June 19, 2021

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Systems Evolutionary Biology

Systems Evolutionary Biology
Author : Bor-Sen Chen
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-02-03
Category : Business & Economics
Total pages :390
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Systems Evolutionary Biology: Biological Network Evolution Theory, Stochastic Evolutionary Game Strategies, and Applications to Systems Synthetic Biology discusses the evolutionary game theory and strategies of nonlinear stochastic biological networks under random genetic variations and environmental disturbances and their application to systematic synthetic biology design. The book provides more realistic stochastic biological system models to mimic the real biological systems in evolutionary process and then introduces network evolvability, stochastic evolutionary game theory and strategy based on nonlinear stochastic networks in evolution. Readers will find remarkable, revolutionary information on genetic evolutionary biology that be applied to economics, engineering and bioscience. Explains network fitness, network evolvability and network robustness of biological networks from the systematic perspective Discusses the evolutionary noncooperative and cooperative game strategies of biological networks Offers detailed diagrams to help readers understand biological networks, their systematic behaviors and the simulational results of evolutionary biological networks Includes examples in every chapter with computational simulation to illustrate the solution procedure of evolutionary theory, strategy and results

Evolutionary Biology

Evolutionary Biology
Author : Max K. Hecht
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-11-11
Category : Science
Total pages :665
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The first volume of Evolutionary Bio/ogy was published eleven years ago. Since that time eleven volumes and one supplement have appeared. As stated in earlier prefaces, we are continuing the focus of this series on critical reviews, commentaries, original papers, and controversies in evolu tionary biology. lt is our aim to publish papers primarily of greater length than normally published by society journals and quarterlies. We therefore invite colleagues to submit chapters that fall within the focus and standards of Evolutionary Bio/ogy. The Editors vii Contents 1. Precambrian Evolution of Photosynthetic and Respiratory Organisms lohn M. 0/son Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Basic Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Photosynthetic Energy Conversion and Electron Transport . . . . . . . 6 Oxygen-Evolving Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Photosynthetic Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Photoassimilation and Cyclic Electron Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . Acetate Assimilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . The Common Ancestor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . Chlorophyll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quinone................................................ 19 Linear Electron Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . . . Light-Harvesting Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . . . Evolution of Photosynthetic Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . Purpie and Green Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . . Evolution of Blue-Green Algae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . Weak Electron Donors for the Protoalgae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . Evolution of Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 . . . . . . . . . . General Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Molecular Structure and Protein Variation within and among Populations Richard K. Koehn and Waller F. Eanes Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Molecular Properlies and Structural Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 . . . . Amino Acid Composition and Quaternary Structure . . . . . . . . 46 . . Protomer Size and Quaternary Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 . . . . . ix X Contents Enzyme Polymorphism and Quaternary Structure . . . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . Enzyme Polymorphism and Subunit Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . Data and Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . Drosophila Enzyme Polymorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 . . . . . . . Human Enzyme Polymorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 . . . . . . . . Enzyme Polymorphism: Structure and Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 . . . . .

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-04-14
Category : Science
Total pages :2132
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Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology is the definitive go-to reference in the field of evolutionary biology. It provides a fully comprehensive review of the field in an easy to search structure. Under the collective leadership of fifteen distinguished section editors, it is comprised of articles written by leading experts in the field, providing a full review of the current status of each topic. The articles are up-to-date and fully illustrated with in-text references that allow readers to easily access primary literature. While all entries are authoritative and valuable to those with advanced understanding of evolutionary biology, they are also intended to be accessible to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Broad topics include the history of evolutionary biology, population genetics, quantitative genetics; speciation, life history evolution, evolution of sex and mating systems, evolutionary biogeography, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular and genome evolution, coevolution, phylogenetic methods, microbial evolution, diversification of plants and fungi, diversification of animals, and applied evolution. Presents fully comprehensive content, allowing easy access to fundamental information and links to primary research Contains concise articles by leading experts in the field that ensures current coverage of each topic Provides ancillary learning tools like tables, illustrations, and multimedia features to assist with the comprehension process

Systems Evolutionary Biology of Waddington's Canalization and Genetic Assimilation

Systems Evolutionary Biology of Waddington's Canalization and Genetic Assimilation
Author : Alexander V. Spirov
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category : Science
Total pages :129
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In recent years, there has been growing interest in computer modeling of the evolution of gene and cell regulatory networks, in general, and in computational studies of the classic ideas of Baldwin, Schmalhausen, Waddington, and followers, in particular. Two related aspects of Waddington's evolutionary theories are the concepts of canalization and of genetic assimilation. Canalization is associated with the robust development of an individual to diverse perturbations and noise, though, when fluctuations in developmental factors exceed a particular limit, the normal developmental trajectory can be "thrown out" of the robust canal, resulting in an altered phenotype. If selective pressure favors the new phenotype, an initial individual loss of canalization can lead to phenotypic changes in the population (with canalization then becoming established for the new phenotype). Genetic assimilation is the subsequent genetic fixing of the new trait in the population. Recent experimental and theoretical works have established a quantitative basis for these classic concepts of Waddington; this chapter will review these new developments in systems evolutionary biology.

Foundations of Complex-system Theories

Foundations of Complex-system Theories
Author : Sunny Y. Auyang
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date : 1998
Category : Mathematics
Total pages :404
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Analyzes approaches to the study of complexity in the physical, biological, and social sciences.

The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations

The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations
Author : Andreas Wagner
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release Date : 2011-07-14
Category : Science
Total pages :264
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The history of life is a nearly four billion year old story of transformative change. This change ranges from dramatic macroscopic innovations such as the evolution of wings or eyes, to a myriad of molecular changes that form the basis of macroscopic innovations. We are familiar with many examples of innovations (qualitatively new phenotypes that provide a critical benefit) but have no systematic understanding of the principles that allow organisms to innovate. This book proposes several such principles as the basis of a theory of innovation, integrating recent knowledge about complex molecular phenotypes with more traditional Darwinian thinking. Central to the book are genotype networks: vast sets of connected genotypes that exist in metabolism and regulatory circuitry, as well as in protein and RNA molecules. The theory can successfully unify innovations that occur at different levels of organization. It captures known features of biological innovation, including the fact that many innovations occur multiple times independently, and that they combine existing parts of a system to new purposes. It also argues that environmental change is important to create biological systems that are both complex and robust, and shows how such robustness can facilitate innovation. Beyond that, the theory can reconcile neutralism and selectionism, as well as explain the role of phenotypic plasticity, gene duplication, recombination, and cryptic variation in innovation. Finally, its principles can be applied to technological innovation, and thus open to human engineering endeavours the powerful principles that have allowed life's spectacular success.

Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware

Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware
Author : Lishan Kang,Yong Liu
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-08-28
Category : Computers
Total pages :446
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Evolvable Systems, ICES 2007, held in Wuhan, China, in September 2007. The 41 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 123 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on digital hardware evolution, analog hardware evolution, bio-inspired systems, mechanical hardware evolution, evolutionary design, evolutionary algorithms in hardware design, and hardware implementation of evolutionary algorithms.

Systems Immunology and Infection Microbiology

Systems Immunology and Infection Microbiology
Author : Bor-Sen Chen
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-03-16
Category : Science
Total pages :672
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Systems Immunology and Infection Microbiology provides a large amount of biological system models, diagrams and flowcharts to illustrate development procedures and help users understand the results of systems immunology and infection microbiology. Chapters discuss systems immunology, systems infection microbiology, systematic inflammation and immune responses in restoration and regeneration process, systems' innate and adaptive immunity in infection process, systematic genetic and epigenetic pathogenic/defensive mechanism during bacterial infection on human cells is introduced, and the systematic genetic and epigenetic pathogenic/defensive mechanisms during viral infection on human cells. This book provides new big data-driven and systems-driven systems immunology and infection microbiology to researchers applying systems biology and bioinformatics in their work. It is also invaluable to several members of biomedical field who are interested in learning more about those approaches. Encompasses one applicable example in every chapter to illustrate the solution procedure from big data mining, network modeling, host/pathogen cross-talk detection, drug target identification and systems drug design Presents flowcharts to represent the development procedure of systematic immunology and infection in a very clear format Contains 100 color diagrams to help readers understand the related biological networks, their corresponding mechanisms, and significant network biomarkers for therapeutic drug design

The Biology of Moral Systems

The Biology of Moral Systems
Author : Richard D. Alexander
Publisher : Transaction Publishers
Release Date : 1987
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :301
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Despite wide acceptance that the attributes of living creatures have appeared through a cumulative evolutionary process guided chiefly by natural selection, many human activities have seemed analytically inaccessible through such an approach. Prominent evolutionary biologists, for example, have described morality as contrary to the direction of biological evolution, and moral philosophers rarely regard evolution as relevant to their discussions. The Biology of Moral Systems adopts the position that moral questions arise out of conflicts of interest, and that moral systems are ways of using confluences of interest at lower levels of social organization to deal with conflicts of interest at higher levels. Moral systems are described as systems of indirect reciprocity: humans gain and lose socially and reproductively not only by direct transactions, but also by the reputations they gain from the everyday flow of social interactions. The author develops a general theory of human interests, using senescence and effort theory from biology, to help analyze the patterning of human lifetimes. He argues that the ultimate interests of humans are reproductive, and that the concept of morality has arisen within groups because of its contribution to unity in the context, ultimately, of success in intergroup competition. He contends that morality is not easily relatable to universals, and he carries this argument into a discussion of what he calls the greatest of all moral problems, the nuclear arms race. "Crammed with sage observations on moral dilemmas and many reasons why an understanding of evolution based on natural selection will advance thinking in finding practical solutions to our most difficult social problems." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social SciencesRichard D. Alexander is Donald Ward Tinkle Professor of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology, and Curator of Insects, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. A recipient of numerous awards, Dr. Alexander is the author of Darwinism and Human Affairs.

The Calculus of Life

The Calculus of Life
Author : Andrés Moya
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-04-13
Category : Medical
Total pages :95
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This book explores the exciting world of theoretical biology and is divided into three sections. The first section examines the roles played by renowned scientists such as Jacob, Monod, Rosen, Turing, von Bertalanffy, Waddington and Woodger in developing the field of theoretical biology. The second section, aided with numerous examples, supports the idea that logic and computing are suitable formal languages to describe and understand biological phenomena. The third and final section is, without doubt, the most intellectually challenging and endeavors to show the possible paths we could take to compute a cell - the basic unit of life - or the conditions required for a predictive theory of biological evolution; ultimately, a theory of life in the light of modern Systems Biology. The work aims to show that modern biology is closer than ever to making Goethe's dream come true and that we have reached a point where synthetic and analytical traditions converge to shed light on the living being as a whole.

Microorganisms as Model Systems for Studying Evolution

Microorganisms as Model Systems for Studying Evolution
Author : Robert Mortlock
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-11-11
Category : Science
Total pages :326
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The microorganisms present on the earth today possess a vast range of metabolic activities and are often able to demonstrate their surprising versatility by gaining both new enzyme activities and new metabolic path ways through mutations. It is generally assumed that the earliest micro organisms were very limited in their metabolic abilities, but as time passed they gradually expanded their range of enzymatic activities and increased both their biosynthetic and catabolic capacity. It is also believed that these primitive microorganisms increased the amount of genetic material they possessed by duplicating their existing genes and possibly by ac quiring genetic material from other organisms. A small group of scientists has been exploring the means by which existing microorganisms are capable of mutating to expand their bio chemical abilities. In recent years, more attention has been focused on this type of research, sometimes called "evolution in a test tube." The recent advances in biotechnology and modern techniques of genetic trans fer have generated new interest in the methods by which a microorgan ism's metabolic activities can be improved or deliberately changed in some specific manner.

Evolutionary Instability

Evolutionary Instability
Author : Gebhard Geiger
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :167
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The recent sociobiology debate has raised fundamental and previously unresolved conceptual problems. Evolutionary Instability - Logical and Material Aspects of a Unified Theory of Biosocial Evolution - offers ap- proaches for their solution. The scientific applications comprise the dynamics and evolutionary instability of hierarchically organized systems, especially systems of interacting behavioural phenotypes in animals and man. The technical apparatus is thoroughly explained in intuitive terms within the text, and illustrated by numerous familiar examples and graphical representations, supplemented by an informal summary and discussion. The analyses offer new theoretical perspectives to such diverse fields as philosophy of science, evolutionary biology, general system theory and sociology.

Reductionism and Systems Theory in the Life Sciences

Reductionism and Systems Theory in the Life Sciences
Author : Paul Hoyningen-Huene,Franz M. Wuketits
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Science
Total pages :190
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The present volume aims at giving a discussion ot the problems ot reductionism in contemporary life sciences. It contains six papers which deals with reduction/reductionism in different fields ot biological research. Also, the holistic perspective, 1. e. the systems view, is discussed in some ot the papers. The message ot this discussion Is that - whereas reductionism is indeed an important strategy - the systems approach is needed. It is argued by some ot the authors that organisms are complex systems and not just heaps of molecules, 50 that the analytical method does not suffice. Recent developments in systems theory offer the possibility to install a more comprehensive view ot living systems what can be seen particularly in the field ot evolutionary biology. It is true that any organismic activity is molecular, this is to say that it is based on molecular mechanisms. But it is also true that the whole organism displays certain patterns ot behavior which are not just molecular. Any organism can be described as a system ot different levels ot organization different levels ot order and complexity - and it is important, theretore, to study all ot the organizational levels and to see their peculiarities. It should be obvious, however, that there is not one problem ot reduction/reductionism, but that there are many problems linked together and that these problems appear at different levels ot biological research and bio philosophical reflections.

The Logic of Chance

The Logic of Chance
Author : Eugene V. Koonin
Publisher : FT Press
Release Date : 2011-06-23
Category : Science
Total pages :528
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The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.

The Philosophy of Biology

The Philosophy of Biology
Author : Kostas Kampourakis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-06-18
Category : Philosophy
Total pages :762
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This book brings together for the first time philosophers of biology to write about some of the most central concepts and issues in their field from the perspective of biology education. The chapters of the book cover a variety of topics ranging from traditional ones, such as biological explanation, biology and religion or biology and ethics, to contemporary ones, such as genomics, systems biology or evolutionary developmental biology. Each of the 30 chapters covers the respective philosophical literature in detail and makes specific suggestions for biology education. The aim of this book is to inform biology educators, undergraduate and graduate students in biology and related fields, students in teacher training programs, and curriculum developers about the current state of discussion on the major topics in the philosophy of biology and its implications for teaching biology. In addition, the book can be valuable to philosophers of biology as an introductory text in undergraduate and graduate courses.