December 2, 2020

Download Ebook Free The Protective Arm Of The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS)

The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS)

The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS)
Author : Thomas Unger,U. Muscha Steckelings,Robson Augusto Souza dos Santos
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2015-04-18
Category : Medical
Total pages :316
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The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System: Functional Aspects and Therapeutic Implications is the first comprehensive publication to signal the protective role of a distinct part of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), providing readers with early insight into a complex system which will become of major medical importance in the near future. Focusing on recent research, The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System presents a host of new experimental studies on specific components of the RAS, namely angiotensin AT2 receptors (AT2R), the angiotensin (1–7) peptide with its receptor Mas, and the enzyme ACE 2, which exert significant beneficial, health-promoting actions by counterbalancing the well-known harmful arm of the RAS with its classical angiotensin AT1 receptor. This innovative concept of the protective arm of the RAS, examined in this reference, represents an indispensable background and will be a strong support for biomedical students, researchers, cardiologists, surgeons, nephrologists, diabetologists, and endocrinologists, as well as any other physician or researcher concerned with RAS physiology, pathophysiology and clinical implications. Provides a complete understanding of the protective side of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) involving angiotensin AT2 receptor, ACE2, and Ang(1-7)/Mas receptor Combines the knowledge of editors who pioneered research on the protective renin angiotensin system including; Dr. Thomas Unger, one of the founders of AT2 receptor research; Dr. Ulrike M. Steckelings, who contributed significantly to first preclinical studies with a novel specific AT2-agonist, and Dr. Robson Santos who pioneered research on angiotensin-(1-7) and its receptor Mas. Shows that the protective RAS axes are able to ameliorate the course of several cardiovascular, renal, metabolic and neurological diseases Provides the basis for the understanding of a novel therapeutic approach to stimulate components of the protective arm of the RAS.

Loss of the Protective Arm of Renin-angiotensin-system Results in Hematopoietic Stem

Loss of the Protective Arm of Renin-angiotensin-system Results in Hematopoietic Stem
Author : Yaqian Duan
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :352
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the primary enzyme of the vasoprotective axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We tested the hypothesis that the protective arm of the RAS axis can i) act to maintain homeostasis in the diabetic bone marrow stem cell compartment, ii) regulate the reparative function of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and iii) modulate the gut microbiota composition. All processes could influence the development of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic ACE2 knockout (KO)/C57BL/6-Ins2WT/C96Y (Akita) mice were examined at 3 and 9 months after the onset of diabetes and compared to age-matched controls. Both ACE2KO-Akita and Akita cohorts showed reduced retinal thickness by optical coherence tomography at 9 months of diabetes. The absence of ACE2 in 9-month diabetic mice led to an accelerated increase in acellular capillaries, a hallmark feature of diabetic retinopathy. The absence of ACE2 also caused a reduction of both long-term and short-term repopulating HSPCs in the diabetic bone marrow at 9 months of diabetes. Reparative function studies showed that ACE2KO exacerbated diabetes-induced impairment of lineage-c-kit+ HSPC migration and proliferation as early as 3-month of diabetes. HSPCs from both early and late stage diabetic mice, pretreated with Ang-(1-7) or alamandine (two downstream peptides of ACE2) showed restored migration and proliferation. The gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Analysis of the gut microbiome also revealed a distinct bacterial profile in ACE2KO-Akita group, with a great diversity of bacterial types that were previously reported to contribute to diabetic pathogenesis, including Tenericutes at the phylum level and Mollicutes at the class level, and with an activation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathways. Flow cytometry analysis showed that loss of ACE2 led to less infiltration of circulating angiogenic cells in the gut which may lead to an increased endothelial cell permeability in the intestinal endothelium. This leakage into the blood may promote systemic inflammation known to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. These data suggested a loss of the protective arm of RAS contributes to the impairment of HSPCs and alteration of gut microbiota, both of which may contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy.

Manual of Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension, Third Edition

Manual of Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension, Third Edition
Author : Giuseppe Mancia,Guido Grassi,Konstantinos Tsioufis,Anna Dominiczak,Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2019-06-06
Category : Health & Fitness
Total pages :650
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The Manual of Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension reflects emerging concepts that have the potential to impact diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to hypertension. Updating all material, this new edition also delves into a number of areas that have received heightened interest in recent years or have become a matter of debate due to the controversial interpretation of the available data. FEATURES Reflects emerging concepts impacting diagnostic and therapeutic approaches Explores background, history, epidemiology, and risk factors Describes pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and medical treatments Examines hypertension in special populations and treatment

New Aspects of the Renin Angiotensin System in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases

New Aspects of the Renin Angiotensin System in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases
Author : Dulce Elena Casarini,Danielle Yuri Arita,Tatiana Sousa Cunha,Juliana Almada Colucci
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release Date : 2016-11-03
Category : Medical
Total pages :385
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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a hormonal system that is responsible for regulating plasma sodium ion concentration and arterial blood pressure in the body. The system involves several peptides such as angiotensin I and II as well as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to enable the constriction of arterial blood vessels in the lung. Angiotensin II also stimulates the production of the hormone aldosterone in the kidneys which brings sodium ions into the bloodstream in exchange for potassium ions. Malfunctions of the RAS can lead to hypertension, heart failure, diabetes and renal complications. Thus the biochemical components of this system serve as important targets for therapeutic drugs. This monograph is a compilation of updated reviews on the RAS. The monograph covers describes the components of the system to explaining its physiological and clinical features in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys. This is followed by sections explaining the biochemistry of the RAS system in cardiovascular and renal disease and the pharmacology of relevant therapeutic drugs. Additional information on the effect of exercise states and methods to quantify angiotensins for molecular diagnosis is also presented in the concluding sections. Information in the monograph will be of interest to physiologists and endocrinologists involved in medical studies or clinical practice. Readers will be able to understand the RAS with a holistic frame of reference.

The Renin-Angiotensin System

The Renin-Angiotensin System
Author : 堀内正嗣,伊藤裕
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2003-08-01
Category :
Total pages :409
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The Renin-Angiotensin System and the Kidney

The Renin-Angiotensin System and the Kidney
Author : Xiao C. Li,Jia L. Zhuo
Publisher : Biota Publishing
Release Date : 2015-03-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :61
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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the most important endocrine (tissue-to-tissue), paracrine (cell-to-cell) and intracrine (intracellular/nuclear) humoral systems in the regulation of blood pressure, cardiovascular, and kidney function in health and disease. The RAS has remarkably evolved from the initial discovery of the rate-limiting enzyme renin to a complex biochemical and physiological cascade involving more than a dozen members. Currently, there are up to five axes or pathways identified in the RAS; each has its substrate, enzyme, effector peptide, receptor, and downstream signaling pathways. These include the renin/ACE/ANG II/AT1 receptor, the APA/ANG III/AT2 receptor, the ACE2/ANG (1-7)/Mas receptor, the prorenin/prorenin receptor (PRR), and the ANG IV/AT4 receptor (IRAP) pathways. Accordingly, the roles of the RAS have expanded well beyond the classic endocrine paradigm as a powerful vasoconstrictor, a potent aldosterone stimulator, or a sodium-retaining hormonal system. The goals of this article are to review and discuss the current insights into and new perspectives on the expression, localization, and novel actions of the RAS with a focus in the kidney. Special emphasis will be placed on recently discovered new members of the RAS derived from studies using innovative mutant rats or mice that either overexpress (knockin) or are deficient (knockout) of a particular substrate, enzyme, ANG peptide, or receptor. This new knowledge will help improve our understanding how each of these pathways act directly or indirectly to regulate blood pressure, cardiovascular and kidney function in physiology, and can be targeted to treat hypertension, cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Renin-Angiotensin System

Renin-Angiotensin System
Author : Anna Tolekova
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-07-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :268
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Exploring the contractile activity of smooth muscle segments isolated from various organs of healthy animals and animals with experimentally induced diabetes, she obtained original data about angiotensin II-induced force and time parameters. For the first time, she established the effect of ghrelin on angiotensin II-provoked contraction of the urinary bladder. Original data on the role of both types of angiotensin receptors for the contractile activity of the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract and bladder were obtained. By applying specific software for force and time parameter analysis, the contribution of different types of angiotensin receptors on muscle contractility has been shown. The new methodology was used to analyze the data obtained during the registration of smooth muscle relaxation activity, which allows the determination of not only the magnitude of the mechanical response but also the parameters related to the time and speed of the contractions. Plasma renin activity models have been developed using mathematical approaches to predict the effect of different drug doses on the behavior of the system.

Renin-Angiotensin System

Renin-Angiotensin System
Author : Anna Tolekova
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2017-07-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :268
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Exploring the contractile activity of smooth muscle segments isolated from various organs of healthy animals and animals with experimentally induced diabetes, she obtained original data about angiotensin II-induced force and time parameters. For the first time, she established the effect of ghrelin on angiotensin II-provoked contraction of the urinary bladder. Original data on the role of both types of angiotensin receptors for the contractile activity of the various segments of the gastrointestinal tract and bladder were obtained. By applying specific software for force and time parameter analysis, the contribution of different types of angiotensin receptors on muscle contractility has been shown. The new methodology was used to analyze the data obtained during the registration of smooth muscle relaxation activity, which allows the determination of not only the magnitude of the mechanical response but also the parameters related to the time and speed of the contractions. Plasma renin activity models have been developed using mathematical approaches to predict the effect of different drug doses on the behavior of the system.

Advances in Osteoporosis

Advances in Osteoporosis
Author : Yannis Dionyssiotis
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2015-03-04
Category : Medical
Total pages :176
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A balanced regulation of bone formation and resorption in the healthy individual is required for a healthy bone. On the other side, there are many factors which can lead to alterations in bone density and microarchitecture. Menopause is a condition which can increase the remodeling process in favor of resorption. Moreover, there are also some diseases, i.e. chronic kidney bone disease, that increase the possibility of fractures and the subsequent disability leading to increased mortality. However, it is clear that drugs are an essential element of the therapy and this issue is analyzed extensively in this book. Some novel pathophysiological mechanisms are also presented, offering advanced knowledge to the reader. The book includes chapters from scientific departments and researchers from all over the world.

Angiotensin-(1-7)

Angiotensin-(1-7)
Author : Robson Augusto Souza Santos
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-08-21
Category : Medical
Total pages :240
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This is the first book addressing in full the most important aspects of the angiotensin-(1-7), the key peptide of the protective axis and the main component in the new modulatory concept of the renin-angiotensin system. It features a detailed review of angiotensin-(1-7) and its receptor Mas, comprising the historical background, enzymatic pathways for generation, functions, integrative aspects of its protective profile, and its therapeutic potential. It also encompasses a comprehensive presentation of current knowledge about its widespread biological actions on several tissues, as well as the most recent scientific achievements, emerging from preclinical and clinical trials. Dr. Santos is a renowned researcher on the Renin-Angiontensin system, with remarkable achievements regarding the role of peptides such as alamandine and angiontensin-(1-7). He has also worked on the potential clinical applicability of angiotensin-(1-7)-related drugs for cardiovascular diseases. He has an extensive publication record in the field, including the publication of the book The Protective Arm of the Renin Angiotensin System (Academic Press, 2015). Angiotensin-(1-7) will make a unique contribution to the literature and will be an important resource for biomedical students and researchers, medical practitioners and any other professional interested in this peptide and its role in the renin-angiotensin system.

Comprehensive Hypertension E-Book

Comprehensive Hypertension E-Book
Author : Gregory Y. H. Lip,John E. Hall
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2007-06-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :1248
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Here is today's most in-depth reference for any cardiologist, internist, or nephrologist interested in hypertension. Drawing from international experience in cardiology, physiology, and nephrology, Drs. Lip and Hall have assembled a group of section editors and contributors second to none. You'll find the long-term effects of primary and secondary hypertension and a lengthy section on hypertensions for special populations featured prominently. Prevention and treatment of hypertension are covered in detail, from lifestyle and diet issues to drug choice and delivery, and the section on comparison of guidelines is unique to this book. Find comprehensive coverage of hypertension including pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment all in one practical volume. See the complete systemic problems of hypertension at a glance with detailed, full-color illustrations of cellular and clinical manifestations. Simplify navigating the complexities of hypertension using algorithms for clinical exam and diagnosis. Get specific insight into prevention and treatment of hypertension in special populations. Go global with a comprehensive section on worldwide guidelines and the application of clinical material to local standards of practice.

Kidney and Blood Pressure Regulation

Kidney and Blood Pressure Regulation
Author : Hiromichi Suzuki (M.D.),Takao Saruta
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release Date : 2004
Category : Medical
Total pages :172
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Chronic kidney disease is one of the world's major public health problems, and the prevalence of kidney failure is rising steadily. Among the risk factors for a faster progression of renal disease are hypertension and proteinuria, many studies clearly demonstrating that hypertension is both a cause and consequence of chronic kidney disease. Namely, renal blood pressure regulation seems to be involved in five major pathophysiological mechanisms (all closely related to the renin-angiotensin system): Pressure-natriuresis, renal sympathetic nervous system, renal blood flow, intraglomerular pressure and tubuloglomerular feedback. This book reviews experimental data which form the basis of our current understanding of the association between hypertension and kidney diseases: The pathogenesis of increased blood pressure, the mechanisms by which systemic hypertension promotes progressive kidney failure, and the impact of antihypertensive agents on experimental renal mechanisms involved in hypertension. Furthermore, the role of angiotensin II receptor blockers in both the control of systemic blood pressure and the reduction of proteinuria is examined in an attempt to define optimal therapeutic strategies to prevent the otherwise inexorable deterioration of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Therapy in Nephrology and Hypertension E-Book

Therapy in Nephrology and Hypertension E-Book
Author : Christopher S. Wilcox
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2008-08-22
Category : Medical
Total pages :1160
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Thoroughly revised, the new edition of this companion to Brenner & Rector’s The Kidney equips you with today’s guidance to effectively manage renal and hypertension patients. International authorities emphasize the specifics of treatment while presenting field-tested advice on the best therapeutic strategies available. New chapters reflect the latest evidence impacting current clinical issues, while a new design helps you reference the information more easily. Presents the most comprehensive text available on nephrology and hypertension treatment for a convenient single source that is easy to consult. Features the evidence-based guidance of leading authorities for making more informed clinical decisions. Offers in-depth discussions and referenced coverage of key trials to help you analyze the results and the evidence provided. Provides treatment algorithms and tables of commonly used drugs in each chapter for quick-access expert advice on arriving at the best and most appropriate treatment regimen. Offers new chapters on erectile and sexual dysfunction, transplant immunology and immunosuppression, dietary salt restriction, and systematic vasculitis and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis that reflect new evidence impacting current clinical issues. Presents the contributions of newly assigned section editors—authorities in their subspecialty fields—who offer you the benefit of their practice-proven expertise. Provides rationales for the therapies presented to help you choose the most effective treatment for each patient.

Fitness Medicine

Fitness Medicine
Author : Hasan Sozen
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2016-10-26
Category : Science
Total pages :156
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Although fitness and health have similar properties, they are, in reality, two very different concepts. While health refers to the absence of diseases, fitness refers to the degree of body functioning and the ability of the body to handle physical demands. The more efficient the body functions, the higher the level of fitness. The higher the level of fitness, the greater the chance of the body being free of diseases and maintaining a healthy state.

Core Concepts in Hypertension in Kidney Disease

Core Concepts in Hypertension in Kidney Disease
Author : Ajay K. Singh,Rajiv Agarwal
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-10-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :349
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This guide provides a comprehensive review of the full spectrum of hypertension in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Targeted towards the busy practitioner, the focus of this volume is on various therapies and how to lower blood pressure through lifestyle changes. Specialist patient populations and hypertension and causes of hypertension are also covered in detail. Clinically-focused and authoritative, this resource offers a rationalized approach to diagnosing and treating hypertension in CKD.