June 20, 2021

Download Ebook Free Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Repair Strategies

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Repair Strategies

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Repair Strategies
Author : Giuseppe Perale,Filippo Rossi
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2019-10-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :346
GET BOOK

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Repair Strategies provides researchers the latest information on potential regenerative approaches to spinal cord injury, specifically focusing on therapeutic approaches that target regeneration, including cell therapies, controlled drug delivery systems, and biomaterials. Dr. Giuseppe Perale and Dr. Filippo Rossi lead a team of authoritative authors in academia and industry in this innovative reference on the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This book presents all the information readers need to understand the current and potential array of techniques, materials, applications and their benefits for spinal cord repair. Covers current and future repair strategies for spinal cord injury repair Focuses on key research trends, clinics, biology and engineering Provides fundamentals on regenerative engineering and tissue engineering

Neural Repair and Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury and Spine Trauma

Neural Repair and Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury and Spine Trauma
Author : Michael G. Fehlings,Brian Kwon,Alexander R. Vaccaro,F. Cumhur Oner
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-12-15
Category : Medical
Total pages :400
GET BOOK

Neural Repair and Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury and Spine Trauma provides readers with a comprehensive overview on the most up-to-date strategies to repair and regenerate the injured spinal cord following SCI and spine trauma. With contributions by international authors, chapters put regenerative approaches in context, allowing the reader to understand the challenges and future directions of regenerative therapies. Recent clinical trial advancements are thoroughly discussed, with the impact of trial findings addressed. Additionally, major ongoing clinical trials are included with thoughts from experts in the field. Recent clinical practice guidelines for the management of traumatic spinal cord injury are featured throughout. These guidelines are quickly being adopted as the standard of care worldwide, and the comprehensive information found within this book will place these recommendations in context with current knowledge surrounding spinal cord injury and spine trauma. Contains contributions by international authors Covers recent clinical trial advancements and findings and updates on ongoing trials Presents an overview of clinical practice guidelines for the management of traumatic spinal cord injury featured Provides the reader with insights regarding the translation of research from bench to bedside and the skills needed to understand the translational pathway using real-life examples

Neurobiology of Spinal Cord Injury

Neurobiology of Spinal Cord Injury
Author : Robert G. Kalb,Stephen M. Strittmatter
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 1999-10-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :284
GET BOOK

Distinguished researchers review the latest scientific understanding of spinal cord injury (SCI), focusing on the mechanisms causing paralysis after spinal cord trauma, the molecular determinants of neural regeneration, and methods for improving damaged function. The authors examine the role of intracellular Ca2+ in neuronal death, the possibility of spinal learning, growth-promoting molecules for regenerating neurons, and the biochemistry and cell biology of microtubules. Among the treatment possibilities discussed are cell transplantation strategies beyond the use of fetal spinal cord tissue, remyelination in spinal cord demyelination models, high steroid therapy immediately after SCI, and the mixed use of anti- and proinflammatories. Comprehensive and highly promising, Neurobiology of Spinal Cord Injury summarizes and integrates the great progress that has been made in understanding and combating the paralysis that follows spinal cord injury.

Promoting Neuroplasticity to Repair the Injured Spinal Cord

Promoting Neuroplasticity to Repair the Injured Spinal Cord
Author : Nina Weishaupt
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2013
Category : Neuroplasticity
Total pages :272
GET BOOK

This thesis explores strategies to promote neuronal plasticity in a rat model of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) in an effort to achieve improved recovery of skilled forelimb use. I focused on investigating how motor pathways disrupted by an SCI may connect to spared, lesion-bridging relay pathways to re-establish communication with target regions below the injury level. In chapter 2, I attempted to promote a detour for the cervically injured corticospinal tract (CST) via spared reticulospinal tract (RtST) axons with a combined treatment including the neurotrophins BDNF, NT-3 and rehabilitative training. Although anatomical evidence for the desired rewiring was not obtained, I found a synergistic effect of BDNF treatment and training on recovery of skilled forelimb reaching. No effect of NT-3 administered rostral to the SCI was evident. The experiment in chapter 3 was designed to answer the question whether NT-3-induced CST collateral growth rostral to an SCI can be facilitated by systemic immune activation. Results indicate that NT-3 expression can promote collateral growth from the injured CST, irrespective of immune activation. Since results from chapter 2 did not shed light on the previously suggested role of the RtST in recovery of hand/paw function after cervical SCI, I next examined whether the mostly spared RtST responds to SCI with changes in its anatomical projection pattern. While collateral projections were unchanged rostral to the SCI, I observed a marked withdrawal of collaterals from grey matter regions directly caudal to the SCI. Results from chapter 2 combined with previous reports indicate that task-specific training does often not translate into untrained tasks and may even result in undesired side effects. To elucidate the functional relationship between trained tasks further, I next investigated how training the primarily affected forelimb (PAF) and/or the less affected forelimb (LAF) after unilateral cervical SCI influences performance outcomes for each limb. Results point towards training tasks competitively recruiting available neuronal "hardware". This work identifies promising leads for promoting plasticity of important motor tracts after SCI, and also points out targets for optimization of strategies employed. These new insights contribute to the exploration of urgently needed repair strategies for SCI.

Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal Cord Injury
Author : Joost Verhaagen,John W. McDonald III
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2012-12-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :656
GET BOOK

Handbook of Clinical Neurology: Spinal Cord Injury summarizes advances in the clinical diagnosis, monitoring, prognostication, treatment, and management of spinal cord injuries. More specifically, it looks at new and important developments in areas such as high-resolution noninvasive neuroimaging, surgery, and electrical stimulation of motor, respiratory, bladder, bowel, and sexual functions. It also reviews the latest insights into spontaneous regeneration and recovery of function following rehabilitation, with emphasis on novel therapeutic strategies, such as gene therapy, transcranial stimulation, brain-machine interfaces, pharmacological approaches, molecular target discovery, and the use of olfactory ensheathing cells, stem cells, and precursor cells. Organized in five sections, the book begins with an overview of the development, maturation, biomechanics, and anatomy of the spinal cord before proceeding with a discussion of clinical diagnosis and prognosis as well as natural recovery, ambulation, and function following spinal cord injury. It then examines clinical neurophysiology in the prognosis and monitoring of traumatic spinal cord injury; medical, surgical and rehabilitative management of spinal cord trauma; and some new approaches for improving recovery in patients, including restoration of function by electrical stimulation, locomotor training, and the use of robotics. Other chapters cover cell transplantation, artificial scaffolds, experimental pharmacological interventions, and molecular and combinatorial strategies for repairing the injured spinal cord. This volume should be of interest to neuroscience and clinical neurology research specialists and practicing neurologists. Comprehensive coverage of the latest scientific understanding of spinal cord injuries Detailed coverage of current treatment best practices and potential future treatments Connects leading edge research programs to future treatment opportunities

Society for Neuroscience Abstracts

Society for Neuroscience Abstracts
Author : Society for Neuroscience. Meeting
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2001
Category : Electronic books
Total pages :129
GET BOOK

Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Spine

Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Spine
Author : Jack Jallo,Alexander R. Vaccaro
Publisher : Thieme
Release Date : 2018-03-21
Category : Medical
Total pages :238
GET BOOK

"This book is the most useful summary of present knowledge about epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment and management of spinal cord injuries today. It is a great book that deserves a widespread distribution among spine surgeons and physicians involved in the treatment of spinal injuries." - European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Spine, 2nd edition, by a distinguished critical care neurosurgeon, Jack Jallo, and a renowned spine surgeon, Alexander Vaccaro, incorporates salient components of the highly praised first edition. The updated text reflects cutting-edge discussion on spine injury management in a neurocritical care setting. Contributions from top experts in neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, neurology, critical care, cardiac and pulmonary care, and trauma surgery infuse this book with a well-rounded perspective. From the pre-hospital to intensive care setting, this unique reference provides a comprehensive, yet concise approach to the treatment of acute spinal cord injury and management of patients with chronic SCI. Chapters new to this edition include neurological assessment of spinal injury, clearing the cervical spine, management of concurrent TBI and spinal injury, blood pressure and oxygen management, temperature management, fluids and osmotherapy, pharmacology, autonomic dysreflexia, infection after SCI, and emerging therapies. Key Highlights, Evaluation and management of SCI in the athlete including different injury syndromes and the latest recommendations for "return to play" in less severe cases Management of pediatric spinal injuries in the NICU with illustrative cases Specialized topics include a comprehensive review of SCI pharmacology, recent medical advances, socioeconomic and quality-of-life considerations Nearly 100 high quality illustrations facilitate understanding of complex anatomy and techniques Summary tables provide a handy overview of injury type, causes, characteristics, and recommended imaging modalities The definitive guide on the management of cervical, cervicothoracic, and thoracolumbar injuries, this is essential reading for neurosurgeons, orthopaedic surgeons, trauma and emergency specialists, and residents in these specialties. Paired with Neurotrauma and Critical Care of the Brain, 2nd edition, this dynamic duo is the most up-to-date neurocritical care reference available today.

Peterson's Graduate Programs in the Biological Sciences 2008

Peterson's Graduate Programs in the Biological Sciences 2008
Author : Peterson's
Publisher : Petersons
Release Date : 2007-12
Category : Reference
Total pages :1239
GET BOOK

Lists over 3,700 graduate programs in 37 disciplines in the biological sciences

Science

Science
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2002
Category : Science
Total pages :129
GET BOOK

AOSpine Masters Series, Volume 7: Spinal Cord Injury and Regeneration

AOSpine Masters Series, Volume 7: Spinal Cord Injury and Regeneration
Author : Luiz Roberto Gomes Vialle,Michael G. Fehlings,Norbert Weidner
Publisher : Thieme
Release Date : 2016-10-30
Category : Medical
Total pages :225
GET BOOK

World-renowned experts share the latest updates in translational research as well as surgical and nonsurgical strategies for treating spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating, clinically challenging injury, leading to varying degrees of neurological function impairment and paralysis. Underlying biological mechanisms either inhibit or promote new growth in the spinal cord. Researchers have been making important discoveries about how neurons and their axons grow in the central nervous system and why they fail to regenerate after SCI. Although progress has been steady, there remains an urgent need to address issues in acute management such as early decompression and the use of biologics, as well as potential solutions for regeneration. Written by renowned experts in the ever-evolving field of SCI research and clinical practice, the 7th volume in the AOSpine Masters series is a state-of-the-art compendium on the latest in SCI diagnosis, spine surgery interventions, and long-term management. Each chapter contains pearls from leading spine specialists gleaned from the research laboratory and years of hands-on experience treating SCI patients in the emergency setting and long term. Key Features: Pathobiology, assessment, and diagnostic considerations The use of biomarkers as predictors of functional recovery Surgical and nonsurgical interventions for traumatic SCI The role of neural stem cells and biologics in spinal cord repair Functional and epidural stimulation and brain-computer interfaces The AOSpine Masters series, a copublication of Thieme and the AOSpine Foundation, addresses current clinical issues featuring international masters sharing their expertise in the core areas in the field. The goal of the series is to contribute to an evolving, dynamic model of evidence-based approach to spine care. This essential textbook delivers invaluable insights to spine surgeons, spinal cord injury clinicians and researchers and trainees, from translational researchers to experienced researchers and clinicians experienced in the operative and non-operative management of spinal cord injury.

Gsk-3β Inhibition Promotes Oligodendroglial Differentiation and Remyelination After Spinal Cord Injury

Gsk-3β Inhibition Promotes Oligodendroglial Differentiation and Remyelination After Spinal Cord Injury
Author : Yanling Pan,潘彥伶
Publisher : Open Dissertation Press
Release Date : 2017-01-27
Category :
Total pages :129
GET BOOK

This dissertation, "GSK-3β Inhibition Promotes Oligodendroglial Differentiation and Remyelination After Spinal Cord Injury" by Yanling, Pan, 潘彥伶, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in extensive demyelination, leading to deleterious axon degeneration and inability of functional recovery. Remyelination has become a part of the fundamental strategy for SCI repair. Endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) respond to SCI producing progenies and provide a possible source of regenerated oligodedrocytes for remyelination. During development of the central nervous system, glycogen synthase kinase-3 isoform beta (GSK-3β) is involved in multiple pathways that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, and thus may also play an important part in remyelination after SCI. This study aims to investigate (1) the role of GSK-3β in the differentiation of adult spinal cord derived-neural progenitor cells (ASC-NPCs); (2) whether AR-A014418 as a GSK-3β inhibitor, can promote oligodendroglial differentiation of ASC-NPCs; (3) the effect of LiCl, another GSK-3β inhibitor, on functional recovery after SCI; (4) the effects of LiCl on the myelin and axonal preservation after SCI. Neurosphere culture from adult mouse spinal cord was performed to test the effect of GSK-3β inhibitors, LiCl and AR-A014418, on differentiation of ASC-NPCs. Phenotyping of differentiated ASC-NPCs by immunocytochemistry (ICC) was performed to identify oligodendroglia progenitor cells (OPCs) at different stages. It was shown that LiCl (1 mM) and AR-A014418 (5 μM) promoted differentiation of OPCs as labeled by oligodendrocyte lineage-specific markers: PDGFR-α, NG2 and O4, while AR-A014418 was more potent in the OPC differentiation. Moreover, preliminary data from western blot confirmed that ARA014418 (5 μM) treatment increased the expression level of pGSK (inactive form of GSK-3) in differentiated ASC-NPCs. This suggests a possible strategy to modulate endogenous NPC response to SCI: to induce the preferential differentiation of NPCs into oligodendrocyte lineage by inhibiting GSK-3β activity and thus leading to enhanced remyelination by the differentiated oligodendrocytes. Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) open field test was used to evaluate the locomotive function of the spinal cord injured mice. The result showed that LiCl (4 mM, 200 μl) administration delivered locally at the lesion site by osmotic pump for 2 weeks improved functional recovery after SCI. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses revealed that LiCl treatment inhibited GSK-3β activity in the 〖Olig2〗 DEGREES+ OPCs/oligodendrocytes, confirming LiCl as a GSK-3β inhibitor in vivo. Moreover, LiCl treatment better preserved myelin and axons detected by myelin basic protein (MBP) immunostaining and neurofilment-200 (NF-200) immunostaining respectively in the injured spinal cords. All together, the data from our in vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that LiCl treatment after spinal cord injury is beneficial for functional recovery by preventing the loss of myelin and axons after SCI and this effect is mediated via GSK-3β inhibition This study provided evidence for the involvement of GSK-3β in the regulation of OPC differentiation and the subsequent remyelination in the injured adult spinal cord. We propose GSK-3β as an important therapeutic target for SCI repair, LiCl as a potential candidate for SCI clinical treatment and the possibility to manipulate endogenous NPCs after SCI to enhance oligodendrocyte differentiation, remyelination, and ultimately b

Dissertation Abstracts International

Dissertation Abstracts International
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category : Dissertations, Academic
Total pages :129
GET BOOK

Handbook of Biodegradable Polymeric Materials and Their Applications: Applications

Handbook of Biodegradable Polymeric Materials and Their Applications: Applications
Author : Surya Mallapragada,Balaji Narasimhan
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2006
Category : Biodegradable plastics
Total pages :313
GET BOOK

Tissue Engineering

Tissue Engineering
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category : Biomedical engineering
Total pages :129
GET BOOK

Investigation of Plasma Membrane Compromise and Citicoline-mediated Repair After Spinal Cord Injury Repair

Investigation of Plasma Membrane Compromise and Citicoline-mediated Repair After Spinal Cord Injury Repair
Author : Crystal Michelle Simon
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category : Cell membranes
Total pages :129
GET BOOK

Although spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that presents a large socioeconomic problem in the United States, there is currently no treatment that reliably reduces morbidity and mortality. Current research is aimed at identifying mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of SCI and using this knowledge to develop rational treatments. We have observed plasma membrane compromise in the acute (within 10 minutes), sub-acute (3 days), and chronic phases (5 weeks) in a rat model of contusion SCI and postulate that it negatively affects neurological outcome. Holes/tears in the plasma membrane were assessed with a dye exclusion assay, in which a fluorescent cell-impermeant dye was injected into the cerebrospinal fluid prior to sacrifice; therefore, cellular uptake of the dye is indicative of plasma membrane compromise. As early as 10 minutes after SCI, widespread uptake of permeability markers was evident in neuronal cell bodies as well as axonal projections. The number of permeable cells and the size of the membrane breaches (measured by using permeability markers of various sizes) varied with distance from the injury site, with larger disruptions located closer to the epicenter. Greater cellular uptake was observed when the impact force was increased (200> 150> 100 kdyn> sham). At longer time points (3 days and 5 weeks), substantial permeability marker uptake was observed in axons but not in cell bodies. Cells with increased permeability displayed a variety of pathomorphological alterations, including swelling, blebbing, retraction bulb formation, neurofilament loss, and fragmentation, suggesting that increased plasma membrane permeability is detrimental to cell survival and function. We therefore investigated a clinically-relevant treatment strategy designed to restore plasma membrane integrity. Animals were treated with citicoline, a molecule utilized in the endogenous synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (the major membrane component in mammalian cells). Citicoline has been shown to be beneficial in numerous studies of neurological disease, improving overall outcome by increasing phospholipid synthesis and attenuating phospholipid destruction (by reducing phospholipase A2 activity). However, these mechanisms have not been explored in a model of SCI. When compared to injured animals receiving vehicle (saline) injections, citicoline treatment after SCI did not have a statistically significant effect on cytoplasmic PLA2 activity (at 24h post-injury), the density of permeable axons (at 3 days post-injury), or the lesion volume (at 3 days post-injury). Since citicoline may improve neurological outcome after SCI through mechanisms we did not directly assess, we then conducted a longer-term study to evaluate the overall efficacy of citicoline treatment in terms of longer-term functional and histological consequences. Citicoline did not have a biologically significant effect on behavioral recovery (evaluated during open field locomotion, grid walk and hyperalgesia testing weekly for up to 5 weeks post-injury) or lesion volume (at 5 weeks post-injury). The lack of citicoline-mediated effect may be attributed to experimental parameters (e.g., dosing or sensitivity of outcome measures) or biological inefficacy. Although we were not able to demonstrate that citicoline improves outcome after SCI, the finding that plasma membrane damage occurs in a persistent fashion and is associated with pathophysiological cellular alterations may provide fundamental knowledge necessary for developing treatments targeted at membrane repair. Future work examining the complex mechanisms causing prolonged membrane damage after SCI and evaluating strategies for manipulating these pathways (potentially using citicoline in combination with other pharmacological agents) may lead to a clinically effective therapy.