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Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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Single-photon generation and detection is at the forefront of modern optical physics research. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of single-photon techniques and research methods in the spectral region from the visible to the infrared. The use of single photons, produced on demand with well-defined quantum properties, offers an unprecedented set of capabilities that are central to the new area of quantum information and are of revolutionary importance in areas that range from the traditional, such as high sensitivity detection for astronomy, remote sensing, and medical diagnostics, to the exotic, such as secretive surveillance and very long communication links for data transmission on interplanetary missions. The goal of this volume is to provide researchers with a comprehensive overview of the technology and techniques that are available to enable them to better design an experimental plan for its intended purpose. The book will be broken into chapters focused specifically on the development and capabilities of the available detectors and sources to allow a comparative understanding to be developed by the reader along with and idea of how the field is progressing and what can be expected in the near future. Along with this technology, we will include chapters devoted to the applications of this technology, which is in fact much of the driver for its development. This is set to become the go-to reference for this field. Covers all the basic aspects needed to perform single-photon experiments and serves as the first reference to any newcomer who would like to produce an experimental design that incorporates the latest techniques Provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of single-photon techniques and research methods in the spectral region from the visible to the infrared, thus giving broad background that should enable newcomers to the field to make rapid progress in gaining proficiency Written by leading experts in the field, among which, the leading Editor is recognized as having laid down the roadmap, thus providing the reader with an authenticated and reliable source

Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Andreas Christ,Alessandro Fedrizzi,Hannes Hübel,Thomas Jennewein,Christine Silberhorn
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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In this chapter we review the process of parametric down-conversion (PDC) and discuss the different methods to use PDC as a heralded single-photon source. PDC is a non-linear optical process, where an incoming pump photon decays, under energy and momentum conservation, into a photon-pair. The creation of photons in pairs allows for the implementation of a single-photon source by detecting one photon (trigger) to herald the presence of its partner (signal). The engineering possibilities of PDC enable the generation of single-photons with high rates in a wide range of frequencies. This chapter is structured as follows: Section 11.2 describes the principles of PDC in non-linear media. We derive the quantum state of the generated photon-pairs, investigate the spectral purity and photon-number purity of the heralded signal photon and discuss the achievable single-photon generation rates. In section 11.3 we turn towards experimental realizations and introduce bulk crystal PDC. Section 11.4 elaborates on the use of periodic poling to engineer the PDC process. Finally, section 11.5 gives an overview over PDC in waveguides. A comparison of experimental data from various heralded singe-photon sources based on PDC is presented in section 11.6 with an overview of nonlinear materials suited for PDC given in section 11.7.

Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Ivo Pietro Degiovanni,Sergey Polyakov,Alan Migdall,Hendrik B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge,Ian A. Walmsley,Franco N.C. Wong
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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This chapter presents an overview of efforts to improve photon-counting detection systems through the use of hybrid detection techniques such as spatial- and time-multiplexing of conventional detectors, and frequency up-conversion. It reviews the basic operation for these methods and illustrates their utility in a number of applications showing new or improved capabilities compared with conventional methods.

Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Sergio Cova,Massimo Ghioni,Mark A. Itzler,Joshua C. Bienfang,Alessandro Restelli
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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This chapter presents a broad review of the principle, design, fabrication, operation, and performance of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), and provides a comparative basis to assess the relative merits of the wide variety of devices and techniques covered. Particular attention is paid to the design of and operation of both silicon and high-speed-gated InGaAs/InP detection systems, as well as array-based systems.

Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Alain Aspect,Philippe Grangier
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Martin J. Stevens
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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To understand the nature of light sources, one needs to know the statistical properties of emitted light and how the tools used to measure those properties reflect those statistics. This chapter will cover the vocabulary and notation necessary for understanding the characteristics of the sources and detectors covered in this book. After a brief review of the quantized electric field and relevant operators, we explore properties of single-photon sources, starting with relationships among state vectors, density matrices and photon number probabilities . Next we investigate properties of , the second-order coherence, and how it relates to . We present an in-depth study of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometer, showing how it can be used to accurately measure in many—but not all—experimental situations. This is followed by a discussion of bunching, antibunching, Poissonian photon statistics, high-order coherences and indistinguishability. The second half of the chapter discusses characteristics of single-photon detectors, starting with the definition of detection efficiency used in this book. We review the POVM (Positive-Operator-Valued-Measure) operators, use them to illustrate the distinction between photon number-resolving (PNR) detectors and click/ no-click detectors, and explore some of the practical limitations of photon number-resolving and energy-resolving detectors. We next discuss the time response of detectors, including timing latency, rise time, timing jitter, dead time, reset time and recovery time. Finally, we cover the distinction between dark count rate and background count rate, and briefly discuss afterpulse probability, active area and operating temperature.

Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Jungsang Kim,Kyle S. McKay,Paul G. Kwiat,Kevin Zielnicki,Eric J. Gansen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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In this Chapter, we summarize the current status and future prospects of a number of novel semiconductor-based single-photon detectors, including visible-light photon counters (VLPCs), solid-state photo-multipliers (SSPMs), and quantum-dot-based detectors. SSPMs and VLPCs utilize the gain produced by impact ionization of the impurity band to detect single photons over a wide wavelength range between 0.4 and 28. Quantum-dot-based single-photon detectors use photoconductive gain associated with photogenerated carriers trapped in quantum dots. We cover the basic operating principles of these devices, describe experimental results that demonstrate their unique attributes, present mathematical models that quantify their performance, and discuss the future of these novel detector technologies.

Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Lijian Zhang,Hendrik Coldenstrodt-Ronge,Animesh Datta,Ian A. Walmsley
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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As quantum detectors evolve to become ever more sophisticated, their description in terms of a limited number of generic parameters falls short. An alternative description of the performance of a detector is provided by its positive-operator-valued measure (POVM). In this chapter we introduce a technique, quantum detector tomography, which allows us to experimentally reconstruct the POVM of the detector under test. Detailed examples on how to apply this technique to phase-insensitive detectors are given. We also discuss the challenges for the tomography of phase-sensitive detectors and possible solutions.

Single-photon Generation and Detection

Single-photon Generation and Detection
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier/AP, Academic Press is
Release Date : 2013
Category : Electronic book
Total pages :569
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Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Glenn S. Solomon,Charles Santori,Axel Kuhn
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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Single-photon Devices and Applications

Single-photon Devices and Applications
Author : Charles Santori,David Fattal,Yoshihisa Yamamoto
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2010-10-11
Category : Computers
Total pages :237
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Over the past ten years, on-demand single photon generation has been realized in numerous physical systems including neutral atoms, ions, molecules, semiconductor quantum dots, impurities and defects in solids, and superconductor circuits. The motivations for generation and detection of single photons are two-fold: basic and applied science. On the one hand, a single photon plays a central role in the experimental foundation of quantum mechanics and measurement theory. On the other hand, an efficient and high-quality single-photon source is needed to implement quantum key distribution, quantum repeaters and photonic quantum information processing. Written by top authors from academia and industry, this is the only textbook focused on single-photon devices and thus fills the gap for a readily accessible update on the rapid progress in the field.

A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics

A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics
Author : Hans-A. Bachor,Timothy C. Ralph
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2019-09-23
Category : Science
Total pages :592
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Provides fully updated coverage of new experiments in quantum optics This fully revised and expanded edition of a well-established textbook on experiments on quantum optics covers new concepts, results, procedures, and developments in state-of-the-art experiments. It starts with the basic building blocks and ideas of quantum optics, then moves on to detailed procedures and new techniques for each experiment. Focusing on metrology, communications, and quantum logic, this new edition also places more emphasis on single photon technology and hybrid detection. In addition, it offers end-of-chapter summaries and full problem sets throughout. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics, 3rd Edition presents readers with chapters on classical models of light, photons, quantum models of light, as well as basic optical components. It goes on to give readers full coverage of lasers and amplifiers, and examines numerous photodetection techniques being used today. Other chapters examine quantum noise, squeezing experiments, the application of squeezed light, and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. The book finishes with a section on quantum information before summarizing of the contents and offering an outlook on the future of the field. -Provides all new updates to the field of quantum optics, covering the building blocks, models and concepts, latest results, detailed procedures, and modern experiments -Places emphasis on three major goals: metrology, communications, and quantum logic -Presents fundamental tests of quantum mechanics (Schrodinger Kitten, multimode entanglement, photon systems as quantum emulators), and introduces the density function -Includes new trends and technologies in quantum optics and photodetection, new results in sensing and metrology, and more coverage of quantum gates and logic, cluster states, waveguides for multimodes, discord and other quantum measures, and quantum control -Offers end of chapter summaries and problem sets as new features A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics, 3rd Edition is an ideal book for professionals, and graduate and upper level students in physics and engineering science.

Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Bo Zhao,Jian-Wei Pan
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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We introduce the atomic-ensemble-based single-photon source. Thanks to the collective enhancement, It has the following advantages: it does not require strong coupling between light and matter, thanks to the collective enhancement; the generated narrow band single photons are storable, narrow-band, and highly controllable; and the single photons emitted from independent sources are pure and indistinguishable. In conjunction with a feedback circuit, the atomic-ensemble single-photon source can work in a deterministic way, where the production rate is significantly enhanced while low and good indistinguishability are preserved. The atomic-ensemble-based single-photon sources provide an essential tool for scalable quantum networks and linear-optical quantum computation.

Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : J.C. Bienfang,J. Fan,A. Migdall,S.V. Polyakov
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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Single-Photon Generation and Detection

Single-Photon Generation and Detection
Author : Alex McMillan,Yu-Ping Huang,Bryn Bell,Alex Clark,Prem Kumar,John Rarity
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release Date : 2013-11-29
Category : Science
Total pages :616
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The efficient generation of single photon and entangled photon states is of considerable interest both for fundamental studies of quantum mechanics and practical applications, such as quantum communications and computation. It is now well known that correlated pairs of photons suitable for such applications can be generated directly in a guided mode of an optical fiber through the nonlinear process of spontaneous four-wave mixing. Detection of one photon of the pair can be used to herald the presence of the other, in order to realise a probabilistic heralded single photon source. Alternatively, both photons can be used directly as an entangled photon pair if the source is designed such that the two photons are correlated in one or more of their degrees of freedom. This chapter provides an overview of the progress that has been made into the development of photon sources based on four-wave mixing in optical fibers. A theoretical model of four-wave mixing is described in Section 12.2, which demonstrates how the dispersion characteristics of an optical fiber influence the properties of the photon pair state that is generated. Section 12.3 focusses on heralded single photon sources operating in both the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes of optical fiber, and highlights several experimental demonstrations of this type of source. Section 12.4 discusses the concept of non-classical interference and the parameters of the generated photons that can influence the interference visibility. Section 12.5 expands upon this discussion to consider two different approaches for preparing photons in pure states that have been used to demonstrate high visibility two-photon interference. Section 12.6 describes several different experimental implementations of entangled photon pair sources. Finally, two practical applications using fiber-based photon sources are presented, with an all-fiber, quantum controlled-NOT gate discussed in Section 12.7, and the potential to use photonic fusion to build up large photonic cluster states outlined in Section 12.8.