November 24, 2020

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Synchrotron-Based Techniques in Soils and Sediments

Synchrotron-Based Techniques in Soils and Sediments
Author : Balwant Singh,Markus Grafe
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2010-02-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :512
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Over the past 20 years, synchrotron-based research applications have provided important insight into the geochemical cycling of ions and the chemical and crystallographic properties of minerals in soils and sediments. Of particular significance is the understanding of local coordination environments with the use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The high flux and brightness of the X-ray beams have allowed researchers to work at environmentally relevant concentrations. The use of focusing mirrors and apertures which allow for mapping and trace particle surfaces, microbes, roots, channels and elements at the micron and at a nano-meter scale in 2 and 3D have also been a great enhancement to science. This book provides the most up-to-date information on synchrotron-based research applications in the field of soil, sediment and earth sciences. Invited authors provide chapters on a wide range of research topics including multiphase flow and transport processes (physical aspects), rhizosphere and microbial life (biological aspects), and dynamics of C, N, S, P and heavy metals and metalloids (chemical aspects). In addition, perspectives on the impact of synchrotron based applications, particularly X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the role of synchrotron applications in remediation, regulatory, and decision making processes are considered. Up-to-date, with the latest research results and techniques in synchrotron-based techniques Information on specific techniques, elements and minerals, regulatory and remediation decision making, contaminants and the impact of X-ray absorption spectroscopy on soil science Internationally recognized leaders in their fields of expertise from Europe, North America, Asia and Australia

Geochemical and Hydrological Reactivity of Heavy Metals in Soils

Geochemical and Hydrological Reactivity of Heavy Metals in Soils
Author : H. Magdi Selim,William L. Kingery
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2003-03-26
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :376
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The hydrological and geochemical interactions between clay minerals and organic matter in soils directly influence the reaction, behavior, and mobility of heavy metals in soils. Geochemical and Hydrological Reactivity of Heavy Metals in Soils is one of few books that comprehensively illustrates this cause-and-effect relationship. It highlights anal

Handbook of Soil Sciences

Handbook of Soil Sciences
Author : Pan Ming Huang,Yuncong Li,Malcolm E. Sumner
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2011-11-17
Category : Science
Total pages :830
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An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for construction and manufacturing. To develop lasting solutions to the challenges of balanced use and stewardship of the Earth, we require a fundamental understanding of soil—from its elastic, porous three-phase system to its components, processes, and reactions. Handbook of Soil Sciences: Resource Management and Environmental Impacts, Second Edition is the second of two volumes that form a comprehensive reference on the discipline of soil science. Completely revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge, this volume covers interfacial interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological regimes within the soil; the factors that control the availability of plant nutrients and microelements; interdisciplinary aspects of soil science, including salinity, sodicity, and soil erosion; and soil databases for assessing worldwide soil resources. Critical elements addressed in each section include: Descriptions of concepts and theories Definitions, approaches, methodologies, and procedures Data in tabular and figure format Extensive references This cohesive handbook provides a thorough understanding of soil science principles and practices based on a rigorous, complete, and up-to-date treatment of the subject matter compiled by leading scientists. It is a resource rich in data, offering professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and students their first point of entry into a particular aspect of the soil sciences.

Handbook of Soil Sciences (Two Volume Set)

Handbook of Soil Sciences (Two Volume Set)
Author : Pan Ming Huang,Yuncong Li,Malcolm E. Sumner
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-10-03
Category : Science
Total pages :2272
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An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for co

Chemical processes in soils

Chemical processes in soils
Author : M. A. Tabatabai,Donald L. Sparks
Publisher : Soil Science Society of Amer
Release Date : 2005
Category : Science
Total pages :723
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"Soil - perfect home for the actual and figurative roots of all life, source of life-essential chemical elements, recycler of water and carbon, cleanser of ecosystems...R.J. Bartlett & D.S. Ross, p. 461. A thorough understanding of the chemical and biological processes taking place within the soil is critical for those studying or working in the agricultural, ecological, environmental, earth, and soil sciences. This book will serve them well. "

Speciation Studies in Soil, Sediment and Environmental Samples

Speciation Studies in Soil, Sediment and Environmental Samples
Author : Sezgin Bakirdere
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2013-09-26
Category : Science
Total pages :612
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Recent developments clearly indicate that speciation studies in biological and environmental matrices are much more important than the total element determination due to the tremendous difference in bioavailability and toxicity of various chemical forms of a particular element. Different separation-detection techniques and hyphenated systems—each with its own advantages and disadvantages with respect to precision, sensitivity and detection limit—have been developed for the identification and quantification of the species present in systems at ultra-trace levels. This book aims to evaluate the speciation analysis in depth and present a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art analytical approaches used for the speciation of elements in environmental samples.

Environmental Soil Chemistry

Environmental Soil Chemistry
Author : Donald L. Sparks
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :267
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As the author states in his Preface, this book is written at a time when scientific and lay communities recognize that knowledge of environmental chemistry is fundamental in understanding and predicting the fate of pollutants in soils and waters, and in making sound decisions about remediation of contaminated soils. Environmental Soil Chemistry presents the fundamental concepts of soil science and applies them to environmentally significant reactions in soil. Clearly and concisely written for undergraduate and beginning graduate students of soil science, the book is likewise accessible to all students and professionals of environmental engineering and science. Chapters cover background information useful to students new to the discipline, including the chemistry of inorganic and organic soil components, soilacidity and salinity, and ion exchange and redox phenomena. However, discussion also extends to sorption/desorption, oxidation-reduction of metals and organic chemicals, rates of pollutant reactions as well as technologies for remediating contaminated soils. Supplementary reading lists, sample problems, and extensive tables and figures make this textbook accessible to readers. Key Features * Provides students with both sound contemporary training in the basics of soil chemistry and applications to real-world environmental concerns * Timely and comprehensive discussion of important concepts including: * Sorption/desorption * Oxidation-reduction of metals and organics * Effects of acidic deposition and salinity on contaminant reactions * Boxed sections focus on sample problems and explanations of key terms and parameters * Extensive tables on elemental composition of soils, rocks and sediments, pesticide classes, inorganic minerals, and methods of decontaminating soils * Clearly written for all students and professionals in environmental science and environmental engineering as well as soil science

Environmental Soil Chemistry

Environmental Soil Chemistry
Author : Donald L. Sparks,Donald L. Sparks (Ph. D.)
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2003
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :352
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Counter Environmental Soil Chemistry: An Overview: Evolution of Soil Chemistry. The Modern Environmental Movement. Contaminants in Waters and Soils. Case Study of Pollution of Soils and Waters. Soil Decontamination. Inorganic Soil Components: Pauling's Rules. Primary Soil Minerals. Secondary Soil Minerals. Specific Surface of Soil Minerals. Surface Charge of Soil Minerals. Identification of Minerals by X-Ray Diffraction Analyses. Use of Clay Minerals to Retain Organic Contaminants. Chemistry of Soil Organic Matter: Effects of Soil Formation Factors on SOM Contents. Composition of SOM. Fractionation of SOM. SOM Structure. Functional Groups and Charge Characteristics. Humic Substance-Metal Interactions. SOM-Clay Complexes. Retention of Pesticides and Other Organic Substances by Humic Substances. Soil Solution-Solid Phase Equilibria: Measurement of the Soil Solution. Speciation of the Soil Solution. Ion Activity and Activity Coefficients. Dissolution and Solubility Processes. Sorption Phenomena on Soils: Introduction and Terminology. Surface Functional Groups. Surface Complexes. Adsorption Isotherms. Equilibrium-Based Adsorption Models. Surface Precipitation. Sorption of Metal Cations. Sorption of Anions. Points of Zero Charge. Desorption. Use of Spectroscopic and Microscopic Methods in Determining Mechanisms for Sorption-Desorption Phenomena. Ion Exchange Processes: Characteristics of Ion Exchange. Cation Exchange Equilibrium Constants and Selectivity Coefficients. Thermodynamics of Ion Exchange. Relationship between Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Ion Exchange. Kinetics of Soil Chemical Processes: Rate-Limiting Steps and Time Scales of Soil Chemical Reactions. Rate Laws. Determination of Reaction Order and Rate Constants. Kinetic Models. Kinetic Methodologies. Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates. Kinetics of Important Soil Chemical Processes. Redox Chemistry of Soils: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Potentials. Eh vs pH and pe vs pH Diagrams. Measurement and Use of Redox Potentials. Submerged Soils. Redox Reactions Involving Inorganic and Organic Pollutants. The Chemistry of Soil Acidity: Historical Perspective of Soil Activity. Solution Chemistry of Aluminum. Exchangeable and Nonexchangeable Aluminum. Soil Acidity. Liming Soils. The Chemistry of Saline and Sodic Soils: Causes of Soil Salinity. Sources of Soluble Salts. Important Salinity and Sodicity Parameters. Classification and Reclamation of Saline and Sodic Soils. Effects of Soil Salinity and Sodicity on Soil Structural Properties. Effects of Soil Salinity on Plant Growth. Appendix A. Appendix B. Bibliography. Chapter References. Subject Index.

Multidimensional Analytical Techniques in Environmental Research

Multidimensional Analytical Techniques in Environmental Research
Author : Regina Duarte,Armando C. Duarte
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2020-06-06
Category : Science
Total pages :314
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Multidimensional Analytical Techniques in Environmental Research is a comprehensive resource on the many multidimensional analytical strategies to qualitatively and quantitatively assess and map the organic and inorganic pollutants in complex atmospheric, water and soil matrices. During the past two decades, the rapidly-evolving field of analytical instrumentation has produced sophisticated multidimensional tools capable of providing unique and in-depth knowledge on the chemical features of complex mixtures from these different environmental matrices. This book brings together the wealth of information in the current literature, assisting in the decision-making process by covering both the fundamentals and applications of these methodologies. Sections cover the wide variety of multidimensional analytical techniques, including multidimensional solution- and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, two-dimensional liquid and gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis coupled to high-resolution detection techniques, and excitation-emission (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy assisted by multiway data analysis tools, and the use of synchrotron-radiation-based techniques combined with other spectroscopic approaches to explore and map the speciation of elements. Identifies state-of-the-art multidimensional analytical methods for targeted and untargeted profiling of complex mixtures from different environmental matrices (soil, sediment, water, and air) Assesses the advantages and limitations of the most modern and sophisticated multidimensional analytical methods in environmental research Highlights the current challenges and potential future directions in the application of multidimensional analytical tools to advance the current understanding on the dynamics and fate of environmental pollutants in different environmental matrices

XAFS for Everyone

XAFS for Everyone
Author : Scott Calvin
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2013-05-20
Category : Science
Total pages :457
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XAFS for Everyone provides a practical, thorough guide to x-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy for both novices and seasoned practitioners from a range of disciplines. The text is enhanced with more than 200 figures as well as cartoon characters who offer informative commentary on the different approaches used in XAFS spectroscopy. The book covers sample preparation, data reduction, tips and tricks for data collection, fingerprinting, linear combination analysis, principal component analysis, and modeling using theoretical standards. It describes both near-edge (XANES) and extended (EXAFS) applications in detail. Examples throughout the text are drawn from diverse areas, including materials science, environmental science, structural biology, catalysis, nanoscience, chemistry, art, and archaeology. In addition, five case studies from the literature demonstrate the use of XAFS principles and analysis in practice. The text includes derivations and sample calculations to foster a deeper comprehension of the results. Whether you are encountering this technique for the first time or looking to hone your craft, this innovative and engaging book gives you insight on implementing XAFS spectroscopy and interpreting XAFS experiments and results. It helps you understand real-world trade-offs and the reasons behind common rules of thumb.

Applications of Synchrotron Radiation in Low-Temperature Geochemistry and Environmental Science

Applications of Synchrotron Radiation in Low-Temperature Geochemistry and Environmental Science
Author : Paul A. Fenter,Mark L. Rivers,Neil Sturchio,Stephen R. Sutton
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release Date : 2018-12-17
Category : Science
Total pages :591
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Volume 49 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry reviews the state of the art of synchrotron radiation applications in low temperature geochemistry and environmental science, and offer speculations on future developments. The reader of this volume will acquire an appreciation of the theory and applications of synchrotron radiation in low temperature geochemistry and environmental science, as well as the significant advances that have been made in this area in the past two decades. It gives a fairly comprehensive overview of synchrotron radiation applications in low temperature geochemistry and environmental science, describes the ways that synchrotron radiation is generated, including a history of synchrotrons and a discussion of aspects of synchrotron radiation that are important to the experimentalist, describes specific synchrotron methods that are most useful for single-crystal surface and mineral-fluid interface studies as well as methods that can be used more generally for investigating complex polyphase fine-grained or amorphous materials, including soils, rocks, and organic matter.

Analytical Geomicrobiology

Analytical Geomicrobiology
Author : Janice P. L. Kenney,Harish Veeramani,Daniel S. Alessi
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 2019-07-31
Category : Nature
Total pages :468
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A comprehensive handbook outlining state-of-the-art analytical techniques used in geomicrobiology, for advanced students, researchers and professional scientists.

Agronomy Abstracts

Agronomy Abstracts
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1993
Category : Agriculture
Total pages :129
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Includes abstracts of the annual meetings of the American Society of Agronomy; Soil Science Society of America; Crop Science Society of America ( - of its Agronomic Education Division).

Diversity of Environmental Biogeochemistry

Diversity of Environmental Biogeochemistry
Author : J. Berthelin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-10-22
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :550
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Biogeochemistry, still in its formative stage twenty years ago, is now a young, interdisciplinary subfield of earth sciences, life sciences and chemistry. An international scientific association (International Symposia on Environmental Biogeochemistry incorporated - ISEB) was founded to organize international symposia to bring together microbiologists, biologists, chemists, geochemists, soil scientists, oceanographers, ecologists and environmental engineers interested in the biogeochemistry of terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments. After the 8th ISEB held in Nancy, France, this volume was compiled. These fifty selected contributions from specialists of varying backgrounds and interests show the diversity and the common framework of the direct or indirect interactions of living organisms and their abiotic environments.

Metallomics

Metallomics
Author : Bernhard Michalke
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2016-09-12
Category : Science
Total pages :496
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Latest developments, new insights and knowledge derived from speciation analysis in one unique compilation: The reader gets acquainted with relevant instrumental as well as application aspects of metallomics approaches, paving the road to understanding fate, pathway, and action of metals in environment and organisms. Upon an introductory chapter on analytical methods and strategies, the full bandwidth of applications is discussed. Expert chapter authors cast spotlights on recent topics such as metallomics applications to environmental and nutrition studies as well as biology and medicine. Special chapters deal with the impact of manganese and iron on neurodegeneration, and the impact of nanoparticles on health.