December 5, 2020

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Side Reactions in Peptide Synthesis

Side Reactions in Peptide Synthesis
Author : Yi Yang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-09-01
Category : Science
Total pages :376
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Side Reactions in Peptide Synthesis, based on the author’s academic and industrial experience, and backed by a thorough review of the current literature, provides analysis of, and proposes solutions to, the most frequently encountered side reactions during peptide and peptidomimetic synthesis. This valuable handbook is ideal for research and process chemists working with peptide synthesis in diverse settings across academic, biotech, and pharmaceutical research and development. While peptide chemistry is increasingly prevalent, common side reactions and their causes are often poorly understood or anticipated, causing unnecessary waste of materials and delay. Each chapter discusses common side reactions through detailed chemical equations, proposed mechanisms (if any), theoretical background, and finally, a variety of possible solutions to avoid or alleviate the specified side reaction. Provides a systematic examination on how to troubleshoot and minimize the most frequent side reactions in peptide synthesis Gives chemists the background information and the practical tools they need to successfully troubleshoot and improve results Includes optimization-oriented analysis of side reactions in peptide synthesis for improved industrial process development in peptidyl API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) production Answers the growing, global need for improved, replicable processes to avoid impurities and maintain the integrity of the end product. Presents a thorough discussion of critical factors in peptide synthesis which are often neglected or underestimated by chemists Covers solid phase and solution phase methodologies, and provides abundant references for further exploration

Principles of Peptide Synthesis

Principles of Peptide Synthesis
Author : Miklos Bodanszky
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :329
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Principles of Peptide Synthesis is a very successful book by one of the pioneers of contemporary bioorganic synthesis. Its first edition proved a valuable source that is kept close to the work bench for frequent consulting. Any researcher planning the formation of the peptide bond, be it for the synthesis of a peptide chain or a cyclic peptide, benefits from the author's experience. The concise and critical treatment of the steps involved: protection, activation and bond formation require careful planning to avoid racemization and undesired side reactions. The second edition has been completely revised and updated. New procedures that have been developed since the first edition was published and that did not fit into the original are added in a separate chapter. This separation of old and new make it possible to assess new ideas and discern novel trends.

Chemistry of Peptide Synthesis

Chemistry of Peptide Synthesis
Author : N. Leo Benoiton
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-04-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :304
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Chemistry of Peptide Synthesis is a complete overview of how peptides are synthesized and what techniques are likely to generate the most desirable reactions. Incorporating elements from the author's role of Career Investigator of the Medical Research Council of Canada and his extensive teaching career, the book emphasizes learning rather th

Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis

Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis
Author : Gregg B. Fields
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 1997-11-04
Category : Science
Total pages :780
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The critically acclaimed laboratory standard for more than forty years, Methods in Enzymology is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. Since 1955, each volumehas been eagerly awaited, frequently consulted, and praised by researchers and reviewers alike. More than 275 volumes have been published (all of them still in print) and much of the material is relevant even today-truly an essential publication for researchers in all fields of life sciences. Key Features * Solid-phase peptide synthesis * Applications of peptides for structural and biological studies * Characterization of synthetic peptides

Fmoc Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis

Fmoc Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis
Author : W. Chan,Peter White
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release Date : 1999-12-16
Category : Science
Total pages :370
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Since the publication of Atherton and Sheppard's volume, the technique of Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis has matured considerably and is now the standard approach for the routine production of peptides. The focus of this new volume is much broader, and covers the essential procedures.

Peptide Synthesis and Applications

Peptide Synthesis and Applications
Author : John Howl
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2005
Category : Science
Total pages :272
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In this book, a panel of expert researchers and established group leaders describe in step-by-step detail the key methodologies of contemporary peptide systhesis and illustrate numerous applications that employ peptides as unique and essential materials. Techniques presented include protocols for chemical ligation, the systhesis of cyclic and phosphotyrosine-containing peptides, lipoamino acid- and sugar-conjugated peptides, and peptide purification and analysis.

Chemical Approaches to the Synthesis of Peptides and Proteins

Chemical Approaches to the Synthesis of Peptides and Proteins
Author : Paul Lloyd-Williams,Fernando Albericio,Ernest Giralt
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1997-04-23
Category : Medical
Total pages :304
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Organic chemists working on the synthesis of natural products have long found a special challenge in the preparation of peptides and proteins. However, more reliable, more efficient synthetic preparation methods have been developed in recent years. This reference evaluates the most important synthesis methods available today, and also considers methods that show promise for future applications. This text describes the state of the art in efficient synthetic methods for the synthesis of both natural and artificial large peptide and protein molecules. Subjects include an introduction to basic topics, linear solid-phase synthesis of peptides, peptide synthesis in solution, convergent solid-phase synthesis, methods for the synthesis of branched peptides, formation of disulfide bridges, and more. The book emphasizes strategies and tactics that must be considered for the successful synthesis of peptides.

Chemistry of Peptide Synthesis

Chemistry of Peptide Synthesis
Author : N. Leo Benoiton
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-04-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :304
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Chemistry of Peptide Synthesis is a complete overview of how peptides are synthesized and what techniques are likely to generate the most desirable reactions. Incorporating elements from the author's role of Career Investigator of the Medical Research Council of Canada and his extensive teaching career, the book emphasizes learning rather th

Part I. Application of 2-Hydroxymethylacrylic Acid, a Product of Baylis-Hillman Reaction, for the Synthesis of Novel N-backbone-to-Side-Chain Cyclic Peptide Analogs: Strategies and Side Reactions Part II. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Chimeric Bioactive Peptides Featuring Amino Acids Coupled to 4-Anilino-N-Phenethyl-Piperidine

Part I. Application of 2-Hydroxymethylacrylic Acid, a Product of Baylis-Hillman Reaction, for the Synthesis of Novel N-backbone-to-Side-Chain Cyclic Peptide Analogs: Strategies and Side Reactions Part II. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Chimeric Bioactive Peptides Featuring Amino Acids Coupled to 4-Anilino-N-Phenethyl-Piperidine
Author : Ravil Rashitovich Petrov
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2007
Category :
Total pages :936
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During my research career in Prof. V.J. Hruby's laboratory I worked on two different projects. The first project, which was initiated by the author, was planned to serve the need of our laboratory for a novel method of peptide cyclization. This method was planned to use recent advances in Pd0-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis combined with the structural richness offered by the Baylis-Hillman chemistry which could open new ways to diverse areas of drug design, molecular immunology and chemotherapy. This approach would provide cyclic peptides featuring N-alkylated amino acids that would confer high resistance to degradation by proteases. Because of numerous synthetic problems imposed, this strategy was not of considerable current use in peptide synthesis, especially on solid supports. However, despite a substantial amount of effort invested, this method faced serious drawbacks such as multistep synthesis and side reactions when applied to solid supports. Moreover, recent introduction of microwave technology which has helped to solve a great number of problems has led to a renaissance in the classical lactam and thioester bond cyclizations which overshadowed our quest for a novel methodology. The second project was focused on application of 4-anilidopiperidines for the synthesisof chimeric bioactive peptides. It was an effort towards the development of novel analgesics with reduced toxicity and enhanced potency. This project linked small molecule and multimeric ligand designs that were ongoing in our laboratory at the time. Major accomplishments in this project were made possible by successful resolution of several research challenges. I was able to find a straightforward, convenient and economical approach for the synthesis of novel analogues on a solid support. These developments led to novel compounds which showed substantial increases in their binding affinity relative to corresponding opioid analogues. To illustrate, compounds PET25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, and 32 showed high bioactivity and sub-nanomolar binding affinity to opioid receptors. Most of the peptides generated in the second project are still being investigated for their biological activities by our colleagues at the Department of Pharmacology, but the results to date indicate that some highly potent novel compounds have been made.

Major Methods of Peptide Bond Formation

Major Methods of Peptide Bond Formation
Author : Erhard Gross,Johannes Meienhofer
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-05-10
Category : Science
Total pages :454
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The Peptides: Analysis, Synthesis, Biology, Volume 1: Major Methods of Peptide Bond Formation provides comprehensive and critical reviews of important developments in three major areas of peptide research—analysis, synthesis, and biology. This book discusses the nature of the peptide bond, coupling between amino acid residues, and catalysis of active ester reactions. The formation of hydrazides, reactions of carbodiimides with amines, and mixed carbonic anhydride method of peptide synthesis are also elaborated. This publication likewise covers the control of racemization during peptide synthesis, strategies for minimizing racemization during amide-forming steps, and assays for chiral purity. This volume is suitable for students, specialists, and scientists from a broad range of disciplines concerned with peptides.

Peptide Synthesis

Peptide Synthesis
Author : Jaya Varkey
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2019-12-18
Category : Science
Total pages :118
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Peptide synthesis includes an array of techniques and procedures that enable the preparation of materials ranging from small peptides to large proteins. Many synthetic peptides have commercial and pharmaceutical applications, however, the synthesis of these peptides is a difficult task. This book addresses the common problems relating to the synthesis and applications of synthetic peptides. It discusses novel methods for the efficient synthesis of long chain and difficult peptide sequences and presents detailed analysis of various aspects of solid phase peptide synthesis. It also includes a section on antimicrobial peptides.

Peptide Analysis Protocols

Peptide Analysis Protocols
Author : Ben M. Dunn,Michael W. Pennington
Publisher : Humana
Release Date : 2013-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :335
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As the technology base for the preparation of increasingly c- plex peptides has improved, the methods for their purification and ana- sis have also been improved and supplemented. Peptide science routinely utilizes tools and techniques that are common to organic chemistry, p- tein chemistry, biophysical chemistry, enzymology, pharmacology, and molecular biology. A fundamental understanding of each of these areas is essential for interpreting all of the data that a peptide scientist may see. The purpose of Peptide Analysis Protocols is to provide the novice with sufficient practical information necessary to begin developing useful analysis and separation skills. Understanding and developing these skills will ultimately yield a scientist with broadened knowledge and good problem-solving abilities. Although numerous books that address d- ferent specialties, such as HPLC, FAB-MS, CE, and NMR, have been written, until now no single volume has reviewed all of these techniques with a focus on "getting started" in separation and analysis of peptides. This volume will also provide those who already possess practical knowledge of the more advanced aspects of peptide science with detailed applications for each of these protocols. Because the chapters have been written by researchers active in each of the fields that they discuss, a great deal of information on and insight into solution of real problems that they have encountered is presented. Examplary results are clearly demonstrated and discussed. For more advanced investi- tions, supplementary experiments are often suggested.

Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins in Organic Chemistry, Building Blocks, Catalysis and Coupling Chemistry

Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins in Organic Chemistry, Building Blocks, Catalysis and Coupling Chemistry
Author : Andrew B. Hughes
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-08-08
Category : Science
Total pages :604
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This is the third of five books in the Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins in Organic Synthesis series. Closing a gap in the literature, this is the only series to cover this important topic in organic and biochemistry. Drawing upon the combined expertise of the international "who's who" in amino acid research, these volumes represent a real benchmark for amino acid chemistry, providing a comprehensive discussion of the occurrence, uses and applications of amino acids and, by extension, their polymeric forms, peptides and proteins. The practical value of each volume is heightened by the inclusion of experimental procedures. The 5 volumes cover the following topics: Volume 1: Origins and Synthesis of Amino Acids Volume 2: Modified Amino Acids, Organocatalysis and Enzymes Volume 3: Building Blocks, Catalysis and Coupling Chemistry Volume 4: Protection Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, Combinatorial Synthesis Volume 5: Analysis and Function of Amino Acids and Peptides This third volume in the series presents an in depth account of recent developments in the (bio-)synthesis of amino acids and peptides. Divided into two parts, the first section deals with amino acids as building blocks, including the generation of alpha-amino acids, beta-lactams, and heterocycles. The second section is devoted to the synthesis of peptides, with the focus on solid phase synthesis. However, solution phase peptide synthesis is covered as well, as are topics such as coupling reagents, chemical ligation, peptide purification and automation. Originally planned as a six volume series, Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins in Organic Chemistry now completes with five volumes but remains comprehensive in both scope and coverage. Further information about the 5 Volume Set and purchasing details can be viewed here.

The World of Peptides

The World of Peptides
Author : Theodor Wieland,Miklos Bodanszky
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :298
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Almost two centuries ago proteins were recognized as the primary materials (proteios = primary) oflife, but the significance and wide role of peptides (from pepsis = digestion) in practically all life pro cesses has only become apparent in the last few decades. Biologi cally active peptides are now being discovered at rapid intervals in the brain and in other organs including the heart, in the skin of amphibians and many other tissues. Peptides and peptide-like compounds are found among toxins and antibiotics. It is unlikely that this process, an almost explosive broadening of the field, will come to a sudden halt. By now it is obvious that Nature has used the combination of a small to moderate number of amino acids to generate a great variety of agonists with specific and often highly sophisticated functions. Thus, peptide chemistry must be regarded as a discipline in its own right, a major branch of biochemistry, fairly separate from the chemistry of proteins. Because of the important role played by synthesis both in the study and in the practical preparation of peptides, their area can be considered as belonging to bio-organic chemistry as well. The already overwhelming and still increasing body of know ledge renders an account of the history of peptide chemistry more and more difficult. It appears therefore timely to look back, to take stock and to recall the important stages in the development of a new discipline.

Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins in Organic Chemistry, Protection Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, Combinatorial Synthesis

Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins in Organic Chemistry, Protection Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, Combinatorial Synthesis
Author : Anonim
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2011-06-03
Category : Science
Total pages :552
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This is the fourth of five books in the Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins in Organic Synthesis series. Closing a gap in the literature, this is the only series to cover this important topic in organic and biochemistry. Drawing upon the combined expertise of the international "who's who" in amino acid research, these volumes represent a real benchmark for amino acid chemistry, providing a comprehensive discussion of the occurrence, uses and applications of amino acids and, by extension, their polymeric forms, peptides and proteins. The practical value of each volume is heightened by the inclusion of experimental procedures. The 5 volumes cover the following topics: Volume 1: Origins and Synthesis of Amino Acids Volume 2: Modified Amino Acids, Organocatalysis and Enzymes Volume 3: Building Blocks, Catalysis and Coupling Chemistry Volume 4: Protection Reactions, Medicinal Chemistry, Combinatorial Synthesis Volume 5: Analysis and Function of Amino Acids and Peptides The fourth volume in this series is structured in three main sections. The first section is about protection reactions and amino acid based peptidomimetics. The second, and most extensive, part is devoted to the medicinal chemistry of amino acids. It includes, among others, the chemistry of alpha- and beta amino acids, peptide drugs, and advances in N- and O-glycopeptide synthesis. The final part deals with amino acids in combinatorial synthesis. Methods, such as phage display, library peptide synthesis, and computational design are described. Originally planned as a six volume series, Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins in Organic Chemistry now completes with five volumes but remains comprehensive in both scope and coverage. Further information about the 5 Volume Set and purchasing details can be viewed here.