November 26, 2020

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Systems Neuroscience in Depression

Systems Neuroscience in Depression
Author : Thomas Frodl
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-09-01
Category : Psychology
Total pages :420
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Systems Neuroscience in Depression provides a comprehensive overview of the normal and depressed brain processes as studied from a systems neuroscience perspective. Systems neuroscience uses a wide variety of approaches to study how networks of neurons form the bases of higher brain function. A broad overview is discussed starting with a background from neurodevelopment and neural understanding as well as novel treatment approaches for depression. This book covers basic developmental aspects and depressive psychopathology, as well as the basic scientific background from animal models and experimental research. Current advances in systems neuroscience are highlighted in studies from child and adolescent psychiatry. Integrated approaches are presented with regards to genetics, neuroimaging and neuroinflammation as well as neuroendocrinology. The field of systems and network neuroscience is evolving rapidly and this book provides a greatly needed resource for researchers and practitioners in systems neuroscience and psychiatry. Knowledge covering the whole life span from early to later life Comprehensively written chapters developing from molecules via epigenetics and neural circuits to clinical neuroscience Understanding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder Integrating stress and environmental factors with molecular underpinnings More than 25 illustrations and tables

Neurobiology of Depression

Neurobiology of Depression
Author : Francisco Lopez-Munoz,Cecilio Alamo
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2011-09-09
Category : Medical
Total pages :522
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Major depressive disorders have recently been associated with impairments in signaling pathways that regulate neuroplasticity and cell survival. Agents designed to directly target molecules in these pathways hold promise as new therapeutics for depression. With the collaboration of the most prestigious international specialists in biochemistry, molecular biology, genomics, psychiatry, psychology, and pharmacology, Neurobiology of Depression discusses the nature of the central nervous system circuits responsible for the modifications of neuronal functioning that lead to depression. The book begins by discussing animal, neurophysiological, and neuropsychological models of depression as well as neural foundations. It explores genetic factors that contribute to depression and describes the effect of monoaminergic systems in the central nervous system. Next, the book profiles the rise of psychopharmacology in the treatment of depression and the research into serotonin and monoamine reuptake inhibitors. It examines the role of the glutamatergic, endocannabinoid, and opioid systems in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, as well as the effect of biological rhythms on the human body. Later chapters review the role of CRF-related ligands, CRF receptors, HPA axis activity, and glucocorticoid receptors in the regulation of the stress response and depression. They also describe cytokine modulation of molecular mechanisms. They examine the role of neuropeptide Y, nitric oxide, beta-arrestins, BDNF, and phosphodiesterases, and discuss the use of tachykinin antagonists in treatment. Finally, they analyze the neurobiological basis for the development of new antidepressant agents. Exploring myriad aspects of a disease that plagues a large percentage of the population worldwide, this volume captures the state of the science of this debilitating disorder, facilitating further research and discovery.

Neurobiology of Depression

Neurobiology of Depression
Author : Joao Luciano de Quevedo,Andre Ferrer Carvalho,Carlos A. Zarate
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2019-01-03
Category : Medical
Total pages :471
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Neurobiology of Depression: Road to Novel Therapeutics synthesizes the basic neurobiology of major depressive disorder with discussions on the most recent advances in research, including the interacting pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD, omics technologies, genetic approaches, and the development of novel optogenetic approaches that are changing research perspectives and revolutionizing research into depression. These basic foundational understandings on the neurobiology underlying the disorder, along with a comprehensive summary of the most recent advances in research are combined in this book to aid advanced students and researchers in their understanding of MDD. Depression is one of the most common mental-health disorders caused by a variety of genetic, biological, environmental and psychological factors. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is typically treated with first-line antidepressant agents that primarily target monoamine neurotransmission. However, only approximately one-third of patients with MDD achieve remission following a trial with such an antidepressant. Furthermore, MDD is a heterogeneous phenotype, and new frameworks, such as the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) may provide a more accurate, biologically based comprehension of the symptomatic heterogeneity of this devastating illness. Aids readers in understanding major depressive disorder in the context of NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) recommendations Covers a range of existing and potential pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment options, from lifestyle adjustments, to antidepressants and novel therapeutics Synthesizes discussions on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying symptoms with the clinical aspects of depression

Inflammation and Immunity in Depression

Inflammation and Immunity in Depression
Author : Bernhard Baune
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2018-05-23
Category : Medical
Total pages :636
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Inflammation and Immunity in Depression: Basic Science and Clinical Applications is the first book to move beyond the established theory of cytokine-induced depression and explore the broader role the immune system plays in this devastating mood disorder. The book fully explores the most recent lines of research into this rapidly advancing field, including alterations of T-cells, the neurobiological implications of neuroinflammation and immune alterations for brain development and function, and the genetic components of neuroinflammation in depression, including the relationships between stress and inflammation that are revealing gene-environment interactions in the disorder. Combining contributions from researchers worldwide, this book provides the most comprehensive discussion available today on the involvement of the innate immune and adaptive immune systems in depressive disorder. Chapters span neuroscience, psychology, clinical applications and future directions, making this book an invaluable resource for advanced students, researchers and practitioners who need to understand the complex and varied role of inflammation and immune responses in depression. Synthesizes current knowledge of inflammation and immunity in depression, ranging from basic neuroscience research, to clinical applications in psychiatry Expands on the long-established theory of cytokine-induced depression to discuss broader involvement of the immune system Explores translational potential of targeting immune dysfunction for clinical interventions

Resting state brain activity: Implications for systems neuroscience

Resting state brain activity: Implications for systems neuroscience
Author : Vinod Menon,Lucina Q. Uddin
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Research on resting state brain activity using fMRI offers a novel approach for understanding brain organization at the systems level. Resting state fMRI examines spatial synchronization of intrinsic fluctuations in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals arising from neuronal and synaptic activity that is present in the absence of overt cognitive information processing. Since the discovery of coherent spontaneous fluctuations within the somatomotor system (Biswal, et al. 1995), a growing number of studies have shown that many of the brain areas engaged during various cognitive tasks also form coherent large-scale brain networks that can be readily identified using resting state fMRI. These studies are beginning to provide new insights into the functional architecture of the human brain. This Research Topic will synthesize current knowledge about resting state brain activity and discuss their implications for understanding brain function and dysfunction from a systems neuroscience perspective. This topic will also provide perspectives on important conceptual and methodological questions that the field needs to address in the next years. In addition to invited reviews and perspectives, we solicit research articles on theoretical, experimental and clinical questions related to the nature, origins and functions of resting state brain activity.

The Upward Spiral

The Upward Spiral
Author : Alex Korb
Publisher : New Harbinger Publications
Release Date : 2015-03-01
Category : Self-Help
Total pages :232
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Depression can feel like a downward spiral, pulling you into a vortex of sadness, fatigue, and apathy. In The Upward Spiral, neuroscientist Alex Korb demystifies the intricate brain processes that cause depression and offers a practical and effective approach to getting better. Based on the latest research in neuroscience, this book provides dozens of straightforward tips you can do every day to rewire your brain and create an upward spiral towards a happier, healthier life. Whether you suffer from depression or just want a better understanding of the brain, this book offers an engaging and informative look at the neuroscience behind our emotions, thoughts, and actions. The truth is that there isn’t one big solution to depression, but there are numerous simple steps you can take to alter brain activity and chemistry. Some are as easy as relaxing certain muscles to reduce anxiety, or getting more sunlight to improve your mood. Small steps in the right direction can have profound effects—giving you the power to become your best self as you literally reshape your brain, one small change at a time.

The Oxford Handbook of Mood Disorders

The Oxford Handbook of Mood Disorders
Author : Robert J. DeRubeis,Daniel R. Strunk
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2017
Category : Affective disorders
Total pages :514
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The most comprehensive volume of its kind, The Oxford Handbook of Mood Disorders provides detailed coverage of the characterization, understanding, and treatment of mood disorders. Chapters are written by the world's leading experts in their respective areas. The Handbook provides coverage of unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and variants of these disorders. Current approaches to classifying the mood disorders are reviewed and contemporary controversies are placed in historical context. Chapter authors offer a variety of approaches to understanding the heterogeneity of the experiences of those who meet criteria for mood disorders, both within and across cultures. The role of genetic and environmental risk factors as well as premorbid personality and cognitive processes in the development of mood pathology are detailed. Interpersonal, neurobiological, and psychological factors also receive detailed consideration. The volume reviews mood disorders in special populations (e.g., postpartum and seasonal mood disorders) as well as common comorbidities (e.g., anxiety, substance use disorders). Somatic and psychosocial treatment approaches receive in-depth coverage with chapters that describe and review empirical evidence regarding each of the most influential treatment approaches. The depth and breadth offered by this Handbook make it an invaluable resource for clinicians and researchers, as well as scholars and students.

Depression in Medical Illness

Depression in Medical Illness
Author : Arthur J. Barsky,David A. Silbersweig
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release Date : 2017-04-05
Category : Medical
Total pages :400
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An authoritative guide to understanding and treating depression in the medically ill Depression in Medical Illness is based on the fact that depression and medical illness are inextricably bound together and must be viewed through a single lens in order to truly understand, diagnose, and treat them. Throughout the book, the authors emphasize not simply a critical distillation and balanced summary of the available empirical data, but equally important, an active synthesis, formulation, and analysis of that evidence.This informs a contemporary biomedical understanding, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. All of the chapters are authored by members of the Department of Psychiatry at the world-renowned Brigham and Women’s Hospital. In chapters devoted to specific medical disorders, psychiatrists with particular expertise in those areas have been joined by other eminent Brigham medical and surgical specialists or subspecialists. This makes these chapters valuable not just to psychiatrists and other mental health professionals, but to a wide range of medical specialists as well. Logically Organized Into Five Sections: Core Concepts – provides a conceptual and intellectual framework for understanding depressive illness in the context of medical illness Assessment and Treatment of Depression in Medically Ill Patients – discusses the general principles of depression diagnosis and treatment Depression in Medical Illness – Assesses what we know about depression when it is comorbid with the full range of major medical disorders Special Populations and Settings – Is devoted to special patient populations and the importance of the settings in which care is delivered New Directions – A fascinating glimpse into the future of the care of medically ill patients who are depressed

The Inflamed Mind

The Inflamed Mind
Author : Edward Bullmore
Publisher : Picador
Release Date : 2018-12-31
Category : Psychology
Total pages :256
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As seen on "CBS This Morning" Worldwide, depression will be the single biggest cause of disability in the next twenty years. But treatment for it has not changed much in the last three decades. In the world of psychiatry, time has apparently stood still...until now with Edward Bullmore's The Inflamed Mind: A Radical New Approach to Depression. A Sunday Times (London) Top Ten Bestseller In this game-changing book, University of Cambridge profressor of psychiatry Edward Bullmore reveals the breakthrough new science on the link between depression and inflammation of the body and brain. He explains how and why we now know that mental disorders can have their root cause in the immune system, and outlines a future revolution in which treatments could be specifically targeted to break the vicious cycles of stress, inflammation, and depression. The Inflamed Mind goes far beyond the clinic and the lab, representing a whole new way of looking at how mind, brain, and body all work together in a sometimes misguided effort to help us survive in a hostile world. It offers insights into how we could start getting to grips with depression and other mental disorders much more effectively in the future.

Network Neuroscience

Network Neuroscience
Author : Flavio Fröhlich
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-09-20
Category : Medical
Total pages :482
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Studying brain networks has become a truly interdisciplinary endeavor, attracting students and seasoned researchers alike from a wide variety of academic backgrounds. What has been lacking is an introductory textbook that brings together the different fields and provides a gentle introduction to the major concepts and findings in the emerging field of network neuroscience. Network Neuroscience is a one-stop-shop that is of equal use to the neurobiologist, who is interested in understanding the quantitative methods employed in network neuroscience, and to the physicist or engineer, who is interested in neuroscience applications of mathematical and engineering tools. The book spans 27 chapters that cover everything from individual cells all the way to complex network disorders such as depression and autism spectrum disorders. An additional 12 toolboxes provide the necessary background for making network neuroscience accessible independent of the reader’s background. Dr. Flavio Frohlich (www.networkneuroscientist.org) wrote this book based on his experience of mentoring dozens of trainees in the Frohlich Lab, from undergraduate students to senior researchers. The Frohlich lab (www.frohlichlab.org) pursues a unique and integrated vision that combines computer simulations, animal model studies, human studies, and clinical trials with the goal of developing novel brain stimulation treatments for psychiatric disorders. The book is based on a course he teaches at UNC that has attracted trainees from many different departments, including neuroscience, biomedical engineering, psychology, cell biology, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry. Dr. Frohlich has consistently received rave reviews for his teaching. With this book he hopes to make his integrated view of neuroscience available to trainees and researchers on a global scale. His goal is to make the book the training manual for the next generation of (network) neuroscientists, who will be fusing biology, engineering, and medicine to unravel the big questions about the brain and to revolutionize psychiatry and neurology. Easy-to-read, comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of network neuroscience Includes 27 chapters packed with information on topics from single neurons to complex network disorders such as depression and autism Features 12 toolboxes serve as primers to provide essential background knowledge in the fields of biology, mathematics, engineering, and physics

Traumatic Brain Injury as a Systems Neuroscience Problem

Traumatic Brain Injury as a Systems Neuroscience Problem
Author : H. Isaac Chen,John F. Burke,Akiva S. Cohen
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2017-04-27
Category :
Total pages :129
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is traditionally viewed as an anatomic and neuropathological condition. Caring for TBI patients is a matter of defining the extent of an anatomical lesion, managing this lesion, and minimizing secondary brain injury. On the research side, the effects of TBI often are studied in the context of neuronal and axonal degeneration and the subsequent deposition of abnormal proteins such as tau. These approaches form the basis of our current understanding of TBI, but they pay less attention to the function of the affected organ, the brain. Much can be learned about TBI by studying this disorder on a systems neuroscience level and correlating changes in neural circuitry with neurological and cognitive function. There are several aspects of TBI that are a natural fit for this perspective, including post-traumatic epilepsy, consciousness, and cognitive sequelae. How individual neurons contribute to network activity and how network function responds to injury are key concepts in examining these areas. In recent years, the available tools for studying the role of neuronal assemblies in TBI have become increasingly sophisticated, ranging from optogenetic and electrophysiological techniques to advanced imaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography. Further progress in understanding the disruption and subsequent reshaping of networks is likely to have substantial benefits in the treatment of patients with TBI-associated deficits. In this Frontiers Topic, we intend to highlight the systems neuroscience approach to studying TBI. In addition to analyzing the clinical sequelae of TBI in this context, this series of articles explores the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying network dysfunction, including alterations in synaptic activity, changes in neural oscillation patterns, and disruptions in functional connectivity. We also include articles on treatment options for TBI patients that modulate network function. It is our hope that this Frontiers Topic will increase the clinical and scientific communities’ awareness of this viable framework for deepening our knowledge of TBI and improving patient outcomes.

Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder
Author : Yong-Ku Kim
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2015-06-11
Category : Science
Total pages :156
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder, phenotypically and biologically. MDD may be caused by complex interaction between genes and environment in susceptible individuals. Thus, a combination of certain genetic polymorphism, environmental stress, and personal susceptibility ultimately may induce MDD. Gene-environment interactions in the pathophysiology of MDD lead to advancement in personalized medicine by means of genotyping for inter-individual variability in drug action and metabolism. Gene-environment interactions may explain why some subjects become depressed while others remain unaffected. The aim of this book is to describe current knowledge of MDD from the point of view of neurobiology, molecular genetics and cognition. The authors address a deep understanding of cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms involved in MDD.

Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience

Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Author : Charles Zorumski,Eugene Rubin
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2011-06-03
Category : Medical
Total pages :320
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Psychiatric disorders are brain disorders, reflecting dysfunction within and across neural networks. Advances in functional neuroimaging and cellular neuroscience offer hope of revolutionizing the approach to diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. This resource presents an introduction to network neuroscience and demonstrates the relationship of advances in this field to the future of psychiatry. Oxford Clinical Neuroscience is a comprehensive, cross-searchable collection of resources offering quick and easy access to eleven of Oxford University Press's prestigious neuroscience texts. Joining Oxford Medicine Online these resources offer students, specialists and clinical researchers the best quality content in an easy-to-access format.

Cognitive-Affective Neuroscience of Depression and Anxiety Disorders

Cognitive-Affective Neuroscience of Depression and Anxiety Disorders
Author : Dan J. Stein
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2002-11-14
Category : Science
Total pages :152
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Data on depression and anxiety disorders now spans a range of fields from molecular neuroscience, through cognitive and affective science, and on to evolutionary psychology. The author here integrates this work into one volume, providing the clinician with a theoretical synthesis as well as a useful practical framework. Cognitive-Affective Neuroscience of Depression and Anxiety Disorders helps professionals in these various fields to manage patients with major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and social anxiety disorder. Neuroscientists, neurologists, pharmacologists, psychiatrists and mental health practitioners will benefit from this text.

Neuroscience of Pain, Stress, and Emotion

Neuroscience of Pain, Stress, and Emotion
Author : Magne Arve Flaten,Mustafa al'Absi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-12-28
Category : Psychology
Total pages :312
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Neuroscience of Pain, Stress, and Emotion: Psychological and Clinical Implications presents updated research on stress, pain, and emotion, all key research areas within both basic and clinical neuroscience. Improved research understanding of their interaction is ultimately necessary if clinicians and those working in the field of psychosomatic medicine are to alleviate patient suffering. This volume offers broad coverage of that interaction, with chapters written by major researchers in the field. After reviewing the neuroscience of pain and stress, the contents go on to address the interaction between stress and chronic/acute pain, the role of different emotions in pain, neurobiological mechanisms mediating these various interactions, individual differences in both stress and pain, the role of patient expectations during treatment (placebo and nocebo responses), and how those relate to stress modulation. While there are books on the market which discuss pain, stress, and emotion separately, this volume is the first to tackle their nexus, thus appealing to both researchers and clinicians. Represents the only comprehensive reference detailing the link between pain, stress and emotion, covering the neuroscientific underpinnings, related psychological processes, and clinical implications Compiles, in one place, research which promises to improve the methodology of clinical trials and the use of knowledge of pain-stress-emotion effects in order to reduce patients’ suffering Provides comprehensive chapters authored by global leaders in the field, the broadest, most expert coverage available