November 28, 2020

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Seismic Fracture Characterization

Seismic Fracture Characterization
Author : Enru Liu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :129
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During the last three decades, seismic anisotropy has evolved from a purely academic research topic into applications in the mainstream of applied geophysics. Today, nobody doubts that the earth is anisotropic and most (if not all) hydrocarbon reservoirs are anisotropic. Since shale accounts for 70% of sedimentary basins and fractures exist in all reservoirs, seismic anisotropy may be even more extensive than we think. Taking anisotropy into account in seismic processing has improved the quality of seismic images, even though it makes seismic processing more challenging since additional parameters are needed. At the same time, fracture characterization using the concept of seismic anisotropy has added value in reservoir characterization, reservoir management, and has increased recovery and optimized well locations. This book and the associated course provide an introduction to the fundamental concepts of seismic fracture characterization by introducing seismic anisotropy, equivalent-medium representation theories of fractured rock and methodologies for extracting fracture parameters from seismic data. We focus on practical applications using extensive field data examples. Includes cast studies demonstrating the applicability, workflow and limitations of this technology Contains physical laboratory 3D experiments where fracture distributions are known, a Middle East fractured carbonate reservoir and a fractured tight gas reservoir. Builds discrete fracture network models incorporating all data. These models should not only be geologically consistent but also geophysically and geomechanically consistent, so that the models can be used to forecast the behaviour and performance of fractured reservoirs.

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization

Seismology of Azimuthally Anisotropic Media and Seismic Fracture Characterization
Author : I. D. T︠S︡vankin
Publisher : SEG Books
Release Date : 2011
Category : Anisotropy
Total pages :491
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Interpretation and Fracture Characterization of Early-cretaceous Buda Limestone Formation Using Post-stack 3D Seismic Data in Zavala County, Texas

Interpretation and Fracture Characterization of Early-cretaceous Buda Limestone Formation Using Post-stack 3D Seismic Data in Zavala County, Texas
Author : Andrey Sergeyevich Smirnov
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category : Geophysical well logging
Total pages :132
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The Buda Limestone is a naturally fractured Early Cretaceous carbonate formation in south Texas which unconformably underlies the Eagle Ford Shale. Matrix porosity of the Buda is less than 6%, therefore natural fractures improve the potential for commercial hydrocarbon production from this tight limestone formation. This presents a challenge for producers to identify these zones using well log and post stack 3D seismic data typically available to medium or small exploration companies. This project provides a workflow based on well log analysis tied to seismic acoustic impedance (AI) inversion to locate areas of probable natural fractures. Acoustic impedance inversion was performed across a 42 square mile 3D seismic survey. The AI data shows low AI shadow zones on the down thrown side of faults. Post stack geometric seismic attributes such as coherence, maximum and minimum curvature were analyzed in the anomalous AI areas, along with physical seismic attributes such as instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency. This study indicates that a combination of acoustic impedance inversion and seismic attributes can identify areas of enhanced natural fracturing within the Buda Limestone interval.

Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow

Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Fracture Characterization and Fluid Flow
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 1996-08-27
Category : Science
Total pages :568
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Scientific understanding of fluid flow in rock fractures--a process underlying contemporary earth science problems from the search for petroleum to the controversy over nuclear waste storage--has grown significantly in the past 20 years. This volume presents a comprehensive report on the state of the field, with an interdisciplinary viewpoint, case studies of fracture sites, illustrations, conclusions, and research recommendations. The book addresses these questions: How can fractures that are significant hydraulic conductors be identified, located, and characterized? How do flow and transport occur in fracture systems? How can changes in fracture systems be predicted and controlled? Among other topics, the committee provides a geomechanical understanding of fracture formation, reviews methods for detecting subsurface fractures, and looks at the use of hydraulic and tracer tests to investigate fluid flow. The volume examines the state of conceptual and mathematical modeling, and it provides a useful framework for understanding the complexity of fracture changes that occur during fluid pumping and other engineering practices. With a practical and multidisciplinary outlook, this volume will be welcomed by geologists, petroleum geologists, geoengineers, geophysicists, hydrologists, researchers, educators and students in these fields, and public officials involved in geological projects.

Fracture and In-situ Stress Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

Fracture and In-situ Stress Characterization of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
Author : Geological Society of London
Publisher : Geological Society of London
Release Date : 2003
Category : Science
Total pages :216
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Quantification of the Effects of Fracture Properties on Seismic Data

Quantification of the Effects of Fracture Properties on Seismic Data
Author : Han Liu (Ph. D. in geological sciences)
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category :
Total pages :258
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Fractures have significant impact on hydrocarbon production planning and management. Their properties directly determine the well location selection, drilling design and oil/gas productivity. The goal of this research is twofold. The first part is to explore and find an efficient modeling method that can describe fractures explicitly embedded in elastic media under for wave propagation modeling. The second part is to establish correlations between fracture properties and seismic response quantitatively using the modeling results. The results will provide essential information for developing a systematic characterization procedures for fractures. In the first part, the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) is first explored for fracture modeling. Within this method, the displacement discontinuity is incorporated by using a jump function included within the shape functions commonly used in the finite element method. A single fracture model is explored using the DG method. The results are compared with the analytical solutions and found to be in close agreement. From the displacement fields, it is observed that the wave scattering is the main effect of fractures observed in seismic data. However, the expensive computational effort gives rise to challenges in conducting parametric study for several realistic models using DG methods. This poses problems in systematically understanding the effect of fractures on seismic waves. In the second part, an integral based method is implemented for the parametric studies to investigate the effect of fractures on seismic waves in elastic media. This integral based method ensures accuracy at the nodes of the elements and has greater computational efficiency. Using this algorithm, the effects of fracture spacing, density, and azimuth are investigated in a three-dimensional setting. The scattering index is used to evaluate the extent of wave scattering induced by fractures. The quantitative relationships between fracture spacing, azimuth and scattering index are established. These results provide valuable information for future fracture characterization procedures.

Fault and Fracture Identification and Characterization in 3D Seismic Data from Unconventional Reservoirs

Fault and Fracture Identification and Characterization in 3D Seismic Data from Unconventional Reservoirs
Author : Noha Sameh Farghal
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :129
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Unconventional reservoirs are becoming increasingly important on the world energy stage. Such reservoirs are hydrocarbon sources that need stimulation of some kind in order to be produced in an economically viable way, unlike conventional sources, where oil or gas readily flows into producing wells through more permeable strata. In recent years, unconventional reservoirs have proven to be highly important in North America and have, despite some setbacks and shutdowns, survived reductions in oil and gas prices. A big part of this can be attributed to exploration companies' ability to extract unconventional hydrocarbons with good efficiency, which is in turn attributed to enhanced understanding of the physical dynamics of such reservoirs due to a large body of work done by researchers. Nevertheless, unconventional recovery factors are still considerably low, and further research contributions are needed to better understand how these reservoirs work and interact with stimulation. In this thesis, I focus on the role that faults and fractures play in low permeability reservoirs' response to stimulation, particularly hydraulic fracturing. I analyzed three data sets acquired from and around injection and monitoring wells in the Barnett Shale in Texas. In two of these data sets, I identified small-scale faults and integrated faulting information with other data from wells (e.g. microseismic recordings) to understand how the presence of faults affects injected fluid flow. Results showed that even small-scale faults can have significant effects on hydraulic fracturing progress by providing corridors for fluid flow along them (a high permeability path due to fractures surrounding faults) or by dissipating fluid pressure across them, preventing fluids from effectively crossing to the other side of the fault. For one data set with different seismic surveys acquired before and after stimulation and gas production, I used 3D seismic attribute analysis to identify fractures in and around injection wells to evaluate the methods used, namely azimuth-dependent Amplitude Vs. Offset (AzAVO) and Velocity Vs. Azimuth (VVAz), and to understand how stimulation and production affected fractures in this area of the Barnett. Results showed that fracture density, rather than orientation, is more affected by the pressure introduced during stimulation and by pressure reduction with injected fluid removal and production. I also used well logs to determine the effects of mineral and organic matter content on important rock properties such as porosity. I compared results obtained on small samples (cores) in the laboratory with my results obtained from well logs which are significantly dimensionally larger than cores analyzed in labs. I concluded from analyzing well logs that porosity, for example, is proportional to organic content. This conclusion is similar to that derived from laboratory findings: porosity in many shales resides in organic material such as Kerogen.

Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization

Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization
Author : Satinder Chopra,K. J. Marfurt
Publisher : SEG Books
Release Date : 2007
Category : Science
Total pages :464
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Seismic attributes play a key role in exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons. In Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization (SEG Geophysical Developments No. 11), Satinder Chopra and Kurt J. Marfurt introduce the physical basis, mathematical implementation, and geologic expression of modern volumetric attributes including coherence, dip/azimuth, curvature, amplitude gradients, seismic textures, and spectral decomposition. The authors demonstrate the importance of effective color display and sensitivity to seismic acquisition and processing. Examples from different basins illustrate the attribute expression of tectonic deformation, clastic depositional systems, carbonate depositional systems and diagenesis, drilling hazards, and reservoir characterization. The book is illustrated generously with color figures throughout. "Seismic Attributes" will appeal to seismic interpreters who want to extract more information from data; seismic processors and imagers who want to learn how their efforts impact subtle stratigraphic and fracture plays; sedimentologists, stratigraphers, and structural geologists who use large 3D seismic volumes to interpret their plays within a regional, basinwide context; and reservoir engineers whose work is based on detailed 3D reservoir models. Copublished with EAGE.

Fracture Characterization and Fracture-permeability Estimates from Geophysical Logs in the Mirror Lake Watershed, New Hampshire

Fracture Characterization and Fracture-permeability Estimates from Geophysical Logs in the Mirror Lake Watershed, New Hampshire
Author : F. L. Paillet,Kemal Kapucu
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1989
Category : Fracture mechanics
Total pages :49
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Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization

Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization
Author : Satinder Chopra,K. J. Marfurt
Publisher : SEG Books
Release Date : 2007
Category : Science
Total pages :464
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Seismic attributes play a key role in exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons. In Seismic Attributes for Prospect Identification and Reservoir Characterization (SEG Geophysical Developments No. 11), Satinder Chopra and Kurt J. Marfurt introduce the physical basis, mathematical implementation, and geologic expression of modern volumetric attributes including coherence, dip/azimuth, curvature, amplitude gradients, seismic textures, and spectral decomposition. The authors demonstrate the importance of effective color display and sensitivity to seismic acquisition and processing. Examples from different basins illustrate the attribute expression of tectonic deformation, clastic depositional systems, carbonate depositional systems and diagenesis, drilling hazards, and reservoir characterization. The book is illustrated generously with color figures throughout. "Seismic Attributes" will appeal to seismic interpreters who want to extract more information from data; seismic processors and imagers who want to learn how their efforts impact subtle stratigraphic and fracture plays; sedimentologists, stratigraphers, and structural geologists who use large 3D seismic volumes to interpret their plays within a regional, basinwide context; and reservoir engineers whose work is based on detailed 3D reservoir models. Copublished with EAGE.

Static Conceptual Fracture Modeling

Static Conceptual Fracture Modeling
Author : Ronald A. Nelson
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2019-11-25
Category : Science
Total pages :252
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Modelling of flow in naturally fractured reservoirs is quickly becoming mandatory in all phases of oil and gas exploration and production. Creation of a Static Conceptual Fracture Model (SCFM) is needed as input to create flow simulations for today and for prediction of flow into the future. Unfortunately, the computer modelers tasked with constructing the gridded fracture model are often not well versed in natural fracture characterization and are often forced to make quick decisions as to the input required by the software used to create these models. Static Conceptual Fracture Modelling: Preparing for Simulation and Development describes all the fracture and reservoir parameters needed to create the fracture database for effective modelling and how to generate the data and parameter distributions. The material covered in this volume highlights not only natural fracture system quantification and formatting, but also describes best practices for managing technical teams charged with creating the SCFM. This book will become a must on the shelf for all reservoir modelers.

Seismic Signatures and Analysis of Reflection Data in Anisotropic Media

Seismic Signatures and Analysis of Reflection Data in Anisotropic Media
Author : Ilya Tsvankin
Publisher : SEG Books
Release Date : 2012
Category : Anisotropy
Total pages :438
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Volcanic Gas Reservoir Characterization

Volcanic Gas Reservoir Characterization
Author : Qiquan Ran,Yongjun Wang,Yuanhui Sun,Lin Yan,Min Tong
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-03-27
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :604
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Volcanic gas reservoirs are the new natural gas frontier. Once thought too complex, too harsh on the drilling bit, and too difficult to characterize, reservoir engineers and petroleum geologists alike now manage more advanced seismic and logging tools, making these "impossible" field developments possible. Bridging meaningful information about these complicated provinces and linking various unconventional methods and techniques, Volcanic Gas Reservoir Characterization: Describes a set of leading-edge integrated volcanic gas reservoir characterization techniques, helping to ensure the effective development of the field Reveals the grade and relationship of volcanic stratigraphic sequence Presents field identification and prediction methods, and interpretation technology of reservoir parameters, relating these to similar complex fields such as shale These innovative approaches and creative methods have been successfully applied to actual development of volcanic gas reservoirs. By sharing the methods and techniques used in this region with reservoir engineers and petroleum geologists all over the world, those with better understanding of these unconventional basins will begin to consider volcanic rock like any other reservoir. Summarizes the research and explains detailed case studies of volcanic gas reservoir developments, showing the latest achievements and lessons learned Supplies knowledge on volcanic gas reservoir basins to provide meaningful insight into similar complex reservoirs such as shale, coal bed methane, and heavy oil basins Contains extensive methodology, strong practicality and high innovation, making this an ideal book for both the practicing and seasoned reservoir engineer and petroleum geologists working with complex reservoirs

Massive Hydraulic Fracture Mapping and Characterization Program. First Annual Report, August 1975--July 1976

Massive Hydraulic Fracture Mapping and Characterization Program. First Annual Report, August 1975--July 1976
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1977
Category :
Total pages :129
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The FY'76 major objectives of the Massive Hydraulic Fracture Mapping and Characterization Program were to assess the feasibility of the surface electrical potential and surface seismic systems to provide locational information on hydraulically created fracture systems. The surface electrical potential system has demonstrated the capability to provide information on fracture azimuthal orientation, asymmetry of fracture, and direction of major fracture wing. Assessment of the surface seismic technique for fracture characterization is not encouraging. During FY'76, Sandia participated in five MHF experiments for natural gas stimulation. Two of these were conducted by El Paso Natural Gas in the Green River Basin at Pinedale, Wyoming, and three were conducted by AMOCO in the Wattenberg field northeast of Denver, Colorado. Sandia supported all five experiments with the surface electrical potential system and three with surface seismic arrays. This report describes both fracture characterization techniques, provides an overview of the associated hardware and software development, and presents the results obtained from participation in the field tests.

First Indian Mineral Congress & Technological Exhibition, 28th February and 1st March, 2005, ISM, Dhanbad

First Indian Mineral Congress & Technological Exhibition, 28th February and 1st March, 2005, ISM, Dhanbad
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Allied Publishers
Release Date : 2005
Category : Mineral industries
Total pages :550
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