June 20, 2021

Download Ebook Free The Microbiome In Prenatal And Neonatal Life

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life
Author : Josef Neu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2021-01-18
Category : Science
Total pages :160
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The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life clarifies that the microbiome in the maternal fetal unit and immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care with regard to this topic. In essence, we are changing the idea that newborns emerge from sterile environments. As such, in-utero colonization may have impacts on the development of immunity and metabolism that, with epigenetic modifications, will lead to diseases in later life. In addition, the microbial profile that develops during and after birth depends on mode of delivery, type of feeding (human milk versus formula), and various other environmental factors to which the newborn is exposed. Discusses the critical nonredundant timeframe in a newborn's life during which many factors drive immune and tissue maturation and influence the susceptibility to immune-mediated and other diseases in adult life Proves that the fetus and uterine membranes are exposed to not only microbes in close proximity but also to microbial products from metabolism of microbes in the mother Shows that since early life periods are a critical window for development, epigenetic and/or immunologic alterations may occur that can affect not only the infant during his/her lifetime but also subsequent generations Gives insight into factors that may affect the newborn microbiome and subsequent development

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology E-Book

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology E-Book
Author : Richard A. Polin,Steven H. Abman,David Rowitch,William E. Benitz
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2016-05-11
Category : Medical
Total pages :2050
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Fetal & Neonatal Physiology provides neonatologist fellows and physicians with the essential information they need to effectively diagnose, treat, and manage sick and premature infants. Fully comprehensive, this resource continues to serve as an excellent reference tool, focusing on the basic science needed for exam preparation and the key information required for full-time practice. The 5th edition is the most substantially updated and revised edition ever. In the 5 years since the last edition published, there have been thousands of publications on various aspects of development of health and disease; Fetal and Neonatal Physiology synthesizes this knowledge into definitive guidance for today's busy practitioner. Offers definitive guidance on how to effectively manage the many health problems seen in newborn and premature infants. Chapters devoted to clinical correlation help explain the implications of fetal and neonatal physiology. Allows you to apply the latest insights on genetic therapy, intrauterine infections, brain protection and neuroimaging, and much more. Features a fantastic new 4-color design with 1,000 illustrations, 170+ chapters, and over 350 contributors. 16 new chapters cover such hot topics as Epigenetics; Placental Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction; Regulation of Pulmonary Circulation; The Developing Microbiome of the Fetus and Newborn; Hereditary Contribution to Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Mechanistic Aspects of Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Cerebellar Development; Pathophysiology of Neonatal Sepsis; Pathophysiology of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn; Pathophysiology of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome; Pathophysiology of Ventilator Dependent Infants; Pathophysiology of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury; Pathophysiology of Neonatal White Matter Injury; Pathophysiology of Meningitis; Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia; and Pathophysiology of Chorioamnionitis. New Pathophysiology of Neonatal Diseases section highlights every process associated with a disease or injury, all in one place. In-depth information, combined with end-of-chapter summaries, enables deep or quick use of the text.

The Human Microbiome in Early Life

The Human Microbiome in Early Life
Author : Omry Koren,Samuli Rautava
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2020-09-18
Category : Science
Total pages :326
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The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood
Author : Pamela D. Browne,Eric Claassen,Michael D. Cabana
Publisher : Wageningen Academic Publishers
Release Date : 2017-07-20
Category : Medical
Total pages :344
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This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the vital relationship between human microbiota and infant and child health. Renowned clinical-experimental experts in this field discuss the development of microbiota during early life and review the environmental inputs that affect the developing infant’s gut microbiota, such as early diet and (postnatal) medical interventions. They further describe the interplay between gut microbiota and functional systems of the body, from the immune system to the central nervous system. The book discusses a range of infant and childhood diseases that are associated with microbial changes or dysbiosis, such as gastrointestinal disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and respiratory disorders. Additionally mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may influence behaviour in infants are discussed. Other topics include the use of current tools in molecular microbiology for microbiota-related research and clinical practice. In the management of particular paediatric disorders, the potential of microbial manipulation with pre- and probiotics during infancy and childhood is increasingly being investigated. This book presents the evidence supporting their use in practice and reviews safety aspects. Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood has the ambition to provide the reader with an overview of the most recent and stunning advances in the field of infant and child microbiota and their role in health, disease and prevention. As such, it is an excellent resource for health care professionals, students and researchers in the field of life sciences.

Prenatal Stress and Child Development

Prenatal Stress and Child Development
Author : Ashley Wazana
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2021
Category :
Total pages :129
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P2-21-03 - Prenatal and Postnatal Determinants in Shaping Offspring's Microbiota in the First Year of Life. A Study Protocol

P2-21-03 - Prenatal and Postnatal Determinants in Shaping Offspring's Microbiota in the First Year of Life. A Study Protocol
Author : Benedetta Raspini
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category :
Total pages :129
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Introduction. Fetal programming during fetal life defines the set point of physiological and metabolic responses that lead into adulthood. Events happening in the first 1,000 days of life play a pivotal role in the development of chronic diseases. Also, diet and lifestyle during pregnancy are recognized to be crucial determinants in modulating offspring microbiota. After this first period, the children gut microbial composition continues to evolve until the age of 2 years; this is u201ca window of opportunityu201d for microbial modulation, impacting on child future health.The present study protocol is designed to examine the association of maternal diet and lifestyle, type of delivery and lactation with the intestinal microbiome development of infants (0-12 months) by identifying the relative abundance of the dominant organism genera; assessing the microbial diversity (u03b1-diversity); assessing inter-individual variation (u03b2-diversity).Methods. We planned to enroll 60 mothers/child couples attending the Neonatal Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (Italy). The study was approved by the Human Ethics Committee (Protocol number 20180022618); children or mothers with genetic/congenital diseases, children hospitalized immediately after birth or born before 35 and after 42 weeks will be excluded. as well as non-physiological pregnancies.Data will be collected at T0 (before discharge), T1 (30 days post-partum), T2 (6 months post-partum) and T3 (12 months post-partum).u00b7Anthropometric parameters for both mothers (weight, height at T0-T3 and waist circumference at T1-T3) and children (weight, length, head circumference at T0-T3) will be assessed.u00b7Mothersu2019 dietary habits will be explored by using a previously validated questionnaire by us, while physical activity throughout the IPAQ short version (T0-T3).u00b7Information about family environment, infant feeding (breastfed/formula-fed), time/type of weaning, use of antibiotics/probiotics/supplements in both mothers and children will be obtained (T1- T3).u00b7Childrenu2019s dietary habits will be evaluated by using the INTERGROWTH-21st questionnaire at T3.u00b7Childrenu2019s stool samples will be collected (T0-T3) and analyzed using metagenomics 16s rRNA gene sequence-based methods. Shotgun sequencing will be conducted on a small subgroup.Expected results. The knowledge obtained in this study will provide the starting point for a future prospective and longer observational cohort, aimed at assessing the potential association between lifestyle and maternal factors with infant microbiome composition and their influence on adverse growth parameters. The extension of the present study aims to identify specific intervention programs targeted to first 1,000 days window besides preconception.Conflict of interest:There is no conflict of interest.

Avery's Diseases of the Newborn E-Book

Avery's Diseases of the Newborn E-Book
Author : Christine A. Gleason,Sherin Devaskar
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2011-08-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :1520
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Avery’s Diseases of the Newborn, edited by Christine A. Gleason and Sherin U. Devaskar, is a practical, clinical reference for diagnosing and managing of all the important diseases affecting newborns. Thoroughly revised by a team of new editors, this edition provides new perspectives and updated coverage of genetics, nutrition, respiratory conditions, MRSA, neonatal pain, cardiovascular fetal interventions, care of the late preterm infant, and more. This authoritative reference is ideal as a clinical resource or subspecialty review tool. Treat newborns effectively with focused coverage of diagnosis and management, including pertinent developmental physiology and the pathogenesis of neonatal problems. Meet every challenge you face in neonatology with Avery’s authoritative, comprehensive clinical resource and subspecialty review tool. Navigate quickly and easily with extensive cross-referencing throughout the organ-related sections. Stay current with coverage of hot topics including MRSA, neonatal pain, cardiovascular fetal interventions, care of the late preterm infant, and the developing intestinal microbiome. Tap into the fresh perspectives of new editors who provide extensive updates throughout, particularly on genetic and respiratory disorders. Apply the latest nutritional findings with thorough discussions of this valuable information in the more comprehensive nutrition section. Master the fundamentals of neonatology through the greater emphasis on developmental biology and pathobiology.

The Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Administration of Propionic Acid and Lipopolysaccharide on the Behaviour of Adolescent Male and Female Rats

The Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Administration of Propionic Acid and Lipopolysaccharide on the Behaviour of Adolescent Male and Female Rats
Author : Kelly A. Foley
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2013
Category :
Total pages :306
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Increasing evidence suggests the gut microbiome plays an important role in immune functioning and neurodevelopment. Metabolic products of enteric bacteria, such as short chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides, may alter development and subsequent behaviour. Altered microbiome composition, including elevated short chain fatty acids, and/or immune system dysfunction has been observed in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This thesis describes the effects of prenatal propionic acid (PPA), a short chain fatty acid and metabolic fermentation product of antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria, and of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial mimetic and product of enteric bacteria, on a range of behaviours in male and female neonatal, adolescent and adult rats. Long-Evans rats were administered PPA or LPS during pregnancy and rat pups were administered PPA in the second week of life. The first study evaluated the effects of prenatal PPA and LPS, and postnatal PPA, on developmental milestones in early life and on locomotor activity, repetitive behaviour, and anxiety-related behaviour in adolescent rats. Secondly, sensorimotor behaviours were examined using the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition. The final study investigated the effects of prenatal PPA and LPS on social and related behaviours in neonatal, adolescent, and adult rats. Overall, prenatal and postnatal treatments subtly altered behaviour in a sex-and test-specific manner. Male and female rats showed developmental delay in day of eye opening and in acquiring a nest seeking odor discrimination. Prenatal and postnatal treatments increased anxiety-related behaviour and altered acoustic startle responses in male and female adolescent rats. Male rats displayed alterations in social behaviour and locomotor activity that was not observed in female rats, supporting the male bias seen in ASD. However, female rats showed sensitivity to PPA, displaying repetitive behaviour, altered acoustic startle response, and decreased prepulse inhibition. There is evidence to suggest that these behaviours are more severe in females diagnosed with ASD. These findings demonstrate that the metabolic products of enteric bacteria, PPA and LPS, may alter development in ways resembling ASD and contribute to the growing literature on the importance of the gut microbiome and its components on influencing brain and behaviour.

Your Baby's Microbiome

Your Baby's Microbiome
Author : Toni Harman,Alex Wakeford
Publisher : Chelsea Green Publishing
Release Date : 2017-02-23
Category : Health & Fitness
Total pages :208
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From the Directors of the Award-Winning Documentary Microbirth At least two amazing events happen during childbirth. There’s the obvious main event, which is the emergence of a new human into the world. But there’s another event taking place simultaneously, a crucial event that is not visible to the naked eye, an event that could determine the lifelong health of the baby. This is the seeding of the baby’s microbiome, the community of “good” bacteria that we carry with us throughout our lives. The seeding of the microbiome, along with breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact, kick-starts the baby’s immune system and helps protect the infant from disease across a lifetime. Researchers are discovering, however, that interventions such as the use of synthetic oxytocin, antibiotics, C-sections, and formula feeding interfere with, or bypass completely, the microbial transfer from mother to baby. These bacteria are vital for human health, and science has linked an imbalance in the human microbiome with multiple chronic diseases. Drawing on the extensive research they carried out for their documentary film Microbirth, authors Toni Harman and Alex Wakeford reveal a fascinating new view of birth and how microscopic happenings can have lifelong consequences, for ourselves, our children—and our species as a whole.

Intestinal Microbiome: Functional Aspects in Health and Disease

Intestinal Microbiome: Functional Aspects in Health and Disease
Author : E. Isolauri,P.M. Sherman,W.A. Walker
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release Date : 2017-03-27
Category : Medical
Total pages :176
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The intestinal microbiome is especially important during the first thousand days of life. Exposure to microbes in utero significantly impacts fetal development, in part through epigenetic processes and in part through hormonal influences which cause a change in the mother's intestinal microbiome. The nature of delivery and perinatal antibiotic treatment, as well as diet (especially in the postpartum period), can also influence initial microbial colonization and the development of appropriate intestinal defense mechanisms. These, in turn, can affect the expression of allergy, autoimmune disease, and brain function, among other things, later in life. The first part of this publication focuses on the development of the human microbiome in utero and the importance of normal colonization of the newborn gut in immune development and disease prevention. The second section deals with the normal development of gut microbiota and with clinical conditions associated with dysbiosis. The final chapters cover various aspects of human milk evolution and oligosaccharides.

The Biology of the First 1,000 Days

The Biology of the First 1,000 Days
Author : Crystal D Karakochuk,Kyly C. Whitfield,Tim J Green,Klaus Kraemer
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-09-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :494
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The first 1,000 days, from conception to two years of age, is a critical period of growth and development. Exposures to dietary, environmental, hormonal, and other stressors during this window have been associated with an increased risk of poor health outcomes, some of which are irreversible. The book addresses this crucial interval of early life across biological disciplines, linking concepts related to all biological fields to outcomes during the first 1,000 days (e.g. fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes) and beyond (e.g. gut microbiome and cardiovascular disease later in life). The strength of this book lies in its cross-disciplinary nature.

Choices in Pregnancy and Childbirth

Choices in Pregnancy and Childbirth
Author : John Wilks
Publisher : Singing Dragon
Release Date : 2015
Category : Childbirth
Total pages :368
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This clear, balanced and well-researched presentation of the various holistic options for treating mothers and babies during pregnancy and childbirth enables practitioners to create the best possible outcomes for mother and baby. It offers practical tips to make childbirth a positive and safe experience and advice for when things don't go to plan.

Mindful Pregnancy & Birth

Mindful Pregnancy & Birth
Author : Riga Forbes
Publisher : Leaping Hare Press
Release Date : 2017-10-15
Category : Health & Fitness
Total pages :144
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"This is a great book which gives you the inspiration to go through your pregnancy and birth with a mindful approach. As well as advice it also has meditative exercises and insights. A great, helpful book for mothers-to-be." - Catherine Balavage (Frost Magazine) Focusing on the entire journey; from pregnancy through to early parenthood, this guide to living mindfully for expectant mothers helps prepare you for birth and improve your wellbeing with the ancient practice of mindfulness. When we talk about making something, it usually refers to creating, manipulating, or forming a material. In pregnancy, our bodies are wrapped up in doing all of these things at once, and on a grand scale. But in the act of making space in ourselves through mindfulness, none of these things apply. In Mindful Pregnancy & Birth we engage in an act of "not doing". Of not changing, but of simply "being" in the experience of ourselves. Pregnancy is a phase in which to reconcile what has been, with what will become. It is a process, a time of change, and even more so for a first-time mother. It is a recognition of our dreams for the future being in transit, in gestation, in the making.

Fetal and Early Postnatal Programming and its Influence on Adult Health

Fetal and Early Postnatal Programming and its Influence on Adult Health
Author : Mulchand S. Patel,Jens H. Nielsen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-07-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :407
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There is a documented link between fetal nutrition and the development of disease risk in adult life. Including the early postnatal period, during which a newborn continues to grow rapidly influenced by environmental factors, suggests that individuals are subject to risks for more than just the fetal period. Fetal and Early Postnatal Programming and its Influence on Adult Health focuses on interrelated aspects of cellular programming related to early nutrition and this potential global health problem.

The Biology of the First 1,000 Days

The Biology of the First 1,000 Days
Author : Crystal D Karakochuk,Kyly C. Whitfield,Tim J Green,Klaus Kraemer
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-09-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :494
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The first 1,000 days, from conception to two years of age, is a critical period of growth and development. Exposures to dietary, environmental, hormonal, and other stressors during this window have been associated with an increased risk of poor health outcomes, some of which are irreversible. The book addresses this crucial interval of early life across biological disciplines, linking concepts related to all biological fields to outcomes during the first 1,000 days (e.g. fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes) and beyond (e.g. gut microbiome and cardiovascular disease later in life). The strength of this book lies in its cross-disciplinary nature.