November 23, 2020

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Sexual Selection

Sexual Selection
Author : Malte Andersson
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release Date : 2019-12-31
Category : Science
Total pages :129
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Bright colors, enlarged fins, feather plumes, song, horns, antlers, and tusks are often highly sex dimorphic. Why have males in many animals evolved more conspicuous ornaments, signals, and weapons than females? How can such traits evolve although they may reduce male survival? Such questions prompted Darwin's perhaps most scientifically controversial idea--the theory of sexual selection. It still challenges researchers today as they try to understand how competition for mates can favor the variety of sex-dimorphic traits. Reviewing theoretical and empirical work in this very active field, Malte Andersson, a leading contributor himself, provides a major up-to-date synthesis of sexual selection. The author describes the theory and its recent development; examines models, methods, and empirical tests; and identifies many unsolved problems. Among the topics discussed are the selection and evolution of mating preferences; relations between sexual selection and speciation; constraints on sexual selection; and sex differences in signals, body size, and weapons. The rapidly growing study of sexual selection in plants is also reviewed. This volume will interest students, teachers, and researchers in behavioral ecology and evolutionary biology.

Sexual Selection

Sexual Selection
Author : Regina H. Macedo,Glauco Machado
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-09-25
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :466
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Sexual Selection: Perspectives and Models from the Neotropics presents new sexual selection research based upon neotropical species. As neotropical regions are destroyed at an alarming rate, with an estimated 140 species of rainforest plants and animals going extinct every day, it is important to bring neotropical research to the fore now. Sexual selection occurs when the male or female of a species is attracted by certain characteristics such as form, color or behavior. When those features lead to a greater probability of successful mating, they become more prominent in the species. Although most theoretical concepts concerning sexual selection and reproductive strategies are based upon North American and European fauna, the Neotropical region encompasses much more biodiversity, with as many as 15,000 plant and animal species in a single acre of rain forest. This book illustrates concepts in sexual selection through themes ranging from female cryptic choice in insects, sexual conflict in fish, interaction between sexual selection and the immune system, nuptial gifts, visual and acoustic sexual signaling, parental investment, to alternative mating strategies, among others. These approaches distinguish Sexual Selection from current publications in sexual selection, mainly because of the latitudinal and taxonomic focus, so that readers will be introduced to systems mostly unknown outside the tropics, several of which bring into question some well-established patterns for temperate regions. Synthesizes sexual selection research on species from the Neotropics Combines different perspectives and levels of analysis using a broad taxonomic basis, introducing readers to systems mostly unknown outside the tropics and bringing into question well-established patterns for temperate regions Includes contributions exploring concepts and theory as well as discussions on a variety of Neotropical vertebrates and invertebrates, such as insects, fish, arthropods and birds

Sexual Selection

Sexual Selection
Author : James L. Gould,Carol Grant Gould
Publisher : Times Books
Release Date : 1997
Category : Courtship in animals
Total pages :277
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A 'back to basics' discussion of sex and reproduction that explores what evolutionary advantages there are to sexual reproduction, why species vary so widely in their mating practices, and what larger functions these practices serve. How humans and other animals choose their mates is explored.

Sexual Selection And the Descent of Man

Sexual Selection And the Descent of Man
Author : Bernard Grant Campbell
Publisher : Transaction Publishers
Release Date : 2017
Category : Science
Total pages :378
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Just over one hundred and thirty years ago Charles Darwin, in The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871), developed remarkably accurate conclusions about man's ancestry, based on a review of general comparative anatomy and psychology in which he regarded sexual selection as a necessary part of the evolutionary process. But the attention of biologists turned to the more general concept of natural selection, in which sexual selection plays a complex role that has been little understood. This volume significantly broadens the scope of modern evolutionary biology by looking at this important and long neglected concept of great importance. In this book, which is the first full discussion of sexual selection since 1871, leading biologists bring modern genetic theory and behavior observation to bear on the subject. The distinguished authors consider many aspects of sexual selection in many species, including man, within the context of contemporary evolutionary theory and research. The result is a remarkably original and well-rounded view of the whole concept that will be invaluable especially to students of evolution and human sexual behavior. The lucid authority of the contributors and the importance of the topic will interest all who share in man's perennial fascination with his own history. The book will be of central importance to a wide variety of professionals, including biologists, anthropologists, and geneticists. It will be an invaluable supplementary text for courses in vertebrate biology, theory of evolution, genetics, and physical anthropology. It is especially important with the emergence of alternative explanations of human development, under the rubric of creationism and doctrines of intelligent design. Bernard G. Campbell is professor of anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles. Born in Weybridge, England, he received his Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge in 1957, and has been a lecturer in anthropology at Cambridge and Harvard Universities. Among his many contributions to the field of anthropology is Human Evolution: An Introduction to Man's Adaptations.

In the Light of Evolution

In the Light of Evolution
Author : National Academy of Sciences
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release Date : 2017-01-01
Category : Science
Total pages :432
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Biodiversity-the genetic variety of life-is an exuberant product of the evolutionary past, a vast human-supportive resource (aesthetic, intellectual, and material) of the present, and a rich legacy to cherish and preserve for the future. Two urgent challenges, and opportunities, for 21st-century science are to gain deeper insights into the evolutionary processes that foster biotic diversity, and to translate that understanding into workable solutions for the regional and global crises that biodiversity currently faces. A grasp of evolutionary principles and processes is important in other societal arenas as well, such as education, medicine, sociology, and other applied fields including agriculture, pharmacology, and biotechnology. The ramifications of evolutionary thought also extend into learned realms traditionally reserved for philosophy and religion. The central goal of the In the Light of Evolution (ILE) series is to promote the evolutionary sciences through state-of-the-art colloquia-in the series of Arthur M. Sackler colloquia sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences-and their published proceedings. Each installment explores evolutionary perspectives on a particular biological topic that is scientifically intriguing but also has special relevance to contemporary societal issues or challenges. This tenth and final edition of the In the Light of Evolution series focuses on recent developments in phylogeographic research and their relevance to past accomplishments and future research directions.

Sexual Selection and the Origins of Human Mating Systems

Sexual Selection and the Origins of Human Mating Systems
Author : Alan F. Dixson
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release Date : 2009-05-15
Category : Psychology
Total pages :232
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Comparative analyses of the anatomy, reproductive physiology, and behaviour of extant primates and other mammals can offer important insights into the origins of human sexual behaviour, allowing us to reconstruct the origins of human mating systems, the evolution of sexual attractiveness, patterns of mate choice, and copulatory behaviour. Sexual Selection and the Origins of Human Mating Systems provides a modern synthesis of research on the evolution of human mating systems, bringing together work on reproductive physiology, behavioural biology, anthropology, primatology, palaeontology, evolutionary psychology, and sexological research. The approach taken is genuinely cross-disciplinary in scope, and provides a fascinating account of the effects of sexual selection upon human evolution in the light of the latest advances in the field.

Genetics of Mate Choice: From Sexual Selection to Sexual Isolation

Genetics of Mate Choice: From Sexual Selection to Sexual Isolation
Author : W.J. Etges,M.A. Noor
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2003-01-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :254
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Genetic studies aimed at understanding the origin of species are dominating major scientific journals. In the past decade, genetic tools that were previously available only in model systems have become accessible to investigators working on nearly all species. Concurrent with these technical advances has been an increase in understanding of both the importance of considering the ecological context of speciation and testing hypotheses about causes for species formation. Many recent studies suggest a prominent role of sexual selection in species formation. These advances have produced a need for a synthesis of what we now understand about speciation, and perhaps more importantly, where we should go from here. In this volume, several leading investigators and rising stars have contributed reviews and/or novel primary research findings aimed at understanding the ultimate mystery on which Darwin named his most famous and influential book. Fundamental to the origin of species is the evolution of mate choice systems. This collection of papers discusses burgeoning genetic, evolutionary, and ecological approaches to understanding the origins of mating discrimination and causes of premating reproductive isolation both within and between species. The individual contributions span a wide spectrum of disciplines, taxa, and ideas (some controversial). This synthesis brings together several of the most recent ideas with supporting empirical data. This book will be of particular interest to both undergraduate and postgraduate researchers and students and researchers in the field of evolutionary biology, genetics and animal behaviour.

Studies in the Psychology of Sex

Studies in the Psychology of Sex
Author : Havelock Ellis
Publisher : The Minerva Group, Inc.
Release Date : 2001-09-01
Category : Psychology
Total pages :284
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Love springs up as a response to a number of stimuli to tumescence, the object that most adequately arouses tumescence being that which evokes love; the question of Esthetic beauty, although it develops on this basis, is not itself fundamental and need not even be consciously present at all. When we look at these phenomena in their broadest biological aspects, love is only to a limited extent a response to beauty; to a greater extent beauty is simply a name for the complexus of stimuli which most adequately arouses love. If we analyze these stimuli to tumescence as they proceed from a person of the opposite sex we find that they are all appeals which must come through the channels of four senses: touch, smell, hearing, and, above all, vision. When a man or a woman experiences sexual love for one particular person from among the multitude by which he or she is surrounded, this is due to the influences of a group of stimuli coming through the channels of one or more of these senses.

The Evolution of Beauty

The Evolution of Beauty
Author : Richard O. Prum
Publisher : Anchor
Release Date : 2017-05-09
Category : Science
Total pages :448
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A FINALIST FOR THE PULITZER PRIZE NAMED A BEST BOOK OF THE YEAR BY THE NEW YORK TIMES BOOK REVIEW, SMITHSONIAN, AND WALL STREET JOURNAL A major reimagining of how evolutionary forces work, revealing how mating preferences—what Darwin termed "the taste for the beautiful"—create the extraordinary range of ornament in the animal world. In the great halls of science, dogma holds that Darwin's theory of natural selection explains every branch on the tree of life: which species thrive, which wither away to extinction, and what features each evolves. But can adaptation by natural selection really account for everything we see in nature? Yale University ornithologist Richard Prum—reviving Darwin's own views—thinks not. Deep in tropical jungles around the world are birds with a dizzying array of appearances and mating displays: Club-winged Manakins who sing with their wings, Great Argus Pheasants who dazzle prospective mates with a four-foot-wide cone of feathers covered in golden 3D spheres, Red-capped Manakins who moonwalk. In thirty years of fieldwork, Prum has seen numerous display traits that seem disconnected from, if not outright contrary to, selection for individual survival. To explain this, he dusts off Darwin's long-neglected theory of sexual selection in which the act of choosing a mate for purely aesthetic reasons—for the mere pleasure of it—is an independent engine of evolutionary change. Mate choice can drive ornamental traits from the constraints of adaptive evolution, allowing them to grow ever more elaborate. It also sets the stakes for sexual conflict, in which the sexual autonomy of the female evolves in response to male sexual control. Most crucially, this framework provides important insights into the evolution of human sexuality, particularly the ways in which female preferences have changed male bodies, and even maleness itself, through evolutionary time. The Evolution of Beauty presents a unique scientific vision for how nature's splendor contributes to a more complete understanding of evolution and of ourselves.

Current Perspectives on Sexual Selection

Current Perspectives on Sexual Selection
Author : Thierry Hoquet
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-01-28
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :307
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This root-and-branch re-evaluation of Darwin’s concept of sexual selection tackles the subject from historical, epistemological and theoretical perspectives. Contributions from a wealth of disciplines have been marshaled for this volume, with key figures in behavioural ecology, philosophy, and the history of science adding to its wide-ranging relevance. Updating the reader on the debate currently live in behavioural ecology itself on the centrality of sexual selection, and with coverage of developments in the field of animal aesthetics, the book details the current state of play, while other chapters trace the history of sexual selection from Darwin to today and inquire into the neurobiological bases for partner choices and the comparisons between the hedonic brain in human and non-human animals. Welcome space is given to the social aspects of sexual selection, particularly where Darwin drew distinctions between eager males and coy females and rationalized this as evolutionary strategy. Also explored are the current definition of sexual selection (as opposed to natural selection) and its importance in today’s biological research, and the impending critique of the theory from the nascent field of animal aesthetics. As a comprehensive assessment of the current health, or otherwise, of Darwin’s theory, 140 years after the publication of his Descent of Man, the book offers a uniquely rounded view that asks whether ‘sexual selection’ is in itself a progressive or reactionary notion, even as it explores its theoretical relevance in the technical biological study of the twenty-first century.

Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects

Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects
Author : Murray Blum
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012-12-02
Category : Science
Total pages :476
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Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects explores the biological mechanisms underlying intrasexual reproductive competition as a driving force in sexual selection in insects. The book contains papers presented at a symposium on reproductive behavior in insects, held at the 15th International Congress of Entomology in Washington, D.C., in 1976. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with a historical background on sexual selection theory and some of the principal conceptual advances that have been made since Charles Darwin (1871) posited that a sexual character was a characteristic possessed by only one sex and not the other. It then introduces the reader to differences in patterns of sexual selection and how they affect the reproductive success of individuals, male-female mating relationships, and mate choice by females. The book also discusses the evolution of mating strategies in insects, touching on concepts such as parental investment, female choice, and sexual conflict. Later chapters focus on winglessness, fighting, and dimorphism in male fig wasps and other insects, along with agonistic behavior among males of Achias australis, the function of horns in beetles, and the evolution of alternative male reproductive strategies in field crickets. The book also looks into the courtship and mating behavior of insects, and then concludes with an analysis of insect life histories in order to elucidate the biological aspects of the male-female phenomenon. This book is an essential reading for biologists and chemists.

Sexual Selection in Primates

Sexual Selection in Primates
Author : Peter M. Kappeler,Carel P. van Schaik
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2004-05-13
Category : Social Science
Total pages :284
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Sexual Selection in Primates provides an account of all aspects of sexual selection in primates, combining theoretical insights, comprehensive reviews of the primate literature and comparative perspectives from relevant work on other mammals, birds and humans. Topics include sex roles, sexual dimorphism in weapons, ornaments and armaments, sex ratios, sex differences in behaviour and development, mate choice, sexual conflict, sex-specific life history strategies, sperm competition and infanticide. The outcome of the evolutionary struggle between the sexes, the flexibility of roles and the leverage of females are discussed and emphasised throughout. Sexual Selection in Primates is aimed at graduates and researchers in primatology, animal behaviour, evolutionary biology and comparative psychology.

Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects

Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects
Author : Murray Blum
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012-12-02
Category : Science
Total pages :476
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Sexual Selection and Reproductive Competition in Insects explores the biological mechanisms underlying intrasexual reproductive competition as a driving force in sexual selection in insects. The book contains papers presented at a symposium on reproductive behavior in insects, held at the 15th International Congress of Entomology in Washington, D.C., in 1976. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with a historical background on sexual selection theory and some of the principal conceptual advances that have been made since Charles Darwin (1871) posited that a sexual character was a characteristic possessed by only one sex and not the other. It then introduces the reader to differences in patterns of sexual selection and how they affect the reproductive success of individuals, male-female mating relationships, and mate choice by females. The book also discusses the evolution of mating strategies in insects, touching on concepts such as parental investment, female choice, and sexual conflict. Later chapters focus on winglessness, fighting, and dimorphism in male fig wasps and other insects, along with agonistic behavior among males of Achias australis, the function of horns in beetles, and the evolution of alternative male reproductive strategies in field crickets. The book also looks into the courtship and mating behavior of insects, and then concludes with an analysis of insect life histories in order to elucidate the biological aspects of the male-female phenomenon. This book is an essential reading for biologists and chemists.

Genotype-by-Environment Interactions and Sexual Selection

Genotype-by-Environment Interactions and Sexual Selection
Author : John Hunt,David J. Hosken
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-09-03
Category : Science
Total pages :360
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Sexual selection is recognized as being responsible for some ofthe most extravagant morphologies and behaviors in the naturalworld, as well as a driver of some of the most rapid evolution.While Charles Darwin’s theory is now a fundamental componentof modern evolutionary biology, the impact ofgenotype-by-environment interactions on sexual selection has thusfar received little attention. This book represents the first comprehensive analysis of therole genotype-by-environment interactions play in sexual selectionand the potential implications that they have for the evolutionaryprocess. The Editors have identified 13 topics that currentlydefine the field and shed light on the impacts of theseinteractions on sexual selection. This includes key topics, such asresolving the lek paradox and how genotype-by-environmentalinteractions can compromise the honesty of sexual signals. Thevolume also outlines key questions that remain unanswered andprovides a comprehensive guide to analyzing genotype-by-environmentinteractions. The mix of theory, empirical studies, and practical instructionsfrom world leading experts make this book a particularly potent anddefinitive guide on the topic. It will be of interest toevolutionary biologists, spanning from genomicists tobehaviorists. “This is a very timely book, covering a topic thatshould change the way we think about sexual selection. Thecontributors are all leaders and the topics should provide guidanceto many PhD projects in the years to come. GEI is increasinglyshown to be important, and it seems likely that it is critical inspecies where sexual selection is operating. This book is likely tohelp revitalize the study of sexual selection.” ProfessorAllen Moore, The University of Georgia “GEIs fascinate evolutionary biologists, but the uniqueconsequences for sexually selected traits have been neglected -until now. This multi-authored book comprehensively explains keytheoretical concepts, handles practical ‘how to’ issuesand uses classic case studies to illustrate the value of studyingGEIs. It is a must read for everyone interested in sexualselection.” Professor Michael Jennions, The AustralianNational University

Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection

Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection
Author : Tim R. Birkhead,Anders Pape Møller
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 1998-08-12
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :826
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Sperm Competition and Sexual Selection presents the intricate ways in which sperm compete to fertilize eggs and how this has prompted reinterpretations of breeding behavior. This book provides a theoretical framework for the study of sperm competition, which is a central part of sexual selection. It also discusses the roles of females and the relationships between paternal care in sperm competition. The chapters focusing on taxonomic development are diverse and cover all the major animal groups, both vertebrate and invertebrate, and plants. The final chapter provides an overview discussing the relationship between sperm competition and sexual selection in terms of both function and mechanism and how these translate into species fitness. This book will be of prime interest to behaviorists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists, suggesting new avenues of research and new ways of approaching old problems. The only up-to-date summary of a central and popular subject Well known editors and authors Provides a theoretical framework for the study of sperm competition Covers all major animal groups Includes a chapter on plants