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## The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs

Publisher : Academic Press

Release Date : 2001

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :149

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This book leads readers through a progressive explanation of what mathematical proofs are, why they are important, and how they work, along with a presentation of basic techniques used to construct proofs. The Second Edition presents more examples, more exercises, a more complete treatment of mathematical induction and set theory, and it incorporates suggestions from students and colleagues. Since the mathematical concepts used are relatively elementary, the book can be used as a supplement in any post-calculus course. This title has been successfully class-tested for years. There is an index for easier reference, a more extensive list of definitions and concepts, and an updated bibliography. An extensive collection of exercises with complete answers are provided, enabling students to practice on their own. Additionally, there is a set of problems without solutions to make it easier for instructors to prepare homework assignments. * Successfully class-tested over a number of years * Index for easy reference * Extensive list of definitions and concepts * Updated biblography

## The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs

Publisher : Academic Press

Release Date : 2012

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :283

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The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs instructs students on the primary basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how proofs of mathematical statements work. The text provides basic core techniques of how to read and write proofs through examples. The basic mechanics of proofs are provided for a methodical approach in gaining an understanding of the fundamentals to help students reach different results. A variety of fundamental proofs demonstrate the basic steps in the construction of a proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems. New chapter on proof by contradiction New updated proofs A full range of accessible proofs Symbols indicating level of difficulty help students understand whether a problem is based on calculus or linear algebra Basic terminology list with definitions at the beginning of the text

## The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs, 4th Edition

Publisher : Unknown

Release Date : 2011

Category :

Total pages :296

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The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs instructs students on the primary basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how proofs of mathematical statements work. The text provides basic core techniques of how to read and write proofs through examples. The basic mechanics of proofs are provided for a methodical approach in gaining an understanding of the fundamentals to help students reach different results. A variety of fundamental proofs demonstrate the basic steps in the construction of a proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems. Jumps right in with the needed vocabulary-gets students thinking like mathematicians from the beginning Offers a large variety of examples and problems with solutions for students to work through on their own Includes a collection of exercises without solutions to help instructors prepare assignments Contains an extensive list of basic mathematical definitions and concepts needed in abstract mathematics.

## The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs

Publisher : Elsevier

Release Date : 2005

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :179

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Presents a guide to the basic logic of mathematical proofs, describing the steps in construction of a proof and how and why a proof works.

## The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs

Publisher : Academic Press

Release Date : 2011-11-25

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :296

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The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs: An Introduction to Mathematical Proofs provides basic logic of mathematical proofs and shows how mathematical proofs work. It offers techniques for both reading and writing proofs. The second chapter of the book discusses the techniques in proving if/then statements by contrapositive and proofing by contradiction. It also includes the negation statement, and/or. It examines various theorems, such as the if and only-if, or equivalence theorems, the existence theorems, and the uniqueness theorems. In addition, use of counter examples, mathematical induction, composite statements including multiple hypothesis and multiple conclusions, and equality of numbers are covered in this chapter. The book also provides mathematical topics for practicing proof techniques. Included here are the Cartesian products, indexed families, functions, and relations. The last chapter of the book provides review exercises on various topics. Undergraduate students in engineering and physical science will find this book invaluable. Jumps right in with the needed vocabulary—gets students thinking like mathematicians from the beginning Offers a large variety of examples and problems with solutions for students to work through on their own Includes a collection of exercises without solutions to help instructors prepare assignments Contains an extensive list of basic mathematical definitions and concepts needed in abstract mathematics

## A Transition to Proof

Publisher : CRC Press

Release Date : 2019-03-21

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :450

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A Transition to Proof: An Introduction to Advanced Mathematics describes writing proofs as a creative process. There is a lot that goes into creating a mathematical proof before writing it. Ample discussion of how to figure out the "nuts and bolts'" of the proof takes place: thought processes, scratch work and ways to attack problems. Readers will learn not just how to write mathematics but also how to do mathematics. They will then learn to communicate mathematics effectively. The text emphasizes the creativity, intuition, and correct mathematical exposition as it prepares students for courses beyond the calculus sequence. The author urges readers to work to define their mathematical voices. This is done with style tips and strict "mathematical do’s and don’ts", which are presented in eye-catching "text-boxes" throughout the text. The end result enables readers to fully understand the fundamentals of proof. Features: The text is aimed at transition courses preparing students to take analysis Promotes creativity, intuition, and accuracy in exposition The language of proof is established in the first two chapters, which cover logic and set theory Includes chapters on cardinality and introductory topology

## Proofs and Fundamentals

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

Release Date : 2013-12-01

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :424

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The aim of this book is to help students write mathematics better. Throughout it are large exercise sets well-integrated with the text and varying appropriately from easy to hard. Basic issues are treated, and attention is given to small issues like not placing a mathematical symbol directly after a punctuation mark. And it provides many examples of what students should think and what they should write and how these two are often not the same.

## Proofs from THE BOOK

Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media

Release Date : 2013-06-29

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :199

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According to the great mathematician Paul Erdös, God maintains perfect mathematical proofs in The Book. This book presents the authors candidates for such "perfect proofs," those which contain brilliant ideas, clever connections, and wonderful observations, bringing new insight and surprising perspectives to problems from number theory, geometry, analysis, combinatorics, and graph theory. As a result, this book will be fun reading for anyone with an interest in mathematics.

## Proofs and Refutations

Publisher : Cambridge University Press

Release Date : 1976

Category : Philosophy

Total pages :174

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Proofs and Refutations is essential reading for all those interested in the methodology, the philosophy and the history of mathematics. Much of the book takes the form of a discussion between a teacher and his students. They propose various solutions to some mathematical problems and investigate the strengths and weaknesses of these solutions. Their discussion (which mirrors certain real developments in the history of mathematics) raises some philosophical problems and some problems about the nature of mathematical discovery or creativity. Imre Lakatos is concerned throughout to combat the classical picture of mathematical development as a steady accumulation of established truths. He shows that mathematics grows instead through a richer, more dramatic process of the successive improvement of creative hypotheses by attempts to 'prove' them and by criticism of these attempts: the logic of proofs and refutations.

## Ricci Flow and the Poincare Conjecture

Publisher : American Mathematical Soc.

Release Date : 2007

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :521

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For over 100 years the Poincare Conjecture, which proposes a topological characterization of the 3-sphere, has been the central question in topology. Since its formulation, it has been repeatedly attacked, without success, using various topological methods. Its importance and difficulty were highlighted when it was chosen as one of the Clay Mathematics Institute's seven Millennium Prize Problems. In 2002 and 2003 Grigory Perelman posted three preprints showing how to use geometric arguments, in particular the Ricci flow as introduced and studied by Hamilton, to establish the Poincare Conjecture in the affirmative. This book provides full details of a complete proof of the Poincare Conjecture following Perelman's three preprints. After a lengthy introduction that outlines the entire argument, the book is divided into four parts. The first part reviews necessary results from Riemannian geometry and Ricci flow, including much of Hamilton's work. The second part starts with Perelman's length function, which is used to establish crucial non-collapsing theorems. Then it discusses the classification of non-collapsed, ancient solutions to the Ricci flow equation. The third part concerns the existence of Ricci flow with surgery for all positive time and an analysis of the topological and geometric changes introduced by surgery. The last part follows Perelman's third preprint to prove that when the initial Riemannian 3-manifold has finite fundamental group, Ricci flow with surgery becomes extinct after finite time. The proofs of the Poincare Conjecture and the closely related 3-dimensional spherical space-form conjecture are then immediate. The existence of Ricci flow with surgery has application to 3-manifolds far beyond the Poincare Conjecture. It forms the heart of the proof via Ricci flow of Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture. Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture, which classifies all compact 3-manifolds, will be the subject of a follow-up article. The organization of the material in this book differs from that given by Perelman. From the beginning the authors present all analytic and geometric arguments in the context of Ricci flow with surgery. In addition, the fourth part is a much-expanded version of Perelman's third preprint; it gives the first complete and detailed proof of the finite-time extinction theorem. With the large amount of background material that is presented and the detailed versions of the central arguments, this book is suitable for all mathematicians from advanced graduate students to specialists in geometry and topology. Clay Mathematics Institute Monograph Series The Clay Mathematics Institute Monograph Series publishes selected expositions of recent developments, both in emerging areas and in older subjects transformed by new insights or unifying ideas.

## Book of Proof

Publisher : Unknown

Release Date : 2016-01-01

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :314

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This book is an introduction to the language and standard proof methods of mathematics. It is a bridge from the computational courses (such as calculus or differential equations) that students typically encounter in their first year of college to a more abstract outlook. It lays a foundation for more theoretical courses such as topology, analysis and abstract algebra. Although it may be more meaningful to the student who has had some calculus, there is really no prerequisite other than a measure of mathematical maturity.

## Euler's Gem

Publisher : Princeton University Press

Release Date : 2019-07-23

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :337

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How a simple equation reshaped mathematics Leonhard Euler’s polyhedron formula describes the structure of many objects—from soccer balls and gemstones to Buckminster Fuller’s buildings and giant all-carbon molecules. Yet Euler’s theorem is so simple it can be explained to a child. From ancient Greek geometry to today’s cutting-edge research, Euler’s Gem celebrates the discovery of Euler’s beloved polyhedron formula and its far-reaching impact on topology, the study of shapes. Using wonderful examples and numerous illustrations, David Richeson presents this mathematical idea’s many elegant and unexpected applications, such as showing why there is always some windless spot on earth, how to measure the acreage of a tree farm by counting trees, and how many crayons are needed to color any map. Filled with a who’s who of brilliant mathematicians who questioned, refined, and contributed to a remarkable theorem’s development, Euler’s Gem will fascinate every mathematics enthusiast. This paperback edition contains a new preface by the author.

## The Little Prover

Publisher : MIT Press

Release Date : 2015-07-10

Category : Computers

Total pages :248

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An introduction to writing proofs about computer programs, written in an accessible question-and-answer style, complete with step-by-step examples and a simple proof assistant. The Little Prover introduces inductive proofs as a way to determine facts about computer programs. It is written in an approachable, engaging style of question-and-answer, with the characteristic humor of The Little Schemer (fourth edition, MIT Press). Sometimes the best way to learn something is to sit down and do it; the book takes readers through step-by-step examples showing how to write inductive proofs. The Little Prover assumes only knowledge of recursive programs and lists (as presented in the first three chapters of The Little Schemer) and uses only a few terms beyond what novice programmers already know. The book comes with a simple proof assistant to help readers work through the book and complete solutions to every example.

## Tales of Impossibility

Publisher : Princeton University Press

Release Date : 2019-10-08

Category : Mathematics

Total pages :456

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A comprehensive look at four of the most famous problems in mathematics Tales of Impossibility recounts the intriguing story of the renowned problems of antiquity, four of the most famous and studied questions in the history of mathematics. First posed by the ancient Greeks, these compass and straightedge problems—squaring the circle, trisecting an angle, doubling the cube, and inscribing regular polygons in a circle—have served as ever-present muses for mathematicians for more than two millennia. David Richeson follows the trail of these problems to show that ultimately their proofs—demonstrating the impossibility of solving them using only a compass and straightedge—depended on and resulted in the growth of mathematics. Richeson investigates how celebrated luminaries, including Euclid, Archimedes, Viète, Descartes, Newton, and Gauss, labored to understand these problems and how many major mathematical discoveries were related to their explorations. Although the problems were based in geometry, their resolutions were not, and had to wait until the nineteenth century, when mathematicians had developed the theory of real and complex numbers, analytic geometry, algebra, and calculus. Pierre Wantzel, a little-known mathematician, and Ferdinand von Lindemann, through his work on pi, finally determined the problems were impossible to solve. Along the way, Richeson provides entertaining anecdotes connected to the problems, such as how the Indiana state legislature passed a bill setting an incorrect value for pi and how Leonardo da Vinci made elegant contributions in his own study of these problems. Taking readers from the classical period to the present, Tales of Impossibility chronicles how four unsolvable problems have captivated mathematical thinking for centuries.

## How to Read and Do Proofs

Publisher : Wiley

Release Date : 1991-12-05

Category :

Total pages :48

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This straightforward guide describes the main methods used to prove mathematical theorems. Shows how and when to use each technique such as the contrapositive, induction and proof by contradiction. Each method is illustrated by step-by-step examples. The Second Edition features new chapters on nested quantifiers and proof by cases, and the number of exercises has been doubled with answers to odd-numbered exercises provided. This text will be useful as a supplement in mathematics and logic courses. Prerequisite is high-school algebra.