbook on glial neurobiology! Glial cells are the most numerous cells in the human brain but for many years have attracted little scientific attention. Neurophysiologists concentrated their research efforts instead, on neurones and neuronal networks because it was thought that they were the key elements responsible for higher brain function. Recent advances, however, indicate this isn’t exactly the case. Not only are astroglial cells the stem elements from which neurones are born, but they also control the development, functional activity and death of neuronal circuits. These ground-breaking developments have revolutionized our understanding of the human brain and the complex interrelationship of glial and neuronal networks in health and disease. Features of this book: an accessible introduction to glial neurobiology including an overview of glial cell function and its active role in neural processes, brain function and nervous system pathology an exploration of all the major types of glial cells including: the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia of the ACNS and Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system; the book also presents a broad overview of glial receptors and ion channels an investigation into the role of glial cells in various types of brain diseases including stroke, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Alexander's disease, brain oedema, multiple sclerosis and many more a wealth of illustrations, including unique images from the authors' own libraries of images, describing the main features of glial cells Written by two leading experts in the field, Glial Neurobiology provides a concise, authoritative introduction to glial physiology and pathology for undergraduate/postgraduate neuroscience, biomedical, medical, pharmacy, pharmacology, and neurology, neurosurgery and physiology students. It is also an invaluable resource for researchers in neuroscience, physiology, pharmacology and pharmaceutics.

Neuroimmune Pharmacology

Neuroimmune Pharmacology
Author : Tsuneya Ikezu,Howard E. Gendelman
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-12-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :1035
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The second edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology bridges the disciplines of neuroscience, immunology and pharmacology from the molecular to clinical levels with particular thought made to engage new research directives and clinical modalities. Bringing together the foremost field authorities from around the world, Neuroimmune Pharmacology will serve as an invaluable resource for the basic and applied scientists of the current decade and beyond.

Society for Neuroscience Abstracts

Society for Neuroscience Abstracts
Author : Society for Neuroscience. Meeting
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1997
Category : Neurobiology
Total pages :1440
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Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology

Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology
Author : Alexei Verkhratsky,Arthur Butt
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2013-01-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :560
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Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology provides a comprehensive, advanced text on the biology and pathology of glial cells. Coverae includes: the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous systems the cellular physiology of the different kinds of glial cells the mechanisms of intra- and inter-cellular signalling in glial networks the mechanisms of glial-neuronal communications the role of glial cells in synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival and development of nervous system the cellular and molecular mechanisms of metabolic neuronal-glial interactions the role of glia in nervous system pathology, including pathology of glial cells and associated diseases - for example, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Alexander disease and Parkinson's Neuroglia oversee the birth and development of neurones, the establishment of interneuronal connections (the 'connectome'), the maintenance and removal of these inter-neuronal connections, writing of the nervous system components, adult neurogenesis, the energetics of nervous tissue, metabolism of neurotransmitters, regulation of ion composition of the interstitial space and many, many more homeostatic functions. This book primes the reader towards the notion that nervous tissue is not divided into more important and less important cells. The nervous tissue functions because of the coherent and concerted action of many different cell types, each contributing to an ultimate output. This reaches its zenith in humans, with the creation of thoughts, underlying acquisition of knowledge, its analysis and synthesis, and contemplating the Universe and our place in it. An up-to-date and fully referenced text on the most numerous cells in the human brain Detailed coverage of the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous system Describes the role og glial cells in neuropathology Focus boxes highlight key points and summarise important facts Companion website with downloadable figures and slides

NG2-Glia (Polydendrocytes)

NG2-Glia (Polydendrocytes)
Author : Arthur M. Butt
Publisher : Biota Publishing
Release Date : 2016-10-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :43
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Classically, the central nervous system (CNS) was considered to contain neurons and three main types of glial cells—astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Now, it has been clearly established that NG2-glia are a fourth glial cell type that are identified and defined by their expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (Cspg4). NG2-glia differentiate into oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the CNS, under the control of multiple extacellular and intrinsic factors. Due to this, NG2-glia are often referred to in the literature as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). The name polydendrocytes has been suggested for NG2-glia (OPCs), to emphasize their nature as a fourth distinct glial cell type. NG2-glia respond rapidly to neurotransmission via their synaptic connections with neurons and their repertoire of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Bidirectional interactions between NG2-glia and neurons are also important for synaptic function and neuronal integrity. NG2-glia respond to most neuropathologies by increased proliferation and differentiation into oligodendrocytes, which is critical for replacing damaged myelin after injury and in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. There is also evidence NG2-glia are capable of generating astrocytes and neurons under some circumstances. The full capacity of NG2-glia is not yet clear, but their key function is the lifelong generation of oligodendrocytes, which is absolutely critical for CNS function and integrity.

Myelin

Myelin
Author : Kazunori Sango,Junji Yamauchi,Toru Ogata,Keiichiro Susuki
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-11-23
Category : Medical
Total pages :378
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This book presents the latest exciting advances in understanding of the structure and function of myelin in the central and peripheral nervous systems under normal and pathological conditions. Readers will find state of the art information from the perspectives of both basic neuroscience and clinical neurology and neuropathology. Detailed attention is paid to the findings and implications of recent research on the myelin-forming glial cells such as oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. The discussion of myelin pathology encompasses a wide range of diseases and conditions, including, for example, multiple sclerosis, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries, brain tumors of glial cell origin, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, immune-mediated neuropathy, and diabetic neuropathy. The authors comprise researchers at the cutting edge of biotechnology and experts in the diseases discussed. The clearly written text is supported by numerous high-quality light and electron microscopy, CT, and MR images.

Discoveries in the Human Brain

Discoveries in the Human Brain
Author : Louise H. Marshall,Horace W. Magoun
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-03-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :323
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170u can climb back up a stream of radiance to the sky, and back through history up the stream of time. 1 -Robert Frost topics that he judged to be important in brain his From the last years of the second millennium, tory leading into the end of the century, and was we can look back on antecedent events in neuro undertaken in response to the enthusiasm gener science with amazement that so much of modern ated by exhibition at several national and interna biomedical science was anticipated, or even said or done, in an earlier time. That surprise can be tional meetings of a series oflarge posters for which matched by appreciation for what the pioneer Magoun wrote a 27-page brochure. The posters investigators, with no inkling that they were creat were viewed by a multitude of young neuroscien ing a discipline, contributed to its emergence as a tists who wanted more, as well as by mature inves productive force in human progress. In today's tigators who were warmly pleased to see familiar names and faces from the past. The acclaim was reductionist atmosphere, in which research at the molecular level is producing breathtaking new accompanied by a veritable deluge of requests for knowledge throughout biology, the student may an illustrated, expanded publication.

Fundamental Neuroscience

Fundamental Neuroscience
Author : Larry Squire,Floyd E. Bloom,Nicholas C. Spitzer,Larry R. Squire,Darwin Berg,Sascha du Lac,Anirvan Ghosh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2008-04-02
Category : Medical
Total pages :1280
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Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition introduces graduate and upper-level undergraduate students to the full range of contemporary neuroscience. Addressing instructor and student feedback on the previous edition, all of the chapters are rewritten to make this book more concise and student-friendly than ever before. Each chapter is once again heavily illustrated and provides clinical boxes describing experiments, disorders, and methodological approaches and concepts. Capturing the promise and excitement of this fast-moving field, Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition is the text that students will be able to reference throughout their neuroscience careers! New to this edition: 30% new material including new chapters on Dendritic Development and Spine Morphogenesis, Chemical Senses, Cerebellum, Eye Movements, Circadian Timing, Sleep and Dreaming, and Consciousness Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys Extensively expanded index for easier referencing