November 23, 2020

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Sox2

Sox2
Author : Hisato Kondoh,Robin Lovell-Badge
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-08-24
Category : Science
Total pages :344
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Sox2: Biology and Role in Development and Disease offers a thorough discussion of the important role of Sox2 in cellular and developmental processes, aimed at facilitating greater understanding of how Sox2 functions across different disciplines. The book discusses the basic biology of Sox2 to help establish the critical foundational knowledge necessary for deeper molecular and functional analysis. The book also provides insight into how the Sox2 transcription factor plays a key role in pluripotency induction, maintenance, and development. Helpful as a tool to organize new research projects, the book assists with preparing lessons, seminars, and thesis or research papers, thereby circumventing the need to spend hours searching through journal databases. A single source for the basic biology of Sox2, Sox2: Biology and Its Role in Development and Disease provides information on networks, gene regulation, and regulatory function in a number of cell types and tissues types. Discusses the important role of Sox2 in cellular and developmental processes Facilitates a greater understanding of how Sox2 functions across different disciplines Assists in identifying, circumventing and modifying the dynamics of Sox2 in cell types Provides greater understanding of the structure of Sox2 and its gene networks Identifies aspects of phenotypic spectrum uncovered following greater understanding of Sox2 during development

The Role of SOX2 in Maintaining Pluripotency and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

The Role of SOX2 in Maintaining Pluripotency and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Author : Keiko Adachi
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2011
Category : Science
Total pages :129
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The Role of SOX2 in Maintaining Pluripotency and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

The Role of SOX2 in Regulation of Pluripotency and Early Cell Fate Decision in Embryos and Embryonic Stem Cells

The Role of SOX2 in Regulation of Pluripotency and Early Cell Fate Decision in Embryos and Embryonic Stem Cells
Author : Maria Keramari
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category :
Total pages :129
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The transcription factor Sox2 (SRY-related HMG box gene 2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the embryo Previously it was shown that Sox2-/- mouse embryos die soon after implantation, ' how materna! Sox2" transcripts may mask an eariier phenotype. This study has shown that siRNA knock-down of Sox2 at the 2-cell stage of the preimplantation mouse embryo results in embryo arrest at the morula stage, increased cellular apoptosis and loss of ability to generate the first differentiated tissue in the embryo, the trophectoderm (TE).

Handbook of Stem Cells

Handbook of Stem Cells
Author : Anthony Atala,Robert Lanza
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2012-12-31
Category : Science
Total pages :1074
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New discoveries in the field of stem cells increasingly dominate the news and scientific literature revealing an avalanche of new knowledge and research tools that are producing therapies for cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and a wide variety of other diseases that afflict humanity. The Handbook of Stem Cells integrates this exciting area of life science, combining in two volumes the requisites for a general understanding of adult and embryonic stem cells. Organized in two volumes entitled Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cell Biology and Adult and Fetal Stem Cells, this work contains contributions from the world’s experts in stem cell research to provide a description of the tools, methods, and experimental protocols needed to study and characterize stem cells and progenitor populations as well as a the latest information of what is known about each specific organ system. Provides comprehensive coverage on this highly topical subject Contains contributions by the foremost authorities and premiere names in the field of stem cell research Companion website - http://booksite.elsevier.com/9780123859426/ - contains over 250 color figures in presentation format

Stem Cells and Cancer

Stem Cells and Cancer
Author : Sadhan Majumder
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-06-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :296
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Cancer is a primary cause of human mortality worldwide. Despite decades of basic and clinical research, the outcome for most cancer patients is still dismal. Some stumbling blocks to developing effective therapy include the heterogeneity of cancer tissues, the lack of knowledge about the critical molecular mechanisms in cancer tissues (which are typically aberrant compared with mechanisms in normal tissue), and the lack of good mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. The recent findings that most cancers contain a small fraction of self-renewing, differentiation-blocked stem cell-like cells (cancer stem cells) and that it is these cells—and not the major bulk of the tissue—that are the root cause for cancer initiation and metastasis have also highlighted the need to change our approach to cancer therapy. The objectives of this book, therefore, would be to impart up-to-date information about the role of stem cells in the development of normal and cancerous tissue, the mechanisms that differentiate normal from cancerous functions, and the use of these findings in developing mechanism-based therapies.

Stem and Progenitor Cells in the Central Nervous System

Stem and Progenitor Cells in the Central Nervous System
Author : R.S. Nowakowski
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release Date : 2004-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :212
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This publication focuses on the biology of stem and progenitor cells in the developing and mature central nervous system, their response to trauma and potential uses in therapy. The authors, who are leading experts in the field, address topical questions from both basic and clinical neuroscience perspectives such as: non-invasive imaging of stem cell division; the origins of regional diversity in cell types and cell numbers in the stem cell progeny; factors that regulate generation of neurons and glial cells from stem cells during normal development; the role of genetic and environmental factors in the regulation of stem cell function; the role of stem cells in mediating the effects of brain trauma and its recovery, and the therapeutic uses of stem cells. Offering a unique compilation of articles on the biology and the therapeutic applications of stem cells in the embryonic and mature nervous systems, this volume will be of great value to neuroscientists, developmental biologists, cancer biologists and clinical neurologists.

SUMOylation of Sox2 in Neural Stem Cells

SUMOylation of Sox2 in Neural Stem Cells
Author : Elisa Marelli
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :129
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Regulatory Networks in Stem Cells

Regulatory Networks in Stem Cells
Author : Vinagolu K. Rajasekhar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2009-03-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :601
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Stem cells appear to be fundamental cellular units associated with the origin of multicellular organisms and have evolved to function in safeguarding the cellular homeostasis in organ t- sues. The characteristics of stem cells that distinguish them from other cells have been the fascinating subjects of stem cell research. The important properties of stem cells, such as ma- tenance of quiescence, self-renewal capacity, and differentiation potential, have propelled this exciting ?eld and presently form a common theme of research in developmental biology and medicine. The derivation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells, the prospective identi?cation of multipotent adult stem cells, and, more recently, the induced pluripotent stem cells (popularly called iPS) are important milestones in the arena of stem cell biology. Complex networks of transcription factors, different signaling molecules, and the interaction of genetic and epi- netic events constantly modulate stem cell behavior to evoke programming and reprogramming processes in normal tissue homeostasis during development. In any given cellular scenario, the regulatory networks can pose considerable complexity and yet exert an orderly control of stem cell differentiation during normal development. An aberration in these ?nely tuned processes during development usually results in a spectrum of diseases such as cancers and neurological disorders. Thisunderscorestheimminentneedforamorecompleteunderstandingofmolecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory circuitries required for stem cell maintenance. Overthepast3–5years,adiversegroupofbenchandphysicianscientistshaveprospectively enhanced our knowledge of stem cell biology. These studies are unveiling many unrecognized or previously unknown fundamentals of developmental biology.

The Role of SOX2 in Colon Cancer Progression

The Role of SOX2 in Colon Cancer Progression
Author : Debasish Boral
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2014
Category : Colon (Anatomy)
Total pages :328
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SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) is one the embryonic stem cell transcription factors that is capable of reprogramming adult differentiated cells into an induced pluripotent cell. SOX2 is amplified in various types of epithelial cancers and its high its expression correlates with poor prognosis and decreased patient survival. Aberrant Wnt signaling drives the colo-rectal carcinogenic process and is a major determinant of the disease outcome. This study demonstrates that SOX2 counteracts Wnt driven tumor cell proliferation and maintains quiescence in a sub-population of Colo-Rectal Cancer (CRC) cells. High SOX2 expression is found in a sub-group of CRC patients with advanced disease. High SOX2 expression coupled with low Wnt activity was found in SW620 metastatic CRC cell line, while the opposite was true for the isogenic SW480 primary tumor cell line. SOX2 silencing increased Wnt activity and enhanced the oncogenic potential of SW620 cells in vitro and in vivo while over-expression had opposite effects in SW480 cells. SOX2 up-regulates the expression of PTPRK and PHLPP2 protein phosphatase genes which in turn attenuates Wnt activity by interfering with Protein Kinase A, B and C mediated beta catenin phosphorylation at Serine 552 and 675 amino acid residues thereby diminishing its nuclear sequestration and transcriptional activation. Thus SOX2 mitigates growth factor mediated Wnt activation in CRC cells and inhibits cellular proliferation so that these cells are forced to change their oncogene addiction. In effect, high SOX2 expression causes clonal evolution of APC mutant CRC cells from a state of high Wnt dependency to a state of low Wnt dependency in the process making such cells resistant to Wnt inhibitor therapy. Enhanced SOX2 transcriptional activity was associated with increased proportion of cancer cells in G0 -G1 phase of cell cycle. Changing SOX2 protein levels in cells had a direct correlation with mRNA levels of RBL2-HUMAN and CDKN2B genes, which serve as regulators of G0 and G1 respectively. SOX2 was shown to physically bind and to the promoter region of these two genes and enhance their transcription. Thus high SOX2 expression, up-regulates the expression of key cell cycle inhibitor genes like RBL2 and CDKN2B and keeps cells in a dormant state. This phenomenon allows colon cancer cells to escape from cytotoxic drug therapy directed at rapidly dividing cells and cause treatment failure and disease relapse.

Transcriptional Control of Neural Crest Development

Transcriptional Control of Neural Crest Development
Author : Brian L. Nelms,Patricia A. Labosky
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release Date : 2010
Category : Science
Total pages :227
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The neural crest is a remarkable embryonic population of cells found only in vertebrates and has the potential to give rise to many different cell types contributing throughout the body. These derivatives range from the mesenchymal bone and cartilage comprising the facial skeleton, to neuronal derivatives of the peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous systems, to melanocytes throughout the body, and to smooth muscle of the great arteries of the heart. For these cells to correctly progress from an unspecifi ed, nonmigratory population to a wide array of dynamic, differentiated cell types-some of which retain stem cell characteristics presumably to replenish these derivatives-requires a complex network of molecular switches to control the gene programs giving these cells their defi ning structural, enzymatic, migratory, and signaling capacities. This review will bring together current knowledge of neural crest-specifi c transcription factors governing these progressions throughout the course of development. A more thorough understanding of the mechanisms of transcriptional control in differentiation will aid in strategies designed to push undifferentiated cells toward a particular lineage, and unraveling these processes will help toward reprogramming cells from a differentiated to a more naive state. Table of Contents: Introduction / AP Genes / bHLH Genes / ETS Genes / Fox Genes / Homeobox Genes / Hox Genes / Lim Genes / Pax Genes / POU Domain Genes / RAR/RXR Genes / Smad Genes / Sox Genes / Zinc Finger Genes / Other Miscellaneous Genes / References / Author Biographies

The Role of OCT4 and SOX2 in Regulating Chromatin Accessibility and Cell Fate Across the Cell Cycle in Embryonic Stem Cells

The Role of OCT4 and SOX2 in Regulating Chromatin Accessibility and Cell Fate Across the Cell Cycle in Embryonic Stem Cells
Author : Torgil Elias Friman
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category :
Total pages :146
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Mots-clés de l'auteur: Transcription factors ; embryonic stem cells ; chromatin accessibility ; pioneer factors ; cell cycle ; OCT4 ; SOX2 ; differentiation.

The Effects of Recombinant Oct4 and Sox2 Proteins on Pluripotent Genes Expression in Mouse Somatic Cells

The Effects of Recombinant Oct4 and Sox2 Proteins on Pluripotent Genes Expression in Mouse Somatic Cells
Author : Sirilada Suphankong
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2009
Category :
Total pages :100
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ในปัจจุบันพบว่าการใช้ไวรัสเป็นตัวนํา transcription factor เพียง 4 ตัว ได้แก่ Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 และ c-Myc เข้าสู่เซลล์ สามารถเหนี่ยวนําให้โซมาติกเซลล์มีคุณสมบัติเข้าใกล้ pluripotent stage ซึ่งเซลล์ใหม่ที่สร้างได้มีคุณสมบัติเหมือนกับเซลล์ต้นกําเนิดตัวอ่อนทุกประการ และเรียกเซลล์ใหม่นี้ว่า "induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells" การค้นพบในครั้งนี้นําไปสู่ความหวังในการสร้าง patient-specific pluripotent stem cells เพื่อนําไปใช้ในการรักษาและงานวิจัยทางการแพทย์ในอนาคต อย่างไรก็ตามปัญหาสําคัญสําหรับการใช้เทคนิคนี้คือ การที่ไวรัสเข้าไปแทรกในจีโนมของเซลล์เจ้าบ้านอาจก่อให้เกิดการกลายพันธุ์และกลายเป็นมะเร็งได้ ดังนั้นคณะผู้วิจัยจึงสนใจที่จะพัฒนาเทคนิคใหม่ โดยการใช้เปบไทด์สายสั้นๆ ที่เรียกว่า Tat peptide เป็นตัวนํา transcription factor ที่สําคัญดังกล่าวเข้าสู่เซลล์แทนการใช้ตัวพาที่เป็นไวรัส จากผลการทดสอบคุณสมบัติของ recombinant Oct-4 protein พบว่าโปรตีนที่เราสร้างขึ้นเพียงแค่เติมลงใน media ที่ใช้เลี้ยงเซลล์ตามปกติ ก็สามารถผ่าน somatic cell membrane เข้าสู่นิวเคลียสของเซลล์ได้ อีกทั้งยังสามารถกระตุ้นให้เกิดการแสดงออกของ pluripotent gene บางตัวรวมถึงมีผลต่อการเกิด activation ของ Nanog-luciferase reporter อีกด้วย ที่น่าสนใจอีกประการหนึ่งพบว่าเมื่อนํา recombinant Oct4 protein มาใช้ร่วมกับ Sox2/Klf4/c-Myc-retroviral transduction สามารถกระตุ้นให้เกิด iPS colony ได้โดยเปรียบเทียบกับ control ที่ใช้ไวรัสเพียง 3 ตัว μτ“� ϐ�Κυϐ £̉ı̉Æı̉ʻ Θιεʹ� ı̉‹ı̉œ£̉˜ı̉‡£̉„ı̉Ł£̉˜ı̉žı̉š ϐμιμλυ £̉€ı̉Æı̉Ø ı̉˜ı̉øı̉ı̉œı̉Æı̉ı̉øı̉Đı̉—ı̉”ı̉Æı̉Ưı̉‡ı̉™ı̉æ£̉œ ı̉™£̉‍ı̉ø£̉„ı̉›ı̉®ı̉££̉˜ı̉„ı̉ʹı̉øı̉Ł£̉€ı̉›£̉‡ı̉™£̉„ı̉›£̉„ı̉”£̉œı̉—ı̉æ£̉˜ı̉˜ı̉ʻı̉™£̉‍ı̉ø£̉€ı̉—ı̉„ı̉™ı̉þı̉„ νομϟδζλ ϟοαλπγρϐϟζμλ ı̉Łı̉øı̉›ı̉Đı̉ʻı̉Øı̉ıı̉ı̉•£̉Œ£̉ƒı̉Š£̉œ£̉ƒı̉™ı̉ı̉øı̉Đ£̉€ı̉±ı̉™ı̉æ£̉˜ı̉Øı̉ʹı̉™£̉‍ı̉ø£̉ƒı̉±£̉œ£̉€ı̉ı̉þı̉”ı̉ı̉øı̉Đı̉Đı̉æ£̉‚ı̉›ı̉Đ£̉ı̉ı̉Đı̉Ł£̉€ı̉‹ı̉Æı̉Æ£̉Œ£̉„ı̉”£̉œ£̉‚ı̉”ı̉Ø£̉„ı̉Ł£̉˜ı̉•£̉œı̉Ưı̉‡£̉ƒı̉Š£̉œ£̉„ı̉ʹı̉Đı̉łı̉®�

CRISPR/Cas-9 Knockout of SOX2 in Bovine Preimplantation Embryos

CRISPR/Cas-9 Knockout of SOX2 in Bovine Preimplantation Embryos
Author : Charnice Robinson
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category :
Total pages :129
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CRISPR/Cas-9 system has been utilized in several model organisms to determine gene function via gene silencing and reverse genetics. While ample studies have been conducted in mice to uncover that pluripotency genes such as SRY-box 2 (SOX2) are highly expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the inner cell mass (ICM), improved understanding of SOX2 function in cattle can potentially result in a valuable model for human preimplantation embryo development. Our study aimed to determine the efficiency of target mutations in 8-cell embryos after direct metaphase II (MII) oocyte or zygote stage injection of CRISPR/Cas-9 (Streptococcus pyogenes Cas-9) targeting SOX2 and to assess embryo development. After designing guide RNAs (gRNA) to target exon 1 within the bovine SOX2 gene, MII oocytes and parthenogenetically derived zygotes were microinjected with Cas-9/single gRNA complexes or Cas-9/combination gRNA complexes and 8-cell parthenotes were sequenced to observe mutation type and efficiency. A 24% mutation rate in MII oocytes and 27% mutation rate in pronuclear (PN) injected embryos was observed following injection in the oocyte or zygote. Furthermore, 20% of embryos displayed monoallelic mutations; whereas, 31% of mutated embryos were biallelic across both groups (MII and PN). Immunostaining was done to identify SOX2 negative blastocysts and we observed 10 embryos that completely lacked SOX2 protein and 7 mosaic (n=45) with cells still contributing to the ICM, suggesting that ICM formation may not require SOX2 and its expression is not an absolute requirement for blastocyst formation in cattle.

Sox2 Defines Distinct Functional Classes of Stem Cells

Sox2 Defines Distinct Functional Classes of Stem Cells
Author : Kevin Allen D'Amour
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2002
Category :
Total pages :220
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Nephropathy: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition

Nephropathy: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release Date : 2012-01-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :86
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Nephropathy: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Nephropathy in a concise format. The editors have built Nephropathy: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Nephropathy in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Nephropathy: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.