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Solution Thermodynamics and its Application to Aqueous Solutions

Solution Thermodynamics and its Application to Aqueous Solutions
Author : Yoshikata Koga
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2007-11-12
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :310
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As the title suggests, we introduce a novel differential approach to solution thermodynamics and use it for the study of aqueous solutions. We evaluate the quantities of higher order derivative than the normal thermodynamic functions. We allow these higher derivative data speak for themselves without resorting to any model system. We thus elucidate the molecular processes in solution, (referred to in this book “mixing scheme ), to the depth equal to, if not deeper, than that gained by spectroscopic and other methods. We show that there are three composition regions in aqueous solutions of non-electrolytes, each of which has a qualitatively distinct mixing scheme. The boundary between the adjacent regions is associated with an anomaly in the third derivatives of G. The loci of the anomalies in the temperature-composition field form the line sometimes referred as “Koga line . We then take advantage of the anomaly of a third derivative quantity of 1-propanol in the ternary aqueous solution, 1-propanol – sample species – H2O. We use its induced change as a probe of the effect of a sample species on H2O. In this way, we clarified what a hydrophobe, or a hydrophile, and in turn, an amphiphile, does to H2O. We also apply the same methodology to ions that have been ranked by the Hofmeister series. We show that the kosmotropes (salting out, or stabilizing agents) are either hydrophobes or hydration centres, and that chaotropes (salting in, or destablizing agents) are hydrophiles. A new differential approach to solution thermodynamics A particularly clear elucidation of the mixing schemes in aqueous solutions A clear understandings on the effects of hydrophobes, hydrophiles, and amphiphiles to H2O A clear understandings on the effects of ions on H2O in relation to the Hofmeister effect A new differential approach to studies in muti-component aqueous solutions

Solution Thermodynamics and Its Application to Aqueous Solutions

Solution Thermodynamics and Its Application to Aqueous Solutions
Author : Yoshikata Koga
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-03-28
Category : Science
Total pages :444
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Solution Thermodynamics and its Application to Aqueous Solutions: A Differential Approach, Second Edition introduces a differential approach to solution thermodynamics, applying it to the study of aqueous solutions. This valuable approach reveals the molecular processes in solutions in greater depth than that gained by spectroscopic and other methods. The book clarifies what a hydrophobe, or a hydrophile, and in turn, an amphiphile, does to H2O. By applying the same methodology to ions that have been ranked by the Hofmeister series, the author shows that the kosmotropes are either hydrophobes or hydration centers, and that chaotropes are hydrophiles. This unique approach and important updates make the new edition a must-have reference for those active in solution chemistry. Unique differential approach to solution thermodynamics allows for experimental evaluation of the intermolecular interaction Incorporates research findings from over 40 articles published since the previous edition Numerical or graphical evaluation and direct experimental determination of third derivatives, enthalpic and volumetric AL-AL interactions and amphiphiles are new to this edition Features new chapters on spectroscopic study in aqueous solutions as well as environmentally friendly and hostile water aqueous solutions

Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions

Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions
Author : Arthur D. Pelton
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-09-19
Category : Science
Total pages :401
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Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions provides readers with an understanding of thermodynamics and phase equilibria that is required to make full and efficient use of these tools. The book systematically discusses phase diagrams of all types, the thermodynamics behind them, their calculations from thermodynamic databases, and the structural models of solutions used in the development of these databases. Featuring examples from a wide range of systems including metals, salts, ceramics, refractories, and concentrated aqueous solutions, Phase Diagrams and Thermodynamic Modeling of Solutions is a vital resource for researchers and developers in materials science, metallurgy, combustion and energy, corrosion engineering, environmental engineering, geology, glass technology, nuclear engineering, and other fields of inorganic chemical and materials science and engineering. Additionally, experts involved in developing thermodynamic databases will find a comprehensive reference text of current solution models. Presents a rigorous and complete development of thermodynamics for readers who already have a basic understanding of chemical thermodynamics Provides an in-depth understanding of phase equilibria Includes information that can be used as a text for graduate courses on thermodynamics and phase diagrams, or on solution modeling Covers several types of phase diagrams (paraequilibrium, solidus projections, first-melting projections, Scheil diagrams, enthalpy diagrams), and more

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Author : Joseph Kestin
Publisher : Dowden Hutchinson and Ross
Release Date : 1976
Category : Second law of thermodynamics
Total pages :329
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Handbook of Aqueous Electrolyte Thermodynamics

Handbook of Aqueous Electrolyte Thermodynamics
Author : Joseph F. Zemaitis, Jr.,Diane M. Clark,Marshall Rafal,Noel C. Scrivner
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2010-09-16
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :878
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Expertise in electrolyte systems has become increasingly important in traditional CPI operations, as well as in oil/gas exploration and production. This book is the source for predicting electrolyte systems behavior, an indispensable "do-it-yourself" guide, with a blueprint for formulating predictive mathematical electrolyte models, recommended tabular values to use in these models, and annotated bibliographies. The final chapter is a general recipe for formulating complete predictive models for electrolytes, along with a series of worked illustrative examples. It can serve as a useful research and application tool for the practicing process engineer, and as a textbook for the chemical engineering student.

Research and Development Progress Report

Research and Development Progress Report
Author : United States. Office of Saline Water
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1965
Category : Saline water conversion
Total pages :129
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Library System Book Catalog Holdings as of July 1973

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Library System Book Catalog Holdings as of July 1973
Author : United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Library Systems Branch
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1974
Category : Environmental protection
Total pages :129
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Nuclear Science Abstracts

Nuclear Science Abstracts
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1965
Category : Nuclear energy
Total pages :129
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Thermodynamics and Its Applications

Thermodynamics and Its Applications
Author : Michael Modell,Administrative Director Department of Primary Health Care Michael Modell,Robert C. Reid
Publisher : Prentice Hall
Release Date : 1983
Category : Chemical engineering
Total pages :450
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Chemical Thermodynamics

Chemical Thermodynamics
Author : W.J. Rankin
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-11-11
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :320
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This book develops the theory of chemical thermodynamics from first principles, demonstrates its relevance across scientific and engineering disciplines, and shows how thermodynamics can be used as a practical tool for understanding natural phenomena and developing and improving technologies and products. Concepts such as internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy are explained using ideas and experiences familiar to students, and realistic examples are given so the usefulness and pervasiveness of thermodynamics becomes apparent. The worked examples illustrate key ideas and demonstrate important types of calculations, and the problems at the end of chapters are designed to reinforce important concepts and show the broad range of applications. Most can be solved using digitized data from open access databases and a spreadsheet. Answers are provided for the numerical problems. A particular theme of the book is the calculation of the equilibrium composition of systems, both reactive and non-reactive, and this includes the principles of Gibbs energy minimization. The overall approach leads to the intelligent use of thermodynamic software packages but, while these are discussed and their use demonstrated, they are not the focus of the book, the aim being to provide the necessary foundations. Another unique aspect is the inclusion of three applications chapters: heat and energy aspects of processing; the thermodynamics of metal production and recycling; and applications of electrochemistry. This book is aimed primarily at students of chemistry, chemical engineering, applied science, materials science, and metallurgy, though it will be also useful for students undertaking courses in geology and environmental science. A solutions manual is available for instructors.

Thermodynamics of Solutions

Thermodynamics of Solutions
Author : Eli Ruckenstein,Ivan L. Shulgin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-06-17
Category : Science
Total pages :346
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This book consists of a number of papers regarding the thermodynamics and structure of multicomponent systems that we have published during the last decade. Even though they involve different topics and different systems, they have something in common which can be considered as the “signature” of the present book. First, these papers are concerned with “difficult” or very nonideal systems, i. e. systems with very strong interactions (e. g. , hyd- gen bonding) between components or systems with large differences in the partial molar v- umes of the components (e. g. , the aqueous solutions of proteins), or systems that are far from “normal” conditions (e. g. , critical or near-critical mixtures). Second, the conventional th- modynamic methods are not sufficient for the accurate treatment of these mixtures. Last but not least, these systems are of interest for the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and related ind- tries. In order to meet the thermodynamic challenges involved in these complex mixtures, we employed a variety of traditional methods but also new methods, such as the fluctuation t- ory of Kirkwood and Buff and ab initio quantum mechanical techniques. The Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory is a rigorous formalism which is free of any of the - proximations usually used in the thermodynamic treatment of multicomponent systems. This theory appears to be very fruitful when applied to the above mentioned “difficult” systems.

Water in Crystalline Hydrates Aqueous Solutions of Simple Nonelectrolytes

Water in Crystalline Hydrates Aqueous Solutions of Simple Nonelectrolytes
Author : Felix Franks
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2013-02-06
Category : Science
Total pages :684
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vi the information collected and discussed in this volume may help toward the achievement of such an objective. I should like to express my debt of gratitude to the authors who have contributed to this volume. Editing a work of this nature can strain long established personal relationships and I thank my various colleagues for bearing with me and responding (sooner or later) to one or several letters or telephone calls. My special thanks once again go to Mrs. Joyce Johnson, who bore the main brunt of this seemingly endless correspondence and without whose help the editorial and referencing work would have taken several years. F. FRANKS Biophysics Division Unilever Research Laboratory Colworth/ Welwyn Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedford January, 1973 Contents Contents of Volume 1 ............................. . . . . . .. . . .. xv Contents of Volume 3 ........................ '. . . . . . . . . . . . xvi . . . . Contents of Volume 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . xvii . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 1 The Solvent Properties of Water F. Franks 1. Water, the Universal Solvent-the Study of Aqueous Solutions 2. Aqueous Solutions of Nonelectrolytes ................. . 5 2.1. Apolar Solutes ................................. . 6 2.2. Polar Solutes .................................. . 19 2.3. Ionic Solutes Containing Alkyl Residues-"Apolar Electrolytes" ................................... . 38 3. Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes .................... . 42 3.1. Single Ion Properties ............................ . 42 3.2. Ion-Water Interactions ......................... . 43 3.3. Interionic Effects ............................... . 47 4. Complex Aqueous Mixtures 48 Chapter 2 Water in Stoichiometric Hydrates M. Falk and O. Knop 1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Symmetry and Types of Environment of the H0 Molecule 2 in Crystals .......................................... 57 vii Contents viii 2.1. Site Symmetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 . . . . . . . . . .

Molecular Thermodynamics of Proteins in Aqueous Solutions of Concentrated Electrolyte

Molecular Thermodynamics of Proteins in Aqueous Solutions of Concentrated Electrolyte
Author : Robin Andrew Curtis
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2000
Category :
Total pages :524
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The Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science; with which is Incorporated the "Chemical Gazette."

The Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science; with which is Incorporated the
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1899
Category : Chemistry
Total pages :129
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Experimental Physical Chemistry

Experimental Physical Chemistry
Author : Arthur Halpern,George McBane
Publisher : Macmillan
Release Date : 2006-06-30
Category : Science
Total pages :608
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'Experimental Physical Chemistry' includes complete lists of necessary materials, detailed background material for each experiment, and relevant sections on measurements and error analysis.