November 26, 2020

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Solution Thermodynamics and its Application to Aqueous Solutions

Solution Thermodynamics and its Application to Aqueous Solutions
Author : Yoshikata Koga
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2007-11-12
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :310
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As the title suggests, we introduce a novel differential approach to solution thermodynamics and use it for the study of aqueous solutions. We evaluate the quantities of higher order derivative than the normal thermodynamic functions. We allow these higher derivative data speak for themselves without resorting to any model system. We thus elucidate the molecular processes in solution, (referred to in this book “mixing scheme ), to the depth equal to, if not deeper, than that gained by spectroscopic and other methods. We show that there are three composition regions in aqueous solutions of non-electrolytes, each of which has a qualitatively distinct mixing scheme. The boundary between the adjacent regions is associated with an anomaly in the third derivatives of G. The loci of the anomalies in the temperature-composition field form the line sometimes referred as “Koga line . We then take advantage of the anomaly of a third derivative quantity of 1-propanol in the ternary aqueous solution, 1-propanol – sample species – H2O. We use its induced change as a probe of the effect of a sample species on H2O. In this way, we clarified what a hydrophobe, or a hydrophile, and in turn, an amphiphile, does to H2O. We also apply the same methodology to ions that have been ranked by the Hofmeister series. We show that the kosmotropes (salting out, or stabilizing agents) are either hydrophobes or hydration centres, and that chaotropes (salting in, or destablizing agents) are hydrophiles. A new differential approach to solution thermodynamics A particularly clear elucidation of the mixing schemes in aqueous solutions A clear understandings on the effects of hydrophobes, hydrophiles, and amphiphiles to H2O A clear understandings on the effects of ions on H2O in relation to the Hofmeister effect A new differential approach to studies in muti-component aqueous solutions

Solution Thermodynamics and Its Application to Aqueous Solutions

Solution Thermodynamics and Its Application to Aqueous Solutions
Author : Yoshikata Koga
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-03-28
Category : Science
Total pages :444
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Solution Thermodynamics and its Application to Aqueous Solutions: A Differential Approach, Second Edition introduces a differential approach to solution thermodynamics, applying it to the study of aqueous solutions. This valuable approach reveals the molecular processes in solutions in greater depth than that gained by spectroscopic and other methods. The book clarifies what a hydrophobe, or a hydrophile, and in turn, an amphiphile, does to H2O. By applying the same methodology to ions that have been ranked by the Hofmeister series, the author shows that the kosmotropes are either hydrophobes or hydration centers, and that chaotropes are hydrophiles. This unique approach and important updates make the new edition a must-have reference for those active in solution chemistry. Unique differential approach to solution thermodynamics allows for experimental evaluation of the intermolecular interaction Incorporates research findings from over 40 articles published since the previous edition Numerical or graphical evaluation and direct experimental determination of third derivatives, enthalpic and volumetric AL-AL interactions and amphiphiles are new to this edition Features new chapters on spectroscopic study in aqueous solutions as well as environmentally friendly and hostile water aqueous solutions

Exam Prep for: Solution Thermodynamics and Its Application ...

Exam Prep for: Solution Thermodynamics and Its Application ...
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Thermodynamics of Dilute Aqueous Solutions

Thermodynamics of Dilute Aqueous Solutions
Author : Marcel Pourbaix
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1949
Category : Electrochemistry
Total pages :136
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The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Author : Joseph Kestin
Publisher : Dowden Hutchinson and Ross
Release Date : 1976
Category : Second law of thermodynamics
Total pages :329
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Handbook of Aqueous Electrolyte Thermodynamics

Handbook of Aqueous Electrolyte Thermodynamics
Author : Joseph F. Zemaitis, Jr.,Diane M. Clark,Marshall Rafal,Noel C. Scrivner
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2010-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :878
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Expertise in electrolyte systems has become increasingly important in traditional CPI operations, as well as in oil/gas exploration and production. This book is the source for predicting electrolyte systems behavior, an indispensable "do-it-yourself" guide, with a blueprint for formulating predictive mathematical electrolyte models, recommended tabular values to use in these models, and annotated bibliographies. The final chapter is a general recipe for formulating complete predictive models for electrolytes, along with a series of worked illustrative examples. It can serve as a useful research and application tool for the practicing process engineer, and as a textbook for the chemical engineering student.

Thermodynamics of Solutions

Thermodynamics of Solutions
Author : Eli Ruckenstein,Ivan L. Shulgin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-06-17
Category : Science
Total pages :346
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This book consists of a number of papers regarding the thermodynamics and structure of multicomponent systems that we have published during the last decade. Even though they involve different topics and different systems, they have something in common which can be considered as the “signature” of the present book. First, these papers are concerned with “difficult” or very nonideal systems, i. e. systems with very strong interactions (e. g. , hyd- gen bonding) between components or systems with large differences in the partial molar v- umes of the components (e. g. , the aqueous solutions of proteins), or systems that are far from “normal” conditions (e. g. , critical or near-critical mixtures). Second, the conventional th- modynamic methods are not sufficient for the accurate treatment of these mixtures. Last but not least, these systems are of interest for the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and related ind- tries. In order to meet the thermodynamic challenges involved in these complex mixtures, we employed a variety of traditional methods but also new methods, such as the fluctuation t- ory of Kirkwood and Buff and ab initio quantum mechanical techniques. The Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory is a rigorous formalism which is free of any of the - proximations usually used in the thermodynamic treatment of multicomponent systems. This theory appears to be very fruitful when applied to the above mentioned “difficult” systems.

Molecular Theory of Water and Aqueous Solutions

Molecular Theory of Water and Aqueous Solutions
Author : Arieh Ben-Naim
Publisher : World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated
Release Date : 2009
Category : Science
Total pages :629
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1. Survey of the properties of water. 1.1. Introduction and some historical notes. 1.2. Properties of water in the gaseous phase. 1.3. Properties of water in the solid phase. 1.4. Properties of water in the liquid phase. 1.5. The Kirkwood-Buff integral. 1.6. Solvation of water in water. 1.7. The importance of water in biological systems -- 2. Theoretical approaches to the study of liquid water. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. The general theoretical framework. 2.3. The mixture-model approach to liquid water. 2.4. Lattice models for water. 2.5. A one-dimensional model for water. 2.6. A two-dimensional model for water. 2.7. Three-dimensional models for water -- 3. Water with one simple solute. 3.1. Introduction and some historical notes. 3.2. Survey of some properties of simple aqueous solutions. 3.3. Solvation and conditional solvation. 3.4. Statistical mechanical expressions for the solvation thermodynamic quantities. 3.5. Application of the mixture-model approach to water. 3.6. Application of an interstitial model for water to aqueous solutions. 3.7. The problem of stabilization of the structure of water. 3.8. Application of the scaled particle theory. 3.9. Application of a one-dimensional model. 3.10. Applications of two-dimensional models. 3.11. Applications of three-dimensional models -- 4. Water with two solute molecules ; hydrophobic hydrophilic phenomena. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. The experimental evidence. 4.3. Redefinition of the HøO interaction. 4.4. A simple measure of the strength of the "Pure" HøO interaction. 4.5. Intramolecular HøO interactions. 4.6. Application of the scaled particle theory. 4.7. Temperature and pressure dependence. 4.8. Solvent induced interactions between two hydrophilic HøI groups. 4.9. Application of one-dimensional models to study hydrophobic interactions. 4.10. Application of two-dimensional models. 4.11. Application of three-dimensional models. 4.12. Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? That is the question!

Molecular Thermodynamics of Proteins in Aqueous Solutions of Concentrated Electrolyte

Molecular Thermodynamics of Proteins in Aqueous Solutions of Concentrated Electrolyte
Author : Robin Andrew Curtis
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2000
Category :
Total pages :524
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Thermodynamics of Aqueous Solutions Containing One Or More Volatile Weak Electrolytes

Thermodynamics of Aqueous Solutions Containing One Or More Volatile Weak Electrolytes
Author : Thomas James Edwards
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1974
Category :
Total pages :270
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Polymer Thermodynamics

Polymer Thermodynamics
Author : Sabine Enders,Bernhard A. Wolf
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2011-01-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :422
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Making Flory-Huggins Practical: Thermodynamics of Polymer-Containing Mixtures, by B. A. Wolf * Aqueous Solutions of Polyelectrolytes: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium and Some Related Properties, by G. Maurer, S. Lammertz, and L. Ninni Schäfer * Gas-Polymer Interactions: Key Thermodynamic Data and Thermophysical Properties, by J.-P. E. Grolier, and S. A.E. Boyer * Interfacial Tension in Binary Polymer Blends and the Effects of Copolymers as Emulsifying Agents, by S. H. Anastasiadis * Theory of Random Copolymer Fractionation in Columns, by Sabine Enders * Computer Simulations and Coarse-Grained Molecular Models Predicting the Equation of State of Polymer Solutions, by K. Binder, B. Mognetti, W. Paul, P. Virnau, and L. Yelash * Modeling of Polymer Phase Equilibria Using Equations of State, by G. Sadowski

Experimental Physical Chemistry

Experimental Physical Chemistry
Author : Arthur Halpern,George McBane
Publisher : Macmillan
Release Date : 2006-06-30
Category : Science
Total pages :608
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'Experimental Physical Chemistry' includes complete lists of necessary materials, detailed background material for each experiment, and relevant sections on measurements and error analysis.

Biominerals

Biominerals
Author : F.C.M. Driessens,R.K. Verbeeck
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1990-09-26
Category : Medical
Total pages :440
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This book provides a comprehensive analysis of biominerals, in particular phosphates and carbonates of calcium. The book begins with a discussion of the theories of solid state chemistry and thermodynamics of ionic solid solutions and applies these theories to show how physiological constituents like sodium, magnesium, carbonate, chloride, fluoride, lead, or strontium influence the formation, stability, and solubility of calcium phosphates. The results of this discussion are then applied to a critical evaluation of data regarding minerals in bone, dentin, and tooth enamel, their formation during growth and turn-over, their stability under physiological conditions and their breakdown under pathological conditions. These principles are also applied to pathological calcifications such as renal calculi, arterial wall calcifications, chondrocalcinosis, dental calculus and salivary stones. A similar approach is used as the authors discuss carbonations such as calcite, dolomite, and aragonite. The book also includes an extensive analysis of the advantageous effects of magnesium supplementation. The wealth of knowledge in this extensive treatise of biominerals is valuable to medical, dental and ecological biologists, as well as scientists and clinicians in the fields of osteoporosis, bone diseases, caries, renal stone disease, parodontology and nutrition.

Membrane Proteins in Aqueous Solutions

Membrane Proteins in Aqueous Solutions
Author : Jean-Luc Popot
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-06-08
Category : Science
Total pages :708
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This book is the first to be entirely devoted to the challenging art of handling membrane proteins out of their natural environment, a key process in biological and pharmaceutical research, but one plagued with difficulties and pitfalls. Written by one of the foremost experts in the field, Membrane Proteins in Aqueous Solutions is accessible to any member of a membrane biology laboratory. After presenting the structure, functions, dynamics, synthesis, natural environment and lipid interactions of membrane proteins, the author discusses the principles of extracting them with detergents, the mechanisms of detergent-induced destabilization, countermeasures, and recent progress in developing detergents with weaker denaturing properties. Non-conventional alternatives to detergents, including bicelles, nanodiscs, amphipathic peptides, fluorinated surfactants and amphipols, are described, and their relative advantages and drawbacks are compared. The synthesis and solution properties of the various types of amphipols are presented, as well as the formation and properties of membrane protein/amphipol complexes and the transfer of amphipol-trapped proteins to detergents, nanodiscs, lipidic mesophases, or living cells. The final chapters of the book deal with applications: membrane protein in vitro folding and cell-free expression, solution studies, NMR, crystallography, electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, amphipol-mediated immobilization of membrane proteins, and biomedical applications. Important features of the book include introductory sections describing foundations as well as the state-of-the-art for each of the biophysical techniques discussed, and topical tables which organize a widely dispersed literature. Boxes and annexes throughout the book explain technical aspects, and twelve detailed experimental protocols, ranging from in vitro folding of membrane proteins to single-particle electron cryomicroscopy, have been contributed by and commented on by experienced users. Membrane Proteins in Aqueous Solutions offers a concise, accessible introduction to membrane protein biochemistry and biophysics, as well as comprehensive coverage of the properties and uses of conventional and non-conventional surfactants. It will be useful both in basic and applied research laboratories and as a teaching aid for students, instructors, researchers, and professionals within the field.

Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions

Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions
Author : Arthur D. Pelton
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-09-19
Category : Science
Total pages :401
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Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions provides readers with an understanding of thermodynamics and phase equilibria that is required to make full and efficient use of these tools. The book systematically discusses phase diagrams of all types, the thermodynamics behind them, their calculations from thermodynamic databases, and the structural models of solutions used in the development of these databases. Featuring examples from a wide range of systems including metals, salts, ceramics, refractories, and concentrated aqueous solutions, Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions is a vital resource for researchers and developers in materials science, metallurgy, combustion and energy, corrosion engineering, environmental engineering, geology, glass technology, nuclear engineering, and other fields of inorganic chemical and materials science and engineering. Additionally, experts involved in developing thermodynamic databases will find a comprehensive reference text of current solution models. Presents a rigorous and complete development of thermodynamics for readers who already have a basic understanding of chemical thermodynamics Provides an in-depth understanding of phase equilibria Includes information that can be used as a text for graduate courses on thermodynamics and phase diagrams, or on solution modeling Covers several types of phase diagrams (paraequilibrium, solidus projections, first-melting projections, Scheil diagrams, enthalpy diagrams), and more