November 25, 2020

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Third Generation EGFR Inhibitors

Third Generation EGFR Inhibitors
Author : Harun M. Patel,Rahul Pawara,Sanjay J. Surana
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2018-11-27
Category : Medical
Total pages :208
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Third Generation EGFR Inhibitors: Overcoming EGFR Resistance and Toxicity Problems reviews current issues relating to the design of reversible and irreversible third generation EGFR inhibitors, highlighting the types of mutation responsible for resistance, and providing different chemical starting points for researchers to optimize and develop in designing the next generation of drugs. Beginning with an introduction to EGFR inhibitors and a review of inhibitors currently approved or in clinical trials, the book goes on to discuss current approaches in the development of both covalent irreversible and covalent reversible EGFR Inhibitors. In addition, mechanisms of resistance to third generation inhibitors, and discovery of fourth generation allosteric C797S inhibitors are explored before a discussion of potential future trends. This comprehensive coverage of the design and development of improved analogues to overcome the problems of resistance and toxicity associated with third generation EGFR inhibitors makes Third Generation EGFR Inhibitors a crucial resource for medicinal chemists, drug developers, and researchers investigating cancer therapeutics. Includes full synthetic schemes of all approved and in-trial third generation inhibitors Highlights the emergence of fourth generation EGFR inhibitors and the possibilities of them overcoming constraints of third generation compounds Provides a structural correlation of third and fourth generation EGFR inhibitors, reviewing both their design strategies and typical anticancer activity

Molecular Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to Third-generation EGFR-TKIs in EGFR T790M-mutant Lung Cancer

Molecular Mechanisms of Acquired Resistance to Third-generation EGFR-TKIs in EGFR T790M-mutant Lung Cancer
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :129
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Abstract Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite great advances in its management with the recent emergence of molecular targeted therapies for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), relapse of the metastatic disease always occurs within approximately one year. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant tumours are the prime example of oncogene addiction and clonal evolution in oncology, regarding the emergence of resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR inhibitors. Multiple studies have revealed that the EGFR-T790M gatekeeper mutation is the main cause of tumour escape. Recently, irreversible pyrimidine-based EGFR inhibitors especially designed for this particular setting have shown robust clinical activity. However, similar to first- and second-generation inhibitors, the development of a diversified set of resistance mechanisms in response to these new compounds is an emerging issue. To date, clinical management of this growing number of patients has not been clearly established, even if anecdotal responses to subsequent molecularly guided therapies have been observed. By exhaustively reviewing and classifying all the preclinical and clinical data published on resistance to third-generation EGFR inhibitors in NSCLC, this work reveals the heterogeneity of the mechanisms that a tumour can develop to evade therapeutic pressure. Strategies currently being tested in clinical trials are discussed in light of these findings.

Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery: Volume 11

Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery: Volume 11
Author : Atta-ur-Rahman ,Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release Date : 2020-09-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :163
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Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery is a book series devoted to publishing the latest advances in anti-cancer drug design and discovery. In each volume, eminent scientists contribute reviews relevant to all areas of rational drug design and drug discovery including medicinal chemistry, in-silico drug design, combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, drug targets, recent important patents, and structure-activity relationships. The book series should prove to be of interest to all pharmaceutical scientists involved in research in anti-cancer drug design and discovery. The book series is essential reading to all scientists involved in drug design and discovery who wish to keep abreast of rapid and important developments in the field. The eleventh volume of the series focuses on reviews on targeted therapies and drug delivery systems. This volume covers the following topics: - PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Targeted Therapies - Polymeric Nanomedicines in Treatment of Breast Cancer: Review of Contemporary Research - Treatment of Lung Cancer in the New Era - Oral Administration of Cancer Chemotherapeutics Exploiting Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System: Recent Progress and Application - Targeting Approaches for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer.

A Beginner's Guide to Targeted Cancer Treatments

A Beginner's Guide to Targeted Cancer Treatments
Author : Elaine Vickers
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2018-05-08
Category : Medical
Total pages :360
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The accessible guide to the principles behind new, more targeted drug treatments for cancer Written for anyone who encounters cancer patients, cancer data or cancer terminology, but have no more than a passing knowledge of cell biology. A Beginner's Guide to Targeted Cancer Treatments provides an understanding of how cancer works and the many new treatments available. Using over 100 original illustrations, this accessible handbook covers the biology and mechanisms behind a huge range of targeted drug treatments, including many new immunotherapies. Dr Vickers translates a complex and often overwhelming topic into something digestible and easily understood. She also explains what cancer is, how it behaves and how our understanding of cancer has changed in recent years. Each chapter takes the reader through how new cancer drugs work and their benefits and limitations. With the help of this book, readers will be able to better understand more complex, in-depth articles in journals and books and develop their knowledge. This vital resource: Offers the latest insights into cancer biology Provides a broad understanding of how targeted cancer treatments work Describes many of the new immunotherapy approaches to cancer treatment, such as checkpoint inhibitors and CAR-modified T cells Helps readers feel confident discussing treatment options with colleagues and patients Provides an overview of which treatments are relevant to each of the most common solid tumours and haematological cancers, and the rationale behind them Demystifies the jargon – terms such as the EMT, cancer stem cells, monoclonal antibodies, kinase inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors etc. Explains the resistance mechanisms to many new treatments, including issues such as the way cancer cells diversify and evolve and the complex environment in which they live

Second Line Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Aspects of Novel Promising Drugs

Second Line Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical, Pathological and Molecular Aspects of Novel Promising Drugs
Author : Umberto Malapelle,Pierlorenzo Pallante
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2017-08-29
Category :
Total pages :129
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Lung cancer still remains a challenging disease with a higher mortality rate in comparison to other cancers. The discovery of oncogene addicted tumours and targeted therapies responsive to these targets lead to a meaningful change in the prognosis of these diseases. Unfortunately, these newer therapeutic options are reserved to a minor part of lung cancer patients harbouring specific mutations. In the so called wild type population, the first line options bring the median overall survival to go beyond 1 year, and in the population receiving the maintenance therapy over 16 months. Given these results, more than 60% of patients may receive a second line therapy with further opportunities to improve the length and quality of life. For patients not harbouring targetable DNA mutations newer options will be available for second line therapeutic schemes and two major assets seem to be promising: immune modulation and anti-angiogenetic agents. In particular, anti PD1/PDL1 antibodies, VEGFR antibodies and TKIs, these latter combined with standard chemotherapy docetaxel advance the median overall survival of 12 months. These drugs have a different mechanism of action, various adverse events and their activity is different depending on the types of population. However, the biomarkers’ activity and efficacy prediction are not fully or totally understood. In addition, also for patients with DNA targetable mutations new drugs seems to be promising for the use in the second line therapeutic protocols. In particular, drugs selectively directed against ALK translocation and mutational events and EGFR T790M secondary mutations seems to be very promising. In this Research Topic we critically discuss the older therapies and the historical development of second line, putting in to perspective the new agents available in clinical practice. We discuss their importance from a clinical point of view, but also consider and exploit the complex molecular mechanisms responsible of their efficacy or of the subsequently observed resistance phenomena. In this perspective, the undercovering and characterization of novel predictive biomarkers by NGS technology, the characterization of novel actors in the signal transduction pathway modulating the response of the cells, the optimization of new diagnostic tool as the evaluation of liquid biopsy and the implementation of more suitable pre-clinical models are crucial aspects dissected too. Nivolumab, nintedanib and ramucirumab probably will give the opportunity to improve the efficacy outcomes for the treatment of wild type tumours in second line therapeutic schemes, but many aspects should be debated in order that these agents are made available to patients, planning ahead a therapeutic strategy, beginning from the first line therapy, to the subsequent ones in a logical and affordable manner. As well, for treatment of mutated tumours, mutated EGFR irreversible inhibitors such as rociletinib and AZD9291, and ALK targeting drugs ceritinib and alectinib will also play an important role in the immediate future. Probably the right way is to give all the available opportunities to patients, but challenges and pitfalls should be carefully debated, and by launching this Research Topic we tried to give some practical insights in this changing landscape.

Osimertinib and Other Third-generation EGFR TKI in EGFR-mutant NSCLC Patients

Osimertinib and Other Third-generation EGFR TKI in EGFR-mutant NSCLC Patients
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :129
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Abstract Osimertinib was the first third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to receive FDA and EMA approval for metastatic EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that have acquired the EGFR T790M resistance mutation. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of osimertinib in this patient population and clinical trials of other third-generation EGFR TKI are currently under way. Additional challenges in this patient population, such as the upfront efficacy of osimertinib, validation of T790M in liquid biopsies as a dynamic predictive marker of efficacy, along with combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors are being explored, representing an extraordinary time of development for EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

AACR 2016: Abstracts 1-2696

AACR 2016: Abstracts 1-2696
Author : American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)
Publisher : CTI Meeting Technology
Release Date : 2016-03-28
Category : Medical
Total pages :129
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The AACR Annual Meeting is a must-attend event for cancer researchers and the broader cancer community. This year's theme, "Delivering Cures Through Cancer Science," reinforces the inextricable link between research and advances in patient care. The theme will be evident throughout the meeting as the latest, most exciting discoveries are presented in every area of cancer research. There will be a number of presentations that include exciting new data from cutting-edge clinical trials as well as companion presentations that spotlight the science behind the trials and implications for delivering improved care to patients. This book contains abstracts 1-2696 presented on April 17-18, 2016, at the AACR Annual Meeting.

Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Author : Daniele Focosi
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2016-11-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :188
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The volume will serve as a primer on tyrosine kinase signaling and its importance in cancer. The volume will first introduce the common denominators of small-molecule and antibody-derived inhibitors, as well as the general phenomenon of resistance. The volume will then detail resistance to the most commonly used classes of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and will focus specific chapters on resistance to BCR-ABL1, FLT3, angiokinase family members, and ALK inhibitors.

Adverse Events and Oncotargeted Kinase Inhibitors

Adverse Events and Oncotargeted Kinase Inhibitors
Author : Giuseppe Tridente
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2017-05-08
Category : Medical
Total pages :736
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Adverse Events and Oncotargeted Kinase Inhibitors gathers and evaluates data on adverse events associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), a powerful anti-tumor drug class that has recently been introduced for human therapy. This book compiles a comprehensive safety profile of each TKI from experiences in official therapeutic indications, also exploring off-label exploratory investigations and postmarketing pharmaceutical surveillance databases. A brief history of each drug’s development and submission is provided, along with a more detailed analysis of the mechanism(s) of action involved in therapeutic activity or related to the insurgence of specific adverse events. Early chapters focus on general characteristics of TKIs, typology, and classification of adverse events, while the final chapters analyze TKIs as AE inducers and classes of AEs by system or organ involvement. This comprehensive resource compiles and critically reviews all of the relevant safety data for this class of drugs, with the goal of improving the understanding of pathogenesis and facilitating the prevention, monitoring, and management of these adverse events. Offers a unique and comprehensive publication on the adverse events associated with a new and fast-growing class of medicines Provides a systematic analysis of adverse events aimed at better prevention through understanding and offering insights for the development of safer drugs Uses practical guidelines to establish a leading reference on this class of drugs for educators, researchers, drug developers, clinicians, safety professionals, and more

Targeted Therapies for Lung Cancer

Targeted Therapies for Lung Cancer
Author : Ravi Salgia
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2019-06-26
Category : Medical
Total pages :238
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This book contextualizes translational research and provides an up to date progress report on therapies that are currently being targeted in lung cancer. It is now well established that there is tremendous heterogeneity among cancer cells both at the inter- and intra-tumoral level. Further, a growing body of work highlights the importance of targeted therapies and personalized medicine in treating cancer patients. In contrast to conventional therapies that are typically administered to the average patient regardless of the patient’s genotype, targeted therapies are tailored to patients with specific traits. Nonetheless, such genetic changes can be disease-specific and/or target specific; thus, the book addresses these issues manifested in the somatically acquired genetic changes of the targeted gene. Each chapter is written by a leading medical oncologist who specializes in thoracic oncology and is devoted to a particular target in a specific indication. Contributors provide an in-depth review of the literature covering the mechanisms underlying signaling, potential cross talk between the target and downstream signaling, and potential emergence of drug resistance.

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal Cancer
Author : Jindong Chen
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release Date : 2018-05-16
Category : Medical
Total pages :128
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With international experts sharing their experience and knowledge on these different aspects in the management of colorectal cancer, this book has this opportunity to offer all physicians treating colorectal cancer, as well as researchers, updated information concerning the biology, diagnosis, screening, and treatment of colorectal carcinoma. This book provides a detailed evaluation of diagnostic modalities, in-depth analysis of screening for colorectal cancer, recent advances in treatment, and principles and trends in the management of colorectal cancer. This updated knowledge will be an interesting and informative read for any clinician involved in the management of patients with colorectal cancer. In addition, readers such as related physicians, researchers, and colorectal cancer patients are potential beneficiaries of this book.

Lung Cancer and Personalized Medicine

Lung Cancer and Personalized Medicine
Author : Aamir Ahmad,Shirish Gadgeel
Publisher : Springer
Release Date : 2015-12-14
Category : Medical
Total pages :228
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This, the first of two volumes on personalized medicine in lung cancer, touches on the core issues related to the understanding of lung cancer—statistics and epidemiology of lung cancer—along with the incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers. A major focus of this volume is the state of current therapies against lung cancer—immune, targeted therapies against EGFR TKIs, KRAS, ALK, angiogenesis; the associated challenges, especially resistance mechanisms; and recent progress in targeted drug development based on metal chemistry. Chapters are written by some of the leading experts in the field, who provide a better understanding of lung cancer, the factors that make it lethal, and current research focused on developing personalized treatment plans. With a unique mix of topics, this volume summarizes the current state-of-knowledge on lung cancer and the available therapies.

Successes and Limitations of Targeted Cancer Therapy

Successes and Limitations of Targeted Cancer Therapy
Author : S. Peters,R.A. Stahel
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release Date : 2014-02-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :124
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The treatment of patients with advanced malignancies has undergone remarkable change in the last few years. While in the past decisions about systemic therapy were largely based on the performance status of a patient, oncologists today also take into account the pathological and molecular characteristics of the patient’s tumor. Targeting specific molecular pathways important for tumorigenesis has become the preferred way of treatment for many types of malignancies. With these advances come new challenges including the optimization of therapy, recognizing and dealing with side effects and, importantly, the development of resistance. This book provides an up-to-date overview of the advances and limitations of targeted therapy for several tumor entities including breast cancer, colon cancer, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, lung cancer, melanoma, ovarian cancer and renal cell carcinoma. Written by over a dozen internationally renowned scientists, the book is suitable for advanced students, postdoctoral researchers, scientists and clinicians who wish to update their knowledge of the latest approaches to targeted cancer therapies.

Central Nervous System Metastases

Central Nervous System Metastases
Author : Manmeet Ahluwalia,Philippe Metellus,Riccardo Soffietti
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date : 2019-11-05
Category : Medical
Total pages :421
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of brain metastases, from the molecular biology aspects to therapeutic management and perspectives. Due to the increasing incidence of these tumors and the urgent need to effectively control brain metastatic diseases in these patients, new therapeutic strategies have emerged in recent years. The volume discusses all these innovative approaches combined with new surgical techniques (fluorescence, functional mapping, integrated navigation), novel radiation therapy techniques (stereotactic radiosurgery) and new systemic treatment approaches such as targeted- and immunotherapy. These combination strategies represent a new therapeutic model in brain metastatic patients in which each medical practitioner (neurosurgeon, neurologist, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist) plays a pivotal role in defining the optimal treatment in a multidisciplinary approach. Written by recognized experts in the field, this book is a valuable tool for neurosurgeons, neuro-oncologists, neuroradiologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, cognitive therapists, basic scientists and students working in the area of brain tumors.

Summers And Winters At Balmwhapple: By The North Sea

Summers And Winters At Balmwhapple: By The North Sea
Author : Sir John Skelton
Publisher : Wentworth Press
Release Date : 2019-03-27
Category : History
Total pages :272
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