December 5, 2020

Download Ebook Free Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials

Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials

Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials
Author : Subba Ramaiah Kodigala
Publisher : Newnes
Release Date : 2013-11-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :190
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The fundamental concept of the book is to explain how to make thin film solar cells from the abundant solar energy materials by low cost. The proper and optimized growth conditions are very essential while sandwiching thin films to make solar cell otherwise secondary phases play a role to undermine the working function of solar cells. The book illustrates growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film absorbers and their solar cells. The fabrication process of absorber layers by either vacuum or non-vacuum process is readily elaborated in the book, which helps for further development of cells. The characterization analyses such as XPS, XRD, SEM, AFM etc., lead to tailor the physical properties of the absorber layers to fit well for the solar cells. The role of secondary phases such as ZnS, Cu2-xS,SnS etc., which are determined by XPS, XRD or Raman, in the absorber layers is promptly discussed. The optical spectroscopy analysis, which finds band gap, optical constants of the films, is mentioned in the book. The electrical properties of the absorbers deal the influence of substrates, growth temperature, impurities, secondary phases etc. The low temperature I-V and C-V measurements of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film solar cells are clearly described. The solar cell parameters such as efficiency, fill factor, series resistance, parallel resistance provide handful information to understand the mechanism of physics of thin film solar cells in the book. The band structure, which supports to adjust interface states at the p-n junction of the solar cells is given. On the other hand the role of window layers with the solar cells is discussed. The simulation of theoretical efficiency of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film solar cells explains how much efficiency can be experimentally extracted from the cells. One of the first books exploring how to conduct research on thin film solar cells, including reducing costs Detailed instructions on conducting research

Earth-Abundant Materials for Solar Cells

Earth-Abundant Materials for Solar Cells
Author : Sadao Adachi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-10-28
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :480
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Systematically describes the physical and materials properties of copper-based quaternary chalcogenide semiconductor materials, enabling their potential for photovoltaic device applications. Intended for scientists and engineers, in particular, in the fields of multinary semiconductor physics and a variety of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide-Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide-Based Thin Film Solar Cells
Author : Kentaro Ito
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-02-23
Category : Science
Total pages :440
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Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground–mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth–abundant, low–cost and non–toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS–based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS–based solar cells have the potential to be used for large–scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.

Advanced Concepts in Photovoltaics

Advanced Concepts in Photovoltaics
Author : Arthur J. Nozik,Gavin Conibeer,Matthew C Beard
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2014-07-10
Category : Science
Total pages :608
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Photovoltaic systems enable the sun’s energy to be converted directly into electricity using semiconductor solar cells. The ultimate goal of photovoltaic research and development is to reduce the cost of solar power to reach or even become lower than the cost of electricity generated from fossil and nuclear fuels. The power conversion efficiency and the cost per unit area of the phototvoltaic system are critical factors that determine the cost of photovoltaic electricity. Until recently, the power conversion efficiency of single-junction photovoltaic cells has been limited to approximately 33% - the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. This book presents the latest developments in photovoltaics which seek to either reach or surpass the Shockley-Queisser limit, and to lower the cell cost per unit area. Progress toward this ultimate goal is presented for the three generations of photovoltaic cells: the 1st generation based on crystalline silicon semiconductors; the 2nd generation based on thin film silicon, compound semiconductors, amorphous silicon, and various mesoscopic structures; and the 3rd generation based on the unique properties of nanoscale materials, new inorganic and organic photoconversion materials, highly efficient multi-junction cells with low cost solar concentration, and novel photovoltaic processes. The extent to which photovoltaic materials and processes can meet the expectations of efficient and cost effective solar energy conversion to electricity is discussed. Written by an international team of expert contributors, and with researchers in academia, national research laboratories, and industry in mind, this book is a comprehensive guide to recent progress in photovoltaics and essential for any library or laboratory in the field.

Fabrication and Characterization of Low Cost Solar Cells based on Earth Abundant Materials for Sustainable Photovoltaics

Fabrication and Characterization of Low Cost Solar Cells based on Earth Abundant Materials for Sustainable Photovoltaics
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Cuvillier Verlag
Release Date : 2016-07-08
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :130
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The low cost and low temperature electrochemical deposition technique was employed to grow Cu2O thin films and ZnO:Al thin films were deposited by d.c. magnetron sputtering in order to fabricate solar cells. The potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrodeposition modes were used to deposit the Cu2O thin films. Raman spectra of thin films have shown characteristic frequencies of crystalline Cu2O. The contact between Cu2O and Au is found to be an Ohmic contact. The devices grown by a potentiostatic mode have higher efficiency than those grown by a galvanostatic mode. The optimum thickness of Cu2O thin films as an absorber layer in solar cells. was found to be around 3 µm respect to a high efficiency. Flexible and light weight solar cell was fabricated on plastic substrate.

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices

Sputtering Materials for VLSI and Thin Film Devices
Author : Jaydeep Sarkar
Publisher : William Andrew
Release Date : 2010-12-13
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :608
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An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall productivity of various processes. Two unique chapters of this book deal with productivity and troubleshooting issues. The content of the book has been divided into two sections: (a) the first section (Chapter 1 to Chapter 3) has been prepared for the readers from a range of disciplines (e.g. electrical, chemical, chemistry, physics) trying to get an insight into use of sputtered films in various devices (e.g. semiconductor, display, photovoltaic, data storage), basic of sputtering and performance of sputtering target in relation to productivity, and (b) the second section (Chapter 4 to Chapter 8) has been prepared for readers who already have background knowledge of sputter deposition of thin films, materials science principles and interested in the details of sputtering target manufacturing methods, sputtering behavior and thin film properties specific to semiconductor, liquid crystal display, photovoltaic and magnetic data storage applications. In Chapters 5 to 8, a general structure has been used, i.e. a description of the applications of sputtered thin films, sputtering target manufacturing methods (including flow charts), sputtering behavior of targets (e.g. current - voltage relationship, deposition rate) and thin film properties (e.g. microstructure, stresses, electrical properties, in-film particles). While discussing these topics, attempts have been made to include examples from the actual commercial processes to highlight the increased complexity of the commercial processes with the growth of advanced technologies. In addition to personnel working in industry setting, university researchers with advanced knowledge of sputtering would also find discussion of such topics (e.g. attributes of target design, chamber design, target microstructure, sputter surface characteristics, various troubleshooting issues) useful. . Unique coverage of sputtering target manufacturing methods in the light of semiconductor, displays, data storage and photovoltaic industry requirements Practical information on technology trends, role of sputtering and major OEMs Discussion on properties of a wide variety of thin films which include silicides, conductors, diffusion barriers, transparent conducting oxides, magnetic films etc. Practical case-studies on target performance and troubleshooting Essential technological information for students, engineers and scientists working in the semiconductor, display, data storage and photovoltaic industry

Optoelectronic Modeling and Optimization of Graded-bandgap Thin-film Solar Cells

Optoelectronic Modeling and Optimization of Graded-bandgap Thin-film Solar Cells
Author : Faiz Ahmad
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Crystalline-silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic solar cells are increasingly taking over the energy production sector nowadays. Even in comparison to coal-fired and nuclear plants for generation of electricity, the cost of harnessing solar energy by photovoltaic means has gone down considerably during the last decade. However, microwatt-scale generators of electricity are needed for human progress to become effectively unconstrained by economics. Large-scale adoption of thin-film solar cells is necessary for that to happen. However, Earth-abundant materials with low toxicity and high power-conversion efficiency must be used for thin-film solar cells. A series of theoretical investigations were performed to tackle the problem of materials scarcity as well as to explore potential enhancements of power-conversion efficiency in thin-film solar cells by thinning the absorber layer, grading the bandgap in the absorber layer, and modifying the back end. Three different types of thin-film solar cells were considered: CIGS, CZTSSe, and AlGaAs. The bandgap of the absorber layer was varied either sinusoidally or linearly. The thickness of the absorber layer was varied from 100 nm to 2200 nm. Back-end modifications incorporating a periodically corrugated backreflector and a back-surface passivation layer were considered as well. A coupled optoelectronic model was used along with the differential evolution algorithm to maximize the efficiency in relation to geometric and bandgap-grading parameters. Furthermore, as colored solar cells can promote large-scale adoption of rooftop solar cells, efficiency loss due to color-rejection filters was estimated. The coupled optoelectronic optimization predicted that tailored bandgap grading could significantly improve efficiency for all three considered thin-film solar cells. For CIGS solar cells with a 2200-nm-thick absorber layer, an efficiency of 27.7% was predicted with a sinusoidally graded bandgap absorber layer along with back-end modifications in comparison to 22% efficiency achieved experimentally with a homogeneous CIGS absorber layer. An efficiency of 21.7% was predicted with sinusoidal grading of a 870-nm-thick absorber CZTSSe layer in comparison to 12.6% efficiency achieved experimentally with a 2200-nm-thick homogeneous CZTSSe layer. Similarly, an efficiency of 34.5% was predicted through optoelectronic optimization of AlGaAs solar cells with a sinusoidally graded bandgap absorber layer along with back-end modifications in comparison to 27.6% efficiency achieved experimentally with a homogeneous AlGaAs absorber layer. For colored thin-film solar cells, predictions of the efficiency loss varied from 10% to 20%, depending upon the percentage of rejection of incoming solar photons. Thus, optoelectronic optimization by bandgap grading and back-end modifications is more than enough to swallow efficiency reduction by the rejection of a certain percentage of incoming solar photons. Thus, the proposed design strategies provide a way to realize more efficient thin-film solar cells for the ubiquitous harnessing of solar energy at low-wattage levels, thereby promoting widespread adoption of thin-film solar cells as local energy sources. Also, cheap, small-scale off-grid generation of electricity will provide access to energy for populations living without electricity far from central grids in less-developed and developing regions of our planet, thus equalizing opportunity and decreasing income and gender gaps.

Electronic Characterisation of Earth‐Abundant Sulphides for Solar Photovoltaics

Electronic Characterisation of Earth‐Abundant Sulphides for Solar Photovoltaics
Author : Thomas James Whittles
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2018-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :362
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This book examines the electronic structure of earth-abundant and environmentally friendly materials for use as absorber layers within photovoltaic cells. The corroboration between high-quality photoemission measurements and density of states calculations yields valuable insights into why these materials have demonstrated poor device efficiencies in the vast literature cited. The book shows how the materials’ underlying electronic structures affect their properties, and how the band positions make them unsuitable for use with established solar cell technologies. After explaining these poor efficiencies, the book offers alternative window layer materials to improve the use of these absorbers. The power of photoemission and interpretation of the data in terms of factors generally overlooked in the literature, such as the materials’ oxidation and phase impurity, is demonstrated. Representing a unique reference guide, the book will be of considerable interest and value to members of the photoemission community engaged in solar cell research, and to a wider materials science audience as well.

Materials Processing Technology, ICAMMP2011

Materials Processing Technology, ICAMMP2011
Author : Xiang Hua Liu,Zheng Yi Jiang,Jing Tao Han
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release Date : 2011-12-06
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :2520
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These volumes comprise papers, on the topic of “Materials Processing Technology”, selected from the second International Conference on Advances in Materials and Manufacturing (ICAMMP 2011) held on the 16-18th December 2011 in Guilin, China. The 469 peer-reviewed papers are grouped into the chapters: 1: Advanced Engineering Materials, 2: Surface Engineering/Coatings, 3: Materials Forming, Machining and Joining, 4: Laser Processing, 5: Powder Metallurgy and Plastic Deformation, 6: Friction and Wear, 7: Waste-to-Energy, Waste Management and Waste Disposal, 8: CAD/CAE/CAM, 9: Product Design and Development, 10: Other Related Topics.

Energy and Environmental Materials II

Energy and Environmental Materials II
Author : Yafang Han,Jiatao Zhang,Jianguo Zhu
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release Date : 2015-03-12
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :598
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Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the Chinese Materials Congress 2014 (CMC 2014), July 4-7, 2014, Chengdu, China. The 89 papers are grouped as follows: Symposium A: Energy Related Composites and Nano-Materials; Symposium B: Photocatalytic Materials and Its Applications In the Field of Energy and Environment; Symposium C: Minerals And Resources, Materials for Oil-Gas Field Engineering, Structure Building Applications; Symposium D: Environment Technologies and Functional Materials, Environmental Emission and Protection

Advanced Micro- and Nanomaterials for Photovoltaics

Advanced Micro- and Nanomaterials for Photovoltaics
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2019-05-25
Category : Science
Total pages :340
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Nanomaterials are becoming increasingly important photovoltaic technologies from absorbers to contacts. This book is dedicated to describing the novel materials and technologies for photovoltaics that derive from these new and novel approaches in solar technologies. We have collected a set of renowned experts in their respective fields as authors and their expertise covers a broad set of areas including novel oxides, quantum dots, CZTS and organic solar cells, as well as light management and reliability testing. The organization of the book is divided into three sections; the first part deals with emerging photovoltaic absorbers and absorber approaches, the second part is focused on novel solar cell architectures and device concepts and components; and the last part is focused on their integration into module technologies. The first chapter is an introduction to the basics of solar cells technology facilitating an understanding by the non-expert of the following chapters. The book is intended for academics and professionals, at the research and R&D level in materials and devices, who are looking for opportunities for applications in the solar materials, devices and modules areas. Hopefully it will serve as a reference for students and professionals looking into the potential and development of novel photovoltaic technologies, researchers looking into the development of innovative projects, and teachers in the field of energy and sustainability. Showcases a range of cutting-edge photovoltaic materials and devices, exploring their special properties and how they are best used Assesses the challenges of fabricating solar cell devices using nanotechnology Explores how producing cheaper modules, increasing reliability and increasing efficiency have led to new applications for photovoltaic devices

Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials II

Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials II
Author : Guo Hui Yang
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release Date : 2013-09-27
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :270
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Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 2013 2nd International Conference on Nanotechnology Technology and Advanced Materials (ICNTAM 2013), August 4-5, 2013, Los Angeles, CA, USA. The 43 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Material Science and Chemical Engineering; Chapter 2: Nanotechnology; Chapter 3: Management, Analysis and Engineering Research; Chapter 4: Control, Automation and Detection Technologies. 2013 serves as good platforms for academics, researchers, and engineers to meet and exchange innovative ideas and information on all aspects of nanotechnology and material technologies. Nanotechnology is the study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale.Nanotechnology entails the application of fields of science as diverse as surface science, organicchemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, etc. There is much debateon the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many newmaterials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in medicine, electronics,biomaterials and energy production. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the sameissues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact ofnanomaterials, and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about variousdoomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governmentson whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.

Terawatt Solar Photovoltaics

Terawatt Solar Photovoltaics
Author : Meng Tao
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2014-04-07
Category : Science
Total pages :112
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Solar energy will undoubtedly become a main source of energy in our life by the end of this century, but how big of a role will photovoltaics play in this new energy infrastructure? Besides cost and efficiency, there are other barriers for current solar cell technologies to become a noticeable source of energy in the future. Availability of raw materials, energy input, storage of solar electricity, and recycling of dead modules can all prevent or hinder a tangible impact by solar photovoltaics. This book is intended for readers with minimal technical background and aims to explore not only the fundamentals but also major issues in large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics. Thought-provoking ideas to overcoming some of the barriers are discussed.

Thin Film WSe2 for Use as a Photovoltaic Absorber Material

Thin Film WSe2 for Use as a Photovoltaic Absorber Material
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2014
Category :
Total pages :129
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ABSTRACT: An excellent candidate for an earth abundant absorber material is WSe2 which can be directly grown as a p-type semiconductor with a band gap near 1.4 eV. In this work we present the structural, optical, and electrical properties of thin film WSe2 grown via the selenization of sputter deposited tungsten films. We will show that highly textured films with an optical band gap in range of 1.4 eV, and absorption coefficients greater than 10 5 /cm across the visible spectrum can be easily achieved. In addition we will present Hall Effect and carrier density measurements as well, where will show densities in the 10 17 cm -3 range and p-type Hall mobilities greater than 10 cm 2 /V-s range can be obtained. We employ these results to numerically simulate solar cells based on this material, where we will show efficiencies greater than 20% are possible.

Physics and Technology of Nanostructured Materials IV

Physics and Technology of Nanostructured Materials IV
Author : Nikolay G. Galkin
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release Date : 2018-09-14
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :424
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Fourth Asian School-Conference on Physics and Technology of Nanostructured Materials (ASCO-Nanomat 2018) has been held in Vladivostok (Russia) on September 23-28, 2018. The main goal of ASCO-NANOMAT 2018 was the presentation of the latest findings and the development of the new synergies in the field of physics of nanostructured materials, recent nanotechnology and related subjects of the materials science.